Recruitment of Teaching Personnel for Sensei High School











Submitted for

Human Resources in International Schools

Task # 1

Professor: Forrest Broman

Daniel R. Fruit;

PSC 78 Box 2256

APO AP 96326-2256




I. Recruitment of Personnel for Sensei High School

A. Introduction: Recruitment of Personnel for a DoDDs school

The personnel literature identifies four key areas for personnel: recruitment, development, administration (control), and retention. Personnel run the organization and deliver its goods and services. Top quality personnel, then, will deliver top quality performance. This statement applies equally whether one considers the case of a governmental agency, a business, or an air force wing.

While all organizations aim to recruit, develop, administer, and retain personnel, differing external environments necessitate differing emphasis on these functions. Further, the structure of the organizations involved often cause marked differences in the amount of control that an organization can exert in attempting to improve any of the functions listed above. For example, a charitable organization must, often by necessity, rely on whatever volunteers flock to its cause, no matter what their qualifications.

As Forrest Broman's introduction to this course (1997) shows, the environment of an international school makes recruitment and retention of qualified personnel a key issue. With turnover rates as high as 25-30%, some schools need to worry primarily about filling classroom with qualified persons. Exerting too much pressure on those same persons through administrative or developmental pressures could lead to their simply "voting with their feet.." The international school head, then, spends a great deal of time and effort trying to get and keep whom he wants. For that reason, for the other students in this class, this first paper probably holds the most importance.

These three papers will serve to show that, in the case of Sensei High School, and DoDDs schools in general, the environment fundamentally differs. The turnover rate at YHS seldom reaches 10%. Further, most personnel have high degrees of protection against external or developmental pressures. On the other hand, individuals have few incentives to leave the system, making retention a relatively unimportant issue. The YHS principal, then, must not spend much time or effort trying to get or keep whom he wants, but rather working with whom he has. For that reason, the most important of these three papers will deal with staff development, and recruitment and retention, will, necessarily, have the least importance. He must become, as Lindblom (1959) would say, an expert at "muddling through."

To fully comprehend these statements requires considering the kind of personnel likely present at any DoDDs school and, particularly, at YHS.


B. Why Is Recruitment Not So Important at YHS

Not to belabor a point made many times elsewhere, DoDDs functions as a bureaucracy. Most of the important decisions about school policy fall to those in either Washington or to those at the local DoDDs area offices (Japan, Korea, Germany, Europe, and South America). Very few personnel decisions involve the local principal. This paper will help to illustrate this point.

The chart considers below shows the origin of the current faculty at YHS. First, consider those placed in the school by persons other than the principal. Note that for the purpose of this discussion, the term "principal" includes previous principals as well as the current person in that office so that, in reality, the current principal hired even fewer of the staff than indicated in this discussion.


YHS PERSONNEL by Source 1997-1998 School Year

Total Percent Teachers Percentage


Retained 42 66.7 38 74.5

New 5 7.9 5 9.8

Displaced 1 1.6 1 2.0

Transfers 1 1.6 0 0.0

Admin 2 3.2 0 0.0

Totals 49 77.8 44.0 86.3

Next consider those hired by the principal.


Local Hires (US) 11 17.5 5 9.8

Japanese 3 4.8 2 3.9

Total 14 22.2 7 13.7

Notice especially the two figures in bold. YHS administrators did not directly hire 77.8% of their current staff. Moreover, they did not hire a telling 86.3% of the teachers. This last figure, note, actually has fallen somewhat. Even two years ago, the YHS principal faced a teaching force over 90% hired by others in the bureaucracy. As the following discussion will show, moreover, he will have a negligible influence on the retention of about a similar percentage of the staff.

In order to fully understand the personnel situation at YHS, then, requires looking at each of the groups listed above.

C. Sources of Personnel at YHS: Those Not Hired By the Administration

The permanently retained, permanent stateside hires form the basis of most staffs at DoDDs schools. Most started with DoDDs during the Cold War and their age averages near fifty. In previous years, DoDDs offered a far more extensive transfer program, and, at some point, the majority of the retained teachers chose to go to Japan though some regret that choice now. As Federal employees, all but the youngest can look forward to enjoying the Civil Service Retirement Program, which required a comparatively high investment in early decades in exchange for the well-funded system today. To resign short of obtaining that pension would, effectively, negate a life's work. The retained teachers' goal, then, consists in ending a career and enjoying a comfortable retirement. Further, this group boasts support from a fairly strong union granting them functional tenure. Obviously, also, the recruitment for this group took places years ago.

A second group consists of the "new hires," the rough equivalent to the international school recruit. Unlike the international school recruit, however, they join a system, not a particular school. Most new-hires join expecting to go to Europe, and DoDDs makes little attempt to orient them either to Japan or to YHS. Quite often, DoDDs initially assigns a new-hire to one school, only to suddenly transfer them to another somewhere en route. Further, the new-hires often do not arrive until after the school year begins, due to bureaucratic paperwork problems. Significantly, they do not enjoy union protection until they have taught two years. This group includes the few younger teachers.

A third group includes the "displaced," teachers sent generally from Germany. Principals who have more teachers than required "excess" some of them. This process can result in individuals of varying capacities arriving. On the one hand, individuals, sometimes very good teachers, will voluntarily join the "excess" pool in a desperate bid for a transfer. At other times, principals will indulge in what Bridges (1990) calls the "dance of the lemons" and use expressing to rid themselves of non-performers. At other times, this process allows principals to dispose of individuals disliked for non-teaching reasons such as union activity, creating "political refugees." Though excessed teachers have some choice over their areas of location, none choose Tokyo.

A fourth group consists of personnel transferred. As a means of cutting down cost and reducing the number of permanent hires, DoDDs effectively ended the transfer program for teachers. On the other hand, specialists can, and sometimes do, move from one school to another. Hence, the one transfer listed above.

A fifth group includes the administrators themselves. Significantly, principals do not hire their own assistants though they do, occasionally, have a voice in whom DoDDs selects. Administrative personnel, unlike teachers, move through the system, but transfers may stem from request or bureaucratic fiat. In distinct contrast to many other individuals, the last three administrators chose Sensei High School though the promise of a promotion undoubtedly played a part in their decisions.


D. Sources of Personnel: Those Hired by the Administration

Only with the last two groups does the local administrator have any input in terms of hiring. Principals hire the local Japanese nationals who teach Japanese language and culture. On the other hand, these individuals contract through the Japanese government, not the school, so administrators do not have unlimited input. Further, Japanese teachers typically receive less money at a DoDDs school than a local school, Moreover, far fewer Japanese teachers have a command of English than one might suppose. Hired Japanese teachers, then, tend to spend an entire career at YHS unless they choose to quit.

Finally, one comes to a group over which the administration enjoys almost total control: the local hires. Usually, these individuals have a military spouse. These teachers, then, follow the typical military pattern of transfer every three years, and military members have some input into where they transfer (a notable contrast with DoDDs teachers). As one might expect, then, these teachers naturally form the strongest support group for the local administrator, and recruiting them might, logically, make a good goal for an administrator and an appropriate subject for this paper. However, one must note several cautions regarding local hires:

First, local hires can get more money off-base teaching English than they can working full-time at the high school. This means that, should a local hire not like the environment at the high school, he or she has no reason to stick around.

Second, some local hires who'd worked six years with DoDDs won a case against DoDDs which forced DoDDs to grant them full, stateside hire privileges. This means that principals have to exercise some caution in retaining personnel too long or they might become permanent hires.

Third, any displaced person or stateside recruit assigned by DoDDs automatically takes precedence over a local hire. This means that a recruitment effort aimed at finding an ideal person to fill a slot may amount to a waste of time should DoDDs suddenly experience an enrollment decline elsewhere or a school closure.

Fourth, any local hire will not stick around forever. Most will rotate in three years. Occasionally one may extend for another year or even a full tour. As mentioned above, though, DoDDs has a strong incentive not to keep a local hire beyond five years.

To put this into perspective, this author recently spoke with a local hire whom he had displaced by transfer. The other teacher expressed no regret at having lost his position at YHS. Now working for a Japanese high school, he earned more money, worked fewer days, and experienced fewer discipline problems. Further, now he and his wife, an active duty air force member, earned dollars and yen, which effectively protects them against fluctuations in the exchange rate.

In conclusion, the local principal has very little influence over those in his charge at the school. Most work at the school and have no intention of leaving short of retirement. Those few whom he might recruit, though, have good reasons not to work at YHS. Further, even if he hires really ideal local hires, he risks losing them due to bureaucratic fiat. To put this into concrete terms, consider the following question:

Why should a principal sweat over a recruitment brochure to fill 3-4 teaching slots that might get taken away anyway by a stateside hire or a displacement?

Considering the demands on a principal's time, he might as well simply hire the best 3-4 who happen to show up at the door and spend time elsewhere, such as observing classes. Moreover, with a far more stable staff, for better or worse, than an international school, he might much more productively concentrate his efforts on working with the staff at YHS. Quite likely, this author will spend more time writing about recruitment than a principal ought to devote to implementation.

Still, however, in the long run, some recruiting efforts might have merit. As mentioned previously, the percentage of retained personnel continues to slowly shrink, and the pool of displaced teachers also slowly evaporates. For the first time this year, YHS actually hired a few new Stateside hires. Moreover, the future for DoDDs will likely call for more local hires replacing the retiring, retained faculty (a person locally hired four or five times in different places never becomes a permanent hire). For that reason, then, a forward thinking principal might devote some time to dealing with the recruitment issues if only to explore solutions more relevant in the future.

Within these parameters, YHS can make two possible improvements:

(1) Make information about YHS widely available to new hires and to potential military transferees (spouses).

(2) Make a structured interview that will likely yield the highest quality local hires.


E. DoDDs "Efforts" to Match New Teachers to Their School

This takes relatively little time to discuss as DoDDs makes no effort to match teachers to schools. Most newly hired teachers expect to go Europe either immediately or eventually, and DoDDs makes no attempt to convince them otherwise.

Anyone hoping to join DoDDs receives the only recruitment brochure entitled: Overseas Employment Opportunities for Educators Bulletin (i.e. OEOE, 1997). This goes into no detail to describe any of the schools. Rather, it simply lists the countries in which DoDDs maintains schools. It further mentions that some schools constitute 2 year assignments and others 1 year. It nowhere explains the reasoning behind this: That 2 years areas, such as YHS, supposedly offer better assignments.

A visit to the DoDDs website shows no more. When one clicks upon the "Employment Opportunities," section, the program gives out an application, not information. The same website maintains links to those schools supporting a website. Those websites, like YHS's, primarily exist to enlighten the local community as to ongoing events surrounding the school, not to explain anything about the school to potential recruits.

This situation has not fundamentally changed from when this author joined DoDDs in 1990. At the time DoDDs called, the person on the other end told him a job opening existed in Japan. After a phone interview, he received directions on how to reach the school and little else. The clear message throughout the process was this: Take it, blind, or leave it. Since enough continue to "take it," DoDDs-Washington shows little concern with how many leave it.

A similar situation occurs with teachers married to military members. Occasionally, the spouse-teacher will have contacts enough to find out about YHS through ccMail (the DoDDs email system). A spouse at a base in the Continental United States, however, not employed by DoDDs, will hear nothing.


F. How Might Real Recruitment Efforts Proceed

In the best of all possible worlds, Sensei High School would actively recruit persons to work who might stay and build a strong school. At the very least, the DoDDs recruiter with a tentative assignment might at least explain to the new-hire the kind of situation a new teacher might face at Sensei. For that reason, three possible strategies might make sense:

(1) Write a recruitment manual about Sensei High School. Recruiters could store them with (presumably) a pile of similar documents at recruiting offices in the US. Unfortunately, such a strategy would entail a high amount of waste. A recent email message from DoDDs-Personnel Washington (December 22, 1997) informed this author that no other brochure exists besides the one listed here.

(2) Create a similar type of brochure to issue to military members who have Sensei on their list of choices for transfer.

(3) Create a Sensei High School site for employment on the Internet. A perfectly reasonable suggestion would attach such a page to the link for "employment inquires" on the DoDDs-Washington Personnel Website. Such a web page would also offer itself to military members, of course, and could help their spouses decide whether to choose Sensei for their next "tour."


G. Profile of administrator/teacher that should be used in recruitment and reflect goals, missions, and challenges

Having examined the situation at Sensei High School, one can explore some of the factors that might make a successful transition to Sensei for an educator or teacher. A few important facets of Sensei bear mention.

First, the cost of living in Japan remains the highest in the world and Tokyo higher still. Despite cost of living allowances (COLA), this means that cost considerations profoundly affect most decisions, including those of housing. For those who choose to live off base, the governmental allowance will not cover the costs of housing, let alone purchasing anything. Anyone who chooses to "explore Japanese culture," makes little or no money during a tour in Japan.

Second, the Japanese government has little desire to have Americans living off-base. As a result, the government continues to construct more and more on-base family housing. This housing, while small by American standards, far surpasses anything available to the Japanese themselves. This provides another strong incentive for teachers to live, and exist, on base where they will not "bother" the host nation.

Third, the Japanese language, especially the written form, presents a considerable challenge to Americans. While many teachers learn enough Japanese to "get around," few teachers will enjoy a significant relationship, due to costs and language, with host country nationals beyond the ubiquitous "teaching conversational English."

Fourth, entertainment costs off-base range so far above American norms that almost all entertaining will occur on base. Japanese movies, for example, cost triple that of American movies (even ignoring the language barrier). The base offers a limited set of entertainment possibilities: a cinema, many restaurants, a bowling alley, and two clubs.

Fifth, Sensei offers parents an extremely inviting environment. Japan endures neither crime nor drugs. With prices so high off-base, children have no incentive to wander far, and if they do, they encounter the safest society in the world. The schools and community offer ample programs for children, probably comparable to that of a town in the United States.

Sixth, among the unmarried, men outnumber women approximately 4-1.

These factors strongly argue for two groups of recruits: (a) single women (b) families. The former typically come to Sensei, and the military bases in general, with at least some interest in finding a husband. On the other hand, singles of either sex find their lives extremely restricted. Anywhere a woman or man goes on a small base becomes the subject of student (and public) conversation. Trying to go off-base, in contrast, quickly becomes very expensive. Obviously, to a single woman who joins DoDDs and has no desire to marry a serviceman, YHS forms an extremely unattractive option as they become the constant subject of unwelcome attention. With no transfers, moreover, their only hope of moving consists in quitting. For singles, then, YHS probably would only appeal to women desperate to marry.

The real appeal of YHS, however, becomes most evident to married couples. The Japanese government prefers families as they have their own "entertainment" available on base. If a married couple takes advantage of the housing, they can save a lot of money, particularly since the second partner in the marriage either does work for the military or can work teaching English. So long as the school and community keep their children occupied, YHS makes for a rewarding, though sometimes boring, two year tour. The ideal recruit for YHS, then, either brings a family along or has a military member for a spouse. Traditionally, the former make up the most contented group at YHS while the latter form its most-valued recruits.

Sensei offers one more benefit, however, that even single members can appreciate: It's easier to leave than any other base. Sensei hosts a unit charged with moving military supplies, and plenty of big C-5 (military 747s) aircraft leave the base. Military family members can fly nearly anywhere within the Pacific. DoDDs teachers who lacking a military spouse can still fly, space available, to cheaper Korea, Guam, other parts of Japan, and back to the United States. Commercially, at Japanese prices, they can fly from Tokyo to nearly anywhere. Flying from Tokyo, however, costs more, even to fly to other parts of Japan, than flying from the United States. Ironically, a teacher can more easily travel to Asia from Los Angeles than from Tokyo. Sensei's location, then, does offer some benefit, again, particularly to a teacher married to a military member.

Note that this discussion makes little mention of Japan beyond its expense. Most teachers and students at YHS barely know that a world exists outside the gates. Japan offers few enticements at 125 yen/dollar. The Japanese themselves find it much easier to travel outside of Japan than within it. Spending even a Thanksgiving traveling Japan can cost a lot of money. For a family, these costs do not justify the benefits. The ideal recruit for YHS, then, has little interest in Japan though possibly some interest in Asia.

DoDDs could best recruit either through, again, a well-placed website. The ideal recruit, again, either has a family or a single woman with a desperate need to marry a military man.


H. Analysis of the school’s recruitment handbook...with emphasis on specific changes to improve

As stated previously, DoDDs has no recruitment handbook for Sensei High School specifically and only a mediocre one for DoDDs in general. For that reason, this paper proposes the following as a reasonable alternative. This could appear as either a separate brochure with pictures or as an attachment to the employment opportunities website mentioned above:


Sensei High School: An Unique Teaching Opportunity

Sensei High School forms part of Sensei Air Force Base (YAB), northwest of Sensei. Dubbed the "gateway to the Pacific," Sensei Air Force Base supplies the other bases around the Pacific, linking with Osan AFB (Korea), Kadena Air Force Base (Okinawa), and Hickam AFB (Hawaii).

Sensei, like all DoDDs schools, offers higher salaries than those of American "stateside" schools." A teacher can make a two-year tour in Japan a profitable experience or a major money-loser depending on lifestyle choices.

Though Sensei Air Force Base sits near a major metropolis, the average teacher spends as little time exploring and experiencing Japan as possible. Japan suffers from the highest prices in the world, Tokyo prices surpass even those of the rest of Japan, and the American dollar doesn't go far off base. The housing allowance doesn't cover the cost of living off-base, and housing outside the base will, to most Americans, seem cramped, cold, and, again, overpriced. Further, all transactions with the Japanese require cash, a constant inconvenience for something as simple as paying an electric bill or a month's rent. Also, few Japanese speak English, and few Americans conquer written Japanese though most learn enough spoken Japanese to catch trains and go to the airport. For these reasons, most YHS faculty prefer to live on base and seldom stray far from the gates when outside.

Life on-base offers some attractions and some detractions. Base housing, particularly married housing, about equals that found in most residential areas of the United States. Singles live on the west side of the base, offering some privacy, while families live on the north and east. Everyone can shop at the Commissary, a kind of grocery that sells at low prices, the Shoppettes, convenience stores, and the BX (base exchange), a kind of department store. Shopping, obviously, will not equal that of the United States in terms of variety. Shopping off base is prohibitively expensive.

The base offers some entertainment options, particularly for families. Between the school and the community and teen centers, children can find something happening almost every night. The base holds many restaurants. The base sports two clubs, an Officer's Club and an Enlisted; teachers can only go to the former. The base offers a theater, usually filled with children. Entertainment off-base is prohibitively expensive: Most Japanese bars charge $10 for a single beer; an average restaurant meal can easily cost $75/person.

Sensei features a small-town atmosphere. A teacher can seldom go an hour, even off-duty, without seeing a student. Single teachers often find life on-base constricting and confining. Women should note that, with the ratio of single men to women about 4:1, single women will not escape notice unless they devote considerable effort to avoiding notice.

With four higher educational institutions on base, Sensei remains a great place to get another degree. The University of Maryland offers B.A/B.S. classes, Central Texas College offers a number of associate degrees, and Troy State University and Oklahoma both offer masters' degree programs. None of these colleges, however, offers educational degrees or a doctorate.

Sensei gives adults a great opportunity to make extra money. Tokyo businessmen pay as much as $50/hour to learn conversational English. Further, they prefer un-degreed teachers over qualified English teachers. A spouse available during the day can easily make as much money as his/her DoDDs-employed spouse.

Sensei's location offers travel opportunities. Teachers can, space available, make two trips a year to Korea, other parts of Japan, and back to the United States on military flights. Each time a teacher renews his/her contract (each 2 years), further, the government pays a trip back to the point of hire. Teachers can also fly from Tokyo commercially, though, again, the costs exceed that of flying from any other city in the world.

Sensei High School itself features an exciting mix of the old and the new. Sensei's 700 or so students come from many ethnic groups including many bi-racial students. Students have a high tolerance for diversity and show very little prejudice. Moreover, YHS suffers from none of the drug or gang problems prevalent in the United States (though students can easily obtain both alcohol and cigarettes off-base). In terms of academic ability, YHS students about equal that of a typical middle class neighborhood. With military rotation and a 25% turnover, however, each new year brings a somewhat different group of students with its own characteristics and challenges.

So, if you're someone who can live in a small town, enjoy the challenge of a changing school environment, and will work to use the advantages above, Sensei High School wants you.

I. Structured Interview Tailored for the Local Hire Candidate

Before presenting the structured interview for the local hire, one must bear in mind the differing circumstances between this situation and that of an international school candidate. The international recruiter, typically, sits at a table stacked with resumes and cover letters inquiring for a position. Further, he can offer a contract with given beginning and ending date. On the other hand, he must acquaint the person in mind with conditions, good and bad, that pertain to his school and country. That results in the structured interview offered in Broman (1991) and used as the "rough draft" for the structured interview here.

On the other hand, the DoDDs principal at YHS faces a different situation. First, he must face the reality that he competes, not with other international schools, but with the local economy. A teacher candidate, even without a certificate, can go off-base, earn more money, and endure less stress. Second, the local hire's continued employment depends upon two conditions (a) the approval of the administrator conducting the interview (b) DoDDs whim; so the principal cannot offer even a year's secure employment. Third, the local hire already has an acquaintance with base life. Fourth, fewer and fewer older teachers sponsor activities. One might then argue that a teacher's ability to sponsor activities constitutes what Scriven (1990) terms "worth;" a principal might consider, for example, hiring someone who coaches two sports but teaches poorly. In short, the principal shouldn't spend too much time interviewing too many and may well end up hiring the only one who shows us for the interview.

For these reasons, this paper offers the following structured interview.

Sensei High School Questions for a Structured Interview of a Local Hire

Candidate's Name: ___________________ Date Interviewed: __________________

Position Desire: ______________________ Interviewer: _______________________

Degrees: ____________________________ Years of Experience: _______________

1. Can you teach _____(subject with vacancy) ? Would you be willing to teach middle school?
{Typically, middle school positions fill last }

2. How do you deal with the problem of wide ability ranges in your classroom?

3. How do you challenge brighter students?

4. How would you deal with a class in which several students constantly disrupt?

5. How would you describe the tone in a good classroom?

{Some will be first time teachers}

6. What skills do you think are most important in _____________?

{opening offered}

7. How often do you give homework?

8. How do you relate to parents?

9. Do students generally like your class or not, and why?

10. What is one highly successful project you taught or have seen taught?

11. What might a typical class period include in your class?

12. Have you ever taught with a prepared list of objectives such as that used by DoDDs?

13. Have you ever dealt with inclusion?

14. We are looking for someone to sponsor either ________, __________, or __________. Would you be willing to sponsor?

15. I'm going to observe all teachers at least twice this year. When I go into your classroom, what do you think will strike me as most interesting?

16. In that same observation, what do you think that I would see that I might suggest ways to improve?

17. How would you respond if I told you a parent had called to complain that you had failed her child?

J. Structured Interview Tailored For Someone Interviewed in Washington

This interview serves those interviewed in Washington. This assumes that, due to luck or design, the interviewer knows where the person interviewed will go. It, further assumes that the person interviewing has some acquaintance with YHS.

Note that this interview, then, gives the interviewer some chance to familiarize the interviewer with the location to which he/she will go. Also, the interviewer can, to some extent, filter out those unsuited to YHS or confused. At the same time, naturally, it uses some of the questions about education asked in the earlier interview.

Sensei High School Questions for a Structured Interview of a New Hire in Washington

Candidate's Name: ___________________ Date Interviewed: __________________

Position Desire: ______________________ Interviewer: _______________________

Degrees: ____________________________ Years of Experience: _______________

Subject Fields (1):______________________ (2):_______________________________

Extra-Curricular Experience (1):________________________________________________

1. How would you adapt to the fact that, outside Sensei Air Force Base, prices in Japan average 3-4 times as high as in the United States?

2. Are you aware that DoDDs no longer transfers people from one country to another?

3. Have you ever lived in a small-town, and did you enjoy the experience?

4. Have you ever taught in a multi-ethnic environment?

5. Do you have another plan if your DoDDs experience should end after one or two years?

6. Can you teach _____(subject with vacancy) ? Would you be willing to teach middle school?
{Typically, middle school positions fill last }

7. Have you ever spent time living and/or working on a military base?

8. How do you deal with the problem of wide ability ranges in your classroom?

9. How do you challenge brighter students?

10. How would you deal with a class in which several students constantly disrupt?

11. How would you describe the tone in a good classroom?

{Some will be first time teachers}

12. What skills do you think are most important in _____________?

position offered

13. How often do you give homework?

14. How do you relate to parents?

15. Do students generally like your class or not, and why?

16. What is one highly successful project you taught or have seen taught?

17. What might a typical class period include in your class?

18. Have you ever taught with a prepared list of objectives such as that used by DoDDs?

19. Have you ever dealt with inclusion?

20. They are looking for someone to sponsor either ________, __________, or __________. Would you be willing to sponsor?

21. Your principal will visit all classes at least twice this year. When he goes into your classroom, what do you think will strike him as most interesting?

22. In that same observation, what do you think that he would see that might suggest room for improvement?

23. How would you respond if your principal told you a parent had called to complain that you had failed her child?


Bridges, Edwin. "Evaluation for Tenure and Dismissal" in The New Handbook of Teacher Evaluation: Assessing Elementary and Secondary School Teachers. edited by Jason Millman and Lindsay Darling-Hammond, New Park, CA: Corwin Press, 1990, pp. 147-158.

Broman, Forrest (1997). Course outline for this course.

Broman, Forrest. (1991) Effective Strategies, Practices, and Techniques in Recruiting Faculty for International Schools: A Handbook. New York: McGraw Hill.

Fruit, D. The Effect of Social Environment on DoDDs Pacific Schools: Or the Little Company Town With the C-130s. Unpublished paper for Troy State University Class: Social Foundations of Higher Education, 1993.

Lindblom, C.E. "The Science of ‘Muddling Through.’" Public Administrative Review, 19 (1959), pp. 79-88.

Overseas Employment Opportunities for Educators: Bulletin # 95-P-0001

Scriven, Michael (1990) "Teacher Selection." in The New Handbook of Teacher Evaluation: Assessing Elementary and Secondary School Teachers." edited by Jason Millman and Lindsay Darling-Hammond, New Park, CA: Corwin Press, 1990, pp. 147-158.