Links to other sites on the Web: (for links to other chapters go to the end of the file) Back to the Appendix IV
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education 2003 at the Boston University, School of Education
Copyright by Daniel Richard Fruit
First Reader: Michael Aeschliman, Ph.D. Professor of Education, Boston University
Second Reader: Charles Glenn, Ed.D., Ph.D. Professor of Education, Boston University
Third Reader: Elizabeth Bayerl, Ph.D., Ed.D. Teacher,Marathon High School
I dedicate this work to the various people who helped and encouraged me to finish: Carol Al Awadi, Jihad Saddedin, Latifa Ben Essa, Al-Zain Al-Humaidhi, Dr. Lance Curlin, students of my school, my family, and Michael Aeschliman.
Some of those mentioned in the dedication.
This study measures to what extent students of Al-Dharra Madressor (ADM), a private school in Kuwait, achieve American, Western "cultural proficiency," defined as the ability to understand and function in another culture.
ADM operates as its own self-contained bilingual school system with a kindergarten, elementary, middle, and high school. Native speakers of English and Arabic conduct subject and language classes in both languages, and cultural proficiency forms an implicit, if not explicit, part of school design. ADM graduates attend American, British, and Arab universities, and many eventually run Kuwaiti businesses that have a multi-cultural work environment, so American cultural proficiency holds instrumental value.
The study’s first half, building on the cultural and organizational theories of Hofstede, Ali, and Patai, develops a model of Arab culture in general and that of Kuwait. A historical and social survey of Kuwait focuses on the role and position of the Asil, a cohesive, affluent, long-established, merchant group. The study depicts the Asil as politically and economically liberal but socially conservative. ADM functions as a representative Asil institution.
The study’s second half uses qualitative research and a mixed methodology to measure Arab and American (Western) cultural proficiency. The study triangulates the results of three instruments: the KATWII, adapted from the ARSMA II (Arnold, Cuellar, and Maldonado, 1995), an accepted measure of biculturality; the AWSIT, interviews of ADM students, Arab teachers, and Western teachers to access their reaction to American and Kuwaiti cultural situations; and the AGS, a general cultural survey. A series of student observations provides supplementary means of analysis.
The study concludes that, though ADM students remain fundamentally Arab, most obtain an important, secondary American, Western cultural proficiency with some arguably "bicultural." While students show an awareness of some Western social norms and beliefs, when forced to choose, they typically choose Arab norms over Western. All design methods reach similar conclusions. This supports the findings of other studies of Arab groups in similar situations of cultural contrast.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
0i Abstract (above)
00 List of Figures (below)
02 Historical and Sociological Literature Review
03 Arab Culture in General: Some Comparisons and Contrasts with the West
04 Kuwaiti Culture: Continuity and Change
05 The Asil: The Beleaguered Upper Class
06 The Palestinian Dilemma
07 Schooling in Kuwait
08 The World of Al-Dharra Madressor
09 Introduction to the Formal Research Study
10 Review of Relevant Research Literature
11 Formal Research Methodology
12 Research Findings
14 Additional Sources of Data
15 General Conclusion
Appendix I: School Related Documents and Interview
Appendix II: The KATWII
Appendix III: The AWSIT Appendix IV: the AGS
Chapter Thirteen Figure 13.1: Biculturality on the KATWII Figure 13.2: Biculturality on the AGS and AWSIT: Synthesized Results Chapter Fourteen Figure 14.1: The Typical Al-Dharra High School Student Figure 14.2: Students Considered in Sample Situations Figure 14.3: Withdrawal and Graduation Rates, Class of 2000 and 2001 Figure 14.4: Tribal Behaviors that Enable Success Figure 14.5: Grades in Class X Figure 14.6: Social Position in Class X Figure 14.7: Tardiness in Class W Figure 14.8: MUN as a Representative Group at ADM, by Passport Figure 14.9: MUN Population Adjusted for "Half-Kuwaiti" Students Figure 14.10: More Realistic Figures for Shia Participation in MUN Figure 14.11: Traveling with SHS Versus ADM
Appendix II Figure A2.1: the KATWII Figure A2.2: KATWII Scoring Tree Figure A2.3 Original Excel Scatterplot of the KATWII
Appendix III Figure A3.1: The AWSIT Figure A3.2: Attributes of Students Chosen for Interview Figure A3.3: Arab Teachers Selected for Interview Figure A3.4: Western Teachers Selected for Interview Figure A3.5: Students Selected for Interview Figure A3.6: Spreadsheet for AWSIT Results
Appendix IV Figure A4.1: The AGS Figure A4.2: Spreadsheet for the AGS Results The author after final approval with the Rumor of War in the background (February 12, 2003).