THE PROBLEMS OF NEPAL

Latifa Al- Essa
Nada Al- Mousa
Bader Al Tukhaim
Fatema Al Ibrahim
Abdullah Bourhamah
Yousef Dashti


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Honorable Judge(s), most worthy partner, respectful opponents, and helpful timekeeper, Good Morning/Afternoon/EveningÖ My name isÖ. And I am representing Al- Bayanís first affirmative speaker.

Resolved: The United States Government should substantially change its foreign policy towards South Asia

Nepal is a poor resource country, and although it has made some progress since the 1950ís, it is still well behind most countries in the world. The affirmative recognizes the friendly relations between Nepal and the U.S. and the USís objectives that include the alleviation of poverty. The affirmative believes that the US has not been active in improving Nepalís economy, which leads to poverty. The affirmative, therefore, has presents a plan that will improve the economical situation of Nepal, which will also improve the human rights situation and substantially change the USís policy towards Nepal.

Now I will define the terms of the resolution.

Definitions:

*The: That one existing as only one at a time

*United States: A country in the North American continent extending from the Pacific Ocean on the west to the Atlantic Ocean on the east.

*Government: The group and organization leading a country and setting itís policy.

*Should: Ought to.

*Substantially: Notably.

*Change: Make or become different.

*Foreign Policy: A goal or series of goals that a country hopes to achieve with respect to other countries and international issues.

*Towards: approaching; in the direction of.

*South Asia: A sub continent form made up of six countries, which are India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, and two countries that have not yet been recognized officially, Jammu and Kashmir.

I have more definitions relating to the plan, but will not read it unless challenged.

Tariff: A list or system of duties imposed by a government on imported or exported goods.

Capitalization: The amounts and types of long-term financing used by a firm, including common stock, preferred stock, retained earnings, and long-term debt.

Globalisation: Making everything, especially trade on worldwide basis.

Debt: thing or amount due, a condition of owing

Migration: the act or an instance of migrating meaning to move from one country, place or location to another.

Labour: services performed by workers

Productivity: The amount of goods or services that a person can produce in a given time.

Distribution of income: the way income is divided among the people in a nation

Income: The money that a person receives in exchange for work or from the use of property.

Poverty: having income below the level required to support a minimum daily calorie intake

MFN: Most favoured nation status

These definitions have been extracted from The Oxford Webster Dictionary published year 1995, and McDougal Littell Economics Multimedia Program, choices and challenges, Student handbook.

Now Iíll state some harms of the status quo and will state only one evidence unless challenged.

Harms:

Harm #1

75% of the families in Nepal account for less than 35% of required income needed.

One of the major problems in Nepal is the income distribution. The average income in Nepal ranged from US $16 to US $26 monthly, which is barely, and possibly not enough to feed, shelter and cloth one family. Moreover, keeping in mind the taxes they have to pay which include income taxes, property taxes, land taxes, and other minor taxes (such as house and land taxes, taxes on motor vehicles, which takes up lots of money put all together. That proves that the government has some inability and financial difficulty, which leads us to ham number two.

Evidence

1. "Nepal ranks among the worldís poorest countries with a per capita income of under $200." The US state department-2000.

2. "Percentage of Population Living on less than $1 a day, in year 2000 was- 53.1%"- which is higher than any other country in South Asia, including India which is a 52.1%. - Compiled by Research and Information Division of FNCCI from World Development Report

3. Tax System and Tax Rates in Nepal - FNCCI: federation of Nepalese chambers of commerce and industry. Pachali Shahid Shukra FNCCI Milan Marg, Teku, Kathmandu, Nepal.-2000-01. http://www.fncci.org/

4. Nepal Rastra Bank, Research Department, Main Economic Indicators, Kathmandu, February-April 1999.

 

Harm #2

The external debts ($2.6 billion) on the government of Nepal deeply affect the country and its economy.

Nepal participates in a number of UN specialized agencies the and is a member of the World bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF), Colombo plan and the Asian development bank, which proves that Nepal is DEEPLY into debt. This leads to other important issues like stated in harm 1, low distribution of incomes, affecting the stock markets, and increases the limitations on the country's imports. *Therefore, with the knowledge that Nepal is deeply in debt, other countries will stop loaning Nepal and put limitations on the imports, which will affect the economy, and therefore even raise the government and peopleís poverty.*

 

Evidence

*1. Nepal has been calling for investments from India and other countries. But the response has not been very good. Nepal needs to educate Indian investors on the potentials of Nepal. Source:  FNCCI

http://www.nepalnet.org.np/economics/nep_ties.htm

2. Debt - external: $2.4 billion (1997) CIA World Fact book 2000

3. Public debt (external outstanding; 2001 est.) Ė US$2.6 billion. (Source: Compiled by Research and Information Division of FNCCI from World Development report.)

**Budget of Nepal is $536 million, so the debt on Nepal is 4 times their budget.

4. "Percentage of Population Living on less than $1 a day, 2000- 53.1%"- which is higher than any other country in South Asia, including India which is a 52.1%. - Compiled by Research and Information Division of FNCCI from World Development Report

Harm #3:

Unemployment in Nepal is very high (45%) due to the migration of refugees from many neighboring countries

Due to the migration from neighbouring countries, Nepal suffers from a high unemployment rate of NEPALESE PEOPLE. As mentioned in harms 1 and 2 Nepal suffers from financial difficulty therefore limiting the industries and work opportunities. This affects other areas like giving the Nepalese their rights to have priority in working. The children in Nepal wonít have a proper education, which can later affect the county as these kids grow since they will be uneducated thus making Nepal even more poor because almost every high paying, good job that can help the country requires an education nowadays. The spread of diseases can also result from the increase of refugees. Therefore unemployment affects Nepal greatly.

Evidence

1."Nepal's unemployment is estimated at 45%. Creation of jobs and work opportunities for tackling employment and underemployment are the prerequisite to over-come the country's economic and social difficulties." Source: National Planning Commission- Eighth Plan / Future of the Economy- Friedrich Ebert Stiftung-2000-http://www.nepalnet.org.np/economics/index.htm

2. "Unemployment is very high which is resulting in migration of many of Nepalese people." 1999, Namche Bazar, "Nepal"-Migration

3. "Unemployment for all of Nepal was reported to range from 25 to 40 percent in 1987; unemployment Nationally stood at 5 percent."

The Library of Congress-1995.

4. "With Bhutan over 91,000 Bhutanese refugees are in Nepal" Http://www.geographic.org

5. "Refugee issue over the presence in Nepal of approximately 96,500 Bhutanese refugees, 90% of whom are in seven United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) camps." CIA World Fact Book 2000

Harm #4

School enrollments are very low (33%) which results in low graduate rates.

Children, from the age of six are robbed from their childhood working in farms and other urban areas, again due to the extreme poverty. Unfortunately, even when in 1975 primary education was made free, and the government became responsible for providing school facilities, teachers, and educational materials; parents still did not allow their children to go to school because they needed them for work. Many children are forced to work instead of going to school due to financial difficulties.

Evidence

1. In Nepal, only 27.5% of the total population is literate. CIA World Fact Book 2000

2. Aged 25 or over and having attained: no formal schooling 41.2%, primary 29.4%, secondary 22.7%, higher 6.8% (1999). Literacy; literate population aged 15 or over 1,822,718 or 20.7%. Source: Atlapedia Online-Countries A to Z-Nepal. http://www.atlapedia.com/online/countries/nepal.htm

 

Harm #5:

Nepalís social stability is threatened by the large number of migrants.

The volume of migration has increased overtime. These migrant workers outnumber the Nepalese since Nepal is made up of mixed cultures. Therefore, the Nepalese have very little chance of getting well-paid jobs. As mentioned previously, this affects the unemployment rate, which increases poverty. If Nepalís social stability is too deadly and threatened, then India or China will take over Nepal. In reality, this has already happened to a once existing country called SKAAIM that was located between Nepal and Bhutan.

Evidence

1. "With Bhutan over 91,000 Bhutanese refugees are in Nepal" Http://www.geographic.org

2. "Refugee issue over the presence in Nepal of approximately 96,500 Bhutanese refugees, 90% of whom are in seven United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) camps." CIA World Fact Book 2000

3. Nepal, National Planning Commission, Secretariat, Central Bureau of Statistics, Statistical Pocket Book, Nepal, 2000, Kathmandu, 2000, volume #24.

 

Needs:

Need #1

We need a system that reduces the number of families below the poverty line.

Need #2

We need a system that reduces the external debt of Nepal.

Need #3

We need a system that offers more job opportunities to NEPALESE.

Need #4

We need a system that increases graduation rates in Nepal.

Need #5

We need a system where the social stability in Nepal is no longer threatened by the migrants.

Planks:

Plank #1

The Us will pass a bill in congress that Nepal will find a new agency called The Us Nepalese Monetary Fund, which will be responsible for giving out loans to the citizens each month under easy conditions and low interest rates. This fund will be founded in Kathmandu because itís the capital and contains a population of 600,000 (US Department of State-Jan. 1995)

Plank #2

The US will pass a bill in congress that grants a fifteen year tax holiday to whoever opens a business in Nepal.

Plank #3

The US will pass a bill in congress that authorizes payment or forgiveness for fifteen years of all of Nepalís debts.

Plank #4

Nepaliís companies with Capitalization over a million dollars will be listed in the US stock exchange market.

Plank #5

The US will give parents of children under the poverty line $100 a year depended on school attendance

This-$200 was calculated by the number of children in Nepal: 10 million (CIA world fact book- children: aged 3-17) If a child is absent more than 10%, than that child wonít get the 200 dollars a year. (under poverty line :42%-Cia world fact book)

Plank #6

The US will put a ban on any product produced by migrant workers.

Plank #7

The US will pass a bill in congress that authorizes a Nepalese Relief tax that will tax each household in the US (citizens only) $2 yearly per tax payer for 15 years.

 

Significance:

Our plan is significant because it solves most of the ECONOMIC and HUMANITARIAN problems in Nepal in the long run. It helps Nepal, but the United States also benefits. It encourages and supports globalization, which diminishes poverty, which is for many, the deeper crises for the world at present.

SECOND SPEAKER: Our plan is also significant because of Nepalís military location and importance, which is between China and India, whose relationship is not very good. And without Nepal in the middle, a war might result. Which will affect India, China, Nepal, and the USA. It is in the United States best interest to keep the peace in the sensitive part of the world because if war between India and China takes place, The USA, as the worldís super power has to take action and sent troops and money to aid the countries at war.

Evidences:

1) "India and Nepal restored trade relations in 1990, after a break caused by Indiaís security concerns over Nepalís relations with China." US Department of State. Nepal-January. 1995.

2) "Just before the tests, Indiaís defense minister explicitly singled out China as Indiaís "number one" security threat." CHINA-INDIA RELATIONS SINCEPOKHRAN II: ASSESSING SOURCES OF CONFLICT AND COOPERATION by Mark W. Frazier, Vol.17, no.19, September 29, 2000. Mark W. Frazier is assistant professor of political science at the University of Louisville and senior advisor to The National Bureau of Asian Research.

* EXPERT 3) "Nepal has the most strategic point in South Asia, and it is contributing to the peace of the world and this is in the interest of both Nepal and the US because the location of Nepal helps maintain and keep the peace in the sensitive part of the world." Badri Prasad Khanal, the ambassador of Nepal in USA.

*EXPERT 4) There are many significances of Nepal, one of them being the significance of Nepal as a strategic location and its natural beauty." Mr. Jebo Koro. Nepalese Embassy in Washington, USA.

Topicality (only if challenged)

Our plan is topical for many reasons:

(1) Nepal is topical because it is geographically in the area of South Asia. Our definition for South Asia states: A sub continent form made up of six countries, which are India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, and two countries that have not yet been recognized officially, Jammu and Kashmir. And since the resolution is: The United States should substantially change itís foreign policy towards South Asia, we believe Nepal is topical.

(2) Nepal is also topical because Nepal is substantial. Our definition for substantial states: notable. And Nepal is definitely notable. It may have a small number of people compared to the other South Asian countries, but the military and strategic significance in Nepal is enough to make is substantial and notable.

Sources

EXPERT 1) According to Badri Prasad Khanal, the ambassador of Nepal in the USA, "Nepal does have diplomatic relations with the USA, and has had them for about 50 years."

EXPERT 3) "Nepal has the most strategic point in South Asia, and it is contributing to the peace of the world and this is in the interest of both Nepal and the US because the location of Nepal helps maintain and keep the peace in the sensitive part of the world." Badri Prasad Khanal, the ambassador of Nepal in USA.

 

Inherent Block: (only if challanged)

The inherent block is attitudinal. The US does not have much concern toward Nepal compared to other countries in South Asia. All its interest and concern is for the Nuke threat and the conflict in Kashmir. Nepal gets no special compensation from the US towards it and that is why the government hasnít considered a plan like this one.

SOURCES

*1) "1939: The first Nepalese official visit to the United States took place, during the homeward journey of General Krishna Rana, Nepal's Minister in London." A PICTORIAL CHRONOLOGY (Up to Year 1957)-2000 http://www.south-asia.com/USA/chrono1.htm

*1) "April 25, 1947: An Agreement of Commerce and Friendship was signed in Kathmandu between the United States and Nepal. The agreement provided for the establishment of diplomatic and consular relations, established a standard for treatment of American nationals and established a rule of non discrimination in future commercial relations." A PICTORIAL CHRONOLOGY (Up to Year 1957)-2000 http://www.south-asia.com/USA/chrono1.htm

*This Shows how the US doesnít care for Nepal, by taking slow actions in signing diplomatic relations in Nepal.

**2) In August 1951, the two governments agreed to raise the status of their respective diplomatic representations to the rank of ambassador. It was not until August 1959, however, that each country established a resident embassy in each other's capital."

Http://www.lcweb2.loc.gov.com/

**This quote can conclude how the USA is slow and uninterested in furthering its relations with Nepal.

3) "The Department of State advise US citizens to carefully consider travel in Nepal." Source: embassy of the United States, Katmandu, Nepal, March 8, 2001.

FUNDING:

The funding of our plan will cost exactly $779,125,345. We will get this money from two main sources and two main sources are:

1) The first main source is as I said in Plank #7 The US will pass a bill in congress that authorizes a Nepalese Relief tax that will tax each household in the US (citizens only) $2 yearly per tax payer for 15 years. The population of the US is 275,562,673 (CIA World Fact Book), and when you multiply it by 2 it will become $551,125,346.

2) The second main source is that we would put a 19% tariff on the imports of the Nepalese Government. The total cost of imports in Nepal is $1.2 billion, and when you get 19% of that amount it will become $228 million.

And when you add both the first and second sources it would be $779,125,345, not more and not less.

This shows that we do not need any more sources except the US and Nepal, also it show s that we calculated the exact amount needed for the exact population of the Nepalese people.

We extracted these numbers and percentages from "The CIA World Fact Book 2000" and "The Library of Congress".

 

Working Model

1) One working model is Puerto Rico who is right now on a 13-year tax holiday. This working model represents ours because we are proposing a 15-year tax holiday...

2) Our working model represents Bhutan also by the strategic location they both share; they are both landlocked between two major power countries, china and India. The only difference is that Nepalís economy is suffering and Bhutan isn't. So the working model of Bhutan therefore results in Nepal bettering its economy.

3) Sikkum WAS a country that used to be between Nepal and Bhutan...

And because of the social instability that took place years ago, Sikkum now no longer exists...it now belongs to India. We are relating Sikkum as a working model to prove in reality what might happen to Nepal if immediate action is not taken...

Evidence

"Sikkum is now a part of India wedged between the kingdoms of Nepal and Bhutan."

http://iias.leidenuniv.nl/host/himalaya/individ/lepcha.html

"Bhutan is a landlocked; strategic location between India and China; controls several key Himalayan Mountain passes." CIA World Fact Book, Bhutan. Geography. Http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/bt.html

"The country remains dependent upon a system of tax preferences and federal funding from United States. Puerto Rican growth and inflation trends generally follow those on the US mainland." Http://www.puerto-rico.gov/econ/taxes/hol.html

I also have evidence that shows that Puerto Rico has no external debt. "Debt Ė external: $NA" CIA World Fact Book. "GDP: real growth rate: 6.5%"

SOLVENCY

This plan solves economic and social problems in Nepal. It solves the social problems because this plan will help get children that donít attend school attend it and get educates. School enrollments in Nepal are very low at a percentage of 33%. Our plan will raise the percentage of school enrollments in Nepal. This plan also solves the economic problems because after the educated children graduate, the unemployment rate will reduce and the economy will rise gradually. When the children become educated and graduate, the Nepalese will have first priority to work, and the number of migrants to Nepal will reduce. After the substantial change in the economy, poverty will decrease and the average income will increase.