Event: Mini-MUN 1999
Student: Nabil al KhalidLinks to other sites on the Web: Back to the Model UN 1998-1999 page
China’s original rulers were the numerous dynasties. Emperors headed these dynasties. These venerable emperors were worshiped like supreme beings were worshiped. Some of these emperors were cruel tyrants whom no one could oppose. The first prehistoric dynasty is said to be Xia, from about the twenty-first to the sixteenth century B.C. Traces of this dynasty were found in sites at Anyang, Henan Province. Following the Xia dynasty, the Shang, Zhou, and Qin Dynasties rose.
The government of China is based on the Marxism-Leninism-Zedong Thought. The ruling body is the 46-million-member Chinese Communist Party. The political processes, naturally, are guided by the state Constitution, pronounced in 1982. Under the Constitution, lower bodies elect representative organs of both party and state and they select their administrative arms at corresponding levels. In theory, the National Party Congress is the highest organ of power, but the real power lies in the hands of the Political Bureau of the CCP Central Committee. In theory, this is the ruling system of China, but in reality, China has cancelled all parties and adopted totalitarianism, trying to fully adopt the Marx-Zedong Thought of Communism.
China, though a large country in area and strength, has managed to maintain relatively satisfactory stability. In order to maintain this stability, China has to continue to strike between the right balance between continuity and long-term stability, and the capacity for change and adaptation to the evolving environment. China recognizes that the reform of the financial sector is of high importance to economic stability. Though China has to make many imminent changes, it maintains sufficient political and economic stability. However, China has a large problem in maintaining stability in some areas. The main cause of this is the fact that it is virtually impossible to balance complete political power and grant economic freedom to citizens. The problem is that the Government wants to give no political freedom, but economic freedom.
China is bordered by many countries, which it doesn’t have good relations with. To the north, it is bordered by Mongolia, Russia, and Kazakhstan. To the west, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India. To the south, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar (Burma), Laos, and Vietnam. To the East, China is bordered by North Korea. With many of these countries, China doesn’t share good relations. It has border disputes with India and Tajikistan. Also, China is involved in a complex dispute between the Philippines, Taiwan, Malaysia, and Vietnam over the Spratly Islands. The climate of China is extremely diverse. The climate is different in each part of the China because of the country’s massive size. Generally, the southern part is tropical (excluding the Tibetan Plateau), and the northern part it is subarctic. Temperatures in July are around 20 C C and can go below -20C in January. In Tibet, the temperatures hardly exceed 15C in July. Temperatures in that area can go below -45C in January.
Because of its gigantic area, China has a wide array of minerals. Those used, though, are mainly vanadium, chrome, and cobalt. Agriculture plays an important role in China’s commodities. About 85% of the sown area of China is devoted to food crops. The most important is rice, which occupies about one fifth of the total cultivated area. However, a small percentage of China is good farmland. With a large population, this has often meant starvation and famine if the government fails to feed its people. China has trade agreements with many countries. For example, China’s trade agreement with the US is called the MFN. China also has numerous trade agreements with Russia, Germany, France, and Korea. Another trade agreement was the "One China, Two Systems Agreement" with the former British colony Hong Kong, as, at that time, the two nations had completely separate economies. China also has agreements with the GCC countries for import of oil. Rumors accuse China of illegal import of oil from Iraq. China strives to be self-sufficient. In most cases, it is self-sufficient. At one point, China produced enough coal to satisfy its needs. Now, it is unable to produce enough coal, so it imports coal from Russia and the United States. China also needs to import grain and oil (which are also imported from the GCC countries) from the US. One of the agreements that China shares with the US is the MFN. The US threatened China that it would not renew this agreement when China largely violated human rights policies in the 1990’s. This would’ve largely worsened the economy of China.
China has thousands of ethnic groups. Most of these groups are distinguished from the Chinese by language or religion rather than by racial characteristics. The main ethnic groups are the Zhuang in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region; the Hui Chinese Muslims in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Gansu, and Qinghai; the aboriginal Miao in Guizhou, Hunan, and Yunnan; the Uygur in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region; the aboriginal Yi in Sichuan, Yunnan, and Guangxi. There are several major disputes between these groups. One of the main ones are the disputes between the Government in Beijing and the Chinese Muslims in Ningxia Hui as the communist government is against religion. Also, there has been a historical dispute between China and Tibet as China invaded Tibet in 1950, and there has always been tension between them. The Tibetans revolted and demonstrated endlessly against the Chinese Government, to no avail.
The main and official religions in China are Buddhism and Taoism. These religions are practiced by most of the 1.2 billion people of China. Second to these religions are Islam and Christianity. When religious rights were granted, Christian and Buddhist groups and organizations rose to promote their religions. The constitution of 1982 allows residents freedom of religious belief, and protects legitimate religious activities. Since then many temples, churches, and mosques have reopened. China’s cultural history passed through numerous phases. First, as mentioned earlier, China was divided into dynasties. The dynasty rule ended in the 10th century when the Song Dynasty seized the majority of China. From thereafter, China was no longer divided into autonomous regions. China was a treated as a whole.
The monetary unit of China is the Yuan. One Yuan is approximately eight US$. The monetary system of China is completely controlled by the government. The central bank is the Bank of China, which has branches worldwide. The Yuan is used throughout China. China doesn’t depend on international debt. That is because it is not a third-world country. China can financially depend on itself. It is a considerably industrialized nation. China is not a member of many international economic organizations. It strives to be one, though. China is currently trying to enter the World Trade Organization (WTO), the biggest economic and trade organization worldwide. China also wants to be addmitted into the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) to increase and develop relations with other Asian nations.
China has an extensive military structure. The 1982 Chinese Constitution states that supreme power of the military lies in the hands of the Central Military Commission. The actual military force is the People’s Liberation Army. In 1993, the PLA was approximately 3 million, making it the largest army in the world. The navy had 260,000, the air force 470,000, and the strategic rocket force 90,000. The PLA was more a peasant force than a sophisticated armed force.
Because of its large manpower, the PLA makes China depend on itself in terms of military. The PLA has 3 million, more than any other military manpower in the world. Though Russia and the US have more sophisticated armed forces, the PLA satisfies China’s needs. Its lack of modernity means, despite claims by the US, that it’s much more suited to self-defense than invasion. The PLA is also useful in construction efforts, such as dams and irrigation projects. China is a member of several organizations with military power. The main one being the Security Council, in which China has a permanent seat. Therefore, China has Veto rights in the Security Council. China has taken advantage of this right to aid many of its Communist allies. The UN, of course, has extensive military power. China is also a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency.
Views on World Problems
China has a large influence and plays an important role in the international community. China’s opinion is always recognized in the United Nations as it is a permanent member in the Security Council. China, therefore, has Veto rights. China has a very strong voice in resolutions and decisions being discussed in the Security Council. Because it is a Communist nation, relations with countries like the United States are frequently strained.
China isn’t a member of many blocs and groupings. It strives to be in some organizations, like the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN). Despite this kind of insistence, China remains a country that doesn’t participate in the world’s political, economical, and trade issues (UN membership excluded). China wants to increase trade and relations between other Asian nations, such as Singapore, Thailand, and Malaysia. It would love, under correct conditions, to be more loved.
Since its communist revolution, China grew more and more isolated from the outside world. After Mao Zedong’s death, Deng Xiaoping grasped power in 1976. He continued to rule China until his death in 1997, when power was handed over to Premiere Zhu Rongji. Despite Mao’s death, China has continued a steady economic growth. When power was handed to Deng Xiaoping, China has been growing economically. It began to allow opportunities with international investors. These opportunities have helped China’s sagging economy greatly. In fact, China is no longer a Third World Country. Deng Xiaoping led China into a great economic leap.
Issue #1: Sanctions Against Iraq
China believes that sanctions against Iraq should be lifted. It believes that negotiations with the Iraqi authorities should commence in order to lift the sanctions. Discussions in the UN Security Council shouldn’t cease in the act of lifting the economic sanction against Iraq. China is against the recent bombing of Iraq because national sovereignty should be respected under most circumstances. The people of Iraq shouldn’t suffer because of the Authorities’ mistakes.
Issue #2: War in Africa concerning the DPR Congo and Neighbors:
China’s policy of the current problem in central Africa is the same as most other nations: Ensure peace in the area without violating national sovereignty. Although this problem doesn’t affect China, the country has paid attention to it and expressed its opinion. Whether the case is developing a new nation, or creating an autonomic region, the result must be peace. This problem has been troubling many peoples of Africa, who are not concerned about their government, but about their own welfare. Peace has to remain and be secured in the region.
Issue #3: The Status of the Kurdish People
China believes that the Kurdish people should be allowed to live in peace and prosperity. Whether Kurdistan is reformed, or an autonomic region is formed, the Kurdish people shouldn’t suffer. Turkey and Iraq should respect the rights of Kurdish citizens, and allow the to live in their lands. Also, China believes that Turkey shouldn’t have captured Kurdish rebel leader Ocalan for terrorism as this has created instability in many countries. Ocalan cannot be tried in Turkey as a terrorist, because he denies Turkish citizen; he is a freedom fighter.
Issue #4: The Elimination of Weapons of Mass Destruction
China’s policy on the elimination of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WOMD) is very clear: Countries shouldn’t interfere with other countries’ weapon development issues. A country should freely be allowed to develop means of defending itself; it is the right of each country to do so. If this right is abused or even taken away, countries will never reach the goals the have set. China believes that every country should be given a chance to gain power and become stronger. Otherwise, the will only remain several countries that have supreme command over other countries.
Issue #5: The Reform of the Security Council
China, a permanent member of the Security Council, encourages reforms of the Security Councils. It welcomes such efforts in order to strengthen the position of the United Nations as a whole in the world. If China will remain a permanent member in the Council, a reform of this kind would actually benefit all countries in the Security Council because it would make all countries’ opinions heard. A reform of any kind is always to everyone’s benefit. A UN reform will help the UN reach it goals that are set in its Charter.
Forum: Security Council
Question Of: Sanction(s) Against Iraq
Defining sanction as a penalty intended to maintain or restore respect for law or authority, especially as adopted by several nations together against a country violating international law,
Taking into Consideration Resolution 661, which demanded that the United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) be allowed with no interference to destroy all weapons of mass destruction that Iraq possesses,
Aware of the "No Fly Zone" sanction placed against most of the airspace in Iraq under Resolution 670,
Deeply Disturbed by the economic sanction that was placed against Iraq under Resolution 670 issued on 15/09/90, which banned Iraq to have any kind of trade, including oil,
Noting the work of the United Nations Human Rights Commission (UNHRC) in countries under various crises,
Deeply Concerned about the people of Iraq, who have suffered relentlessly suffered the consequences of their government’s actions,
Aware of the "oil-for-food" deal, which authorized the UN Security Council in Resolution 986 to allow Iraq to sell $2 billion worth of oil every six months to buy food, medicine, and other humanitarian needs,
1. Congratulates the UN Security Council for the agreement of the "oil-for-food" deal, which has greatly helped the humanitarian situation in Iraq,
2. Condemns the Security Council for placing economic and "No Fly Zone" sanctions against Iraq, which have largely worsened the economic situation in Iraq,
3. Requests that the UN Security Council continue to help the innocent people of Iraq and respect their national sovereignty by:
One) gradually lifting the economic sanction against Iraq, so the Iraqi people can build a prosperous nation by:
a) allowing Iraq to have meager trade relations (about 10% of complete economic freedom) with other countries,
b) measuring 10% as one-tenth of importing and exporting goods (eg. Oil) that Iraq can trade,
c) allowing Iraq growing freedom at the rate of: 10% per month, d) lifting the economic sanction when freedom trade rate reaches 100%, e) finally permitting Iraq to have complete economic freedom,
f) welcoming Iraq in all trade organizations so it can be treated like all other oil-producing nations,
Two) lifting the "No Fly Zones" sanction against Iraq by:
a) re-opening Baghdad International Airport and all other major airports in the country, b) allowing a three commercial airliners to fly into Baghdad, c) continuing to give more airspace freedom over one year, d) ending the sanction by finally allowing Iraq to have complete freedom in its airspace after one year, Three) removing all interfering UNSCOM Inspectors, because they have found no remaining chemical and/or biological weapons in Iraq, Four) continuing to keep attention at the government of Iraq through subtle means,
4. Calls Upon the United Nations International Children’s Fund (UNICEF) to send missions into Iraq to solve the humanitarian crisis,
5. Urges other UN humanitarian organizations such as the United Nations Human Rights Commission (UNHRC) to help the people of Iraq,
6. Encourages all countries to welcome new trade relations and agreement with Iraq, and to practice reconciliation towards the country.
Good Afternoon, ladies and gentlemen:
The People’s Republic of China welcomes everyone to this Security Council meeting this afternoon. China is a proud, permanent member of the Security Council, and would like to express a special welcome to the temporary members present, which are: Sweden, Costa Rica, and Kenya. China hopes that these countries can use their valuable temporary membership in the Security Council to voice all opinions that they may have, and to participate in solving many of the problems that are facing the world today. China hopes that all countries present, whether permanent or temporary, can use this special gathering to everyone’s advantage. China hopes that this meeting can be concluded in a productive way, where all countries can benefit from any decisions made, or resolutions passed.
China would especially like to highlight the issue of national sovereignty. Violations of various kinds of national sovereignty are rampant in the world today. Many governments are just not given enough respect by the superpowers. Countries are now interfering with other countries’ businesses, which is morally incorrect. China would like to bring special attention to this issue because it concerns all members of the countries meeting together today, and most of the other countries in our world. This is an imminent issue that needs to be solved as soon as possible because tension is rising between many countries who are troubled with the interference of national sovereignty. There are many examples that support this issue. To mention a few: The bombing and sanctions against Iraq, the NATO bombing against Yugoslavia, and the extradition of Manuel Noriega – former president of Panama. China believes that a vote in the Security Council needs to be taken when an action like this is being planned, so each and every country can voice its opinion on every issue. National sovereignty is one of little things that countries pride.
Again, China would like to express a final welcome to everyone present in this important meeting today. This meeting is an excellent way of exchanging opinions and solving world problems. China sincerely hopes that new resolutions can be passed that don’t violate any of the member countries’ international policies. May the United Nations prevail, and may the world prosper to be a better place to live in.