Briefing Book for Nigeria
Adel al Omar
The Federal Republic of Nigeria became independent in 1960 from the British rule, but in reality it should’ve not been called a Federal Republic, since it didn’t have democracy. It has decades of military rule that was a true damage to everything. Happily, Major-General Abdulsalam Abubaker succeeded the military ruler Abacha after his death and promised to return Nigeria to return the civilian rule after holding free elections. He also showed his belief in Democracy when he asked all political prisoners to be freed arrested by Abacha. Moshood Abiola, who was put to prison since winning the 1993 president, election was thought to be the future president for the republic. He then died suddenly just before he was released from prison by accident.
The elections took place in February and March 1999 and Obasanjo was elected the president in clean elections that provided the freedom of thoughts. The military administration handed power to the civilian new government on the most memorable day of May 29. Nations all around the world welcomed Nigeria to the New World, the world of freedom and democracy. The Commonwealth of Nations lifted the suspension of Nigeria’s membership to agree with the return of civilian rule. Nigeria’s future is thought to be very bright.
The size of the country is 923 768 sq. Km, it is bound in the East by Cameroon and by The Republic of Chad in the Northeast. The Gulf of Guinea is to the south, and the Niger Republic bounds Nigeria in the North. Nigeria is seen to have many borders with many countries, which isn’t a benefit but instead is a negative. It is by far the most populated of African countries, which is not in the welfare of it.
The broad, mostly level valleys of the Niger and Benue rivers form Nigeria's largest physical region. The Niger enters the country from the northwest, the Benue from the northeast; they join at the city of Lokoja in the south central region and continue south, where they empty into the Atlantic at the Niger Delta. Together, they form the shape of Y. Population densities and agricultural developments are generally lower in the Niger and Benue valleys than in other areas.
North of the Niger Valley are the high plains of Hausaland, an area of relatively level topography averaging about 800 m (about 2,500 ft) above sea level, with isolated granite outcroppings. The Jos Plateau, located close to Nigeria's geographic center, rises steeply above the surrounding plains to an average elevation of about 1,300 m (about 4,200 ft). To the northeast, the plains of Hausaland grade into the basin of Lake Chad the area is characterized by somewhat lower elevations, level terrain, and sandy soils. To the northwest, the high plains descend into the Sokoto lowland.
Southwest of the Niger Valley (on the left side of the Y) lies the comparatively rugged terrain of the Yoruba highlands. Between the highlands and the ocean runs a coastal plain averaging 80-km (50 mi.) in width from the border of Benin to the Niger Delta. The delta, which lies at the base of the Y and separates the southwestern coast from the southeastern coast, is 36,000 sq. km (14,000-sq. mi.) of low-lying, swampy terrain and multiple channels through which the waters of the great river empty into the ocean. Several of the delta's channels and some of the inshore lagoons can be navigated.
Southeastern coastal Nigeria (to the right of the Y) consists of low sedimentary plains that are essentially an extension of the southwestern coastal plains. In all, the Atlantic coastline extends for 850 km (530 mi.). It is marked by a series of sandbars, backed by lagoons of brackish water that support the growth of mangroves. Large parts of Africa's Bight of Benin and Bight of Biafrai fall along the coast. Because of the Guinea Current, which transports and deposits large amounts of sand, the coastline is quite straight and has few good natural harbors. The harbors that do exist must be constantly dredged to remove deposited sand.
Inland from the southeastern coast are progressively higher regions. In some areas, such as the Udi Hills northwest of Enugu, escarpments have been formed by dipping rock strata. Farther east, along Nigeria's border with Cameroon, lie the eastern highlands, made of several distinct ranges and plateaus, including the Mandara Mountains, the Shebeshi Mountains, the Alantika Mountains, and the Mambila Mountains. In the Shebeshi is Dimlang (Vogel Peak), which at 2,042 m (6,699 ft) is Nigeria's highest point. Nigeria has a tropical climate that depends on rainfall. It is generally wet. The temperature is always warm on (May-September), and dry (October-April). Seasons occur in most of the country. The zone of intertropical discontinuity follows the sun northward during the summer. The result of this would be that the country would come under moisture-laden tropical maritime air. Then the zone shifts southward bringing an end to rainy season as summer wanes. Temperatures are usually high all year long averaging from 25 to 28 C, except for higher elevations of the Jos Plateau where the temperature averages 22 C. Northern Nigeria experience higher temperatures than the south. Rainfalls vary widely over short varieties of land and from year to year. Therefore this is important for growing season.
The rural economy that supports most Nigerians is based on the productivity of the land which 33% of it is cared for. This is an important support to the Nigerian economy and is high percentage. Soil fertility varies considerably, but is mainly poor. The most fertile soil used for land productivity is the result of alluvial deposition in river valleys. The problem is that many are overused and eroded. Trees, which help prevent erosion, are often used for fuel, lumber, material for tools, fodder for animals, and herbal medicines. This resulted in the landscape becoming barren increasingly of trees and especially in densely populated areas and near larger cities. So, there’s a serious economic problem facing Nigeria.
The source of most of Nigeria’s export earning is the petroleum and natural gas which are concentrated in the Niger Delta and just offshore. Smaller deposits are scattered along coastal regions. Petroleum revenues dropped from a peak of $24 billion in 1980 to $12 billion in the year of 1990. Some of the other mineral resources include tin and columbite in the Jos Plateau and limestone in several areas, in valleys of the Niger, Senue, and Sokoto particularly. The side effects of petroleum and natural gas industries were huge in Nigeria. The oil spills, burnoff of natural gas, and clearance of vegetation have seriously damaged the land, vegetation, and waterways in the Niger Delta but money is spent evenly.
Nigeria’s three largest ethnic groups, the Hausa – Fulani, Yoruba, and Igbo, represents 71% of the population. The 29%of the remaining population, about one-third, consists of groups numbering more than 1 million members each. The final one-fifth of the population is make up from the remaining300-plus ethnic groups.
Concentrated in the far north and in the Republic of Niger are the Hausa that are the largest of Nigeria’s ethnic nations. Most of the Hausa are Muslims engaged in agriculture, commerce, and small-scale industry. Most of them live in smaller towns and villages, while others occupy several larger native cities. Through intermarriage and acculturation many non-Hausa origin have become incorporated into Hausa nation. Other Hausa - Fulian continue to depend on there live and have retained their own language, Fulfulde, and cultural independence. There are problems between the ethical groups in Nigeria, and the problem existed to the point that Nigerian ethnic groups wanted division. They wanted each of the two group to have it’s own country, but this happily was rejected.
Nigeria's economy, traditionally based on agriculture and trade, changed profoundly under colonial rule, beginning in the late 19th century. The need to pay taxes to the colonial government forced Nigerian farmers to replace food-producing crops with cash-producing crops, which the government bought at low prices and resold at a profit. In the 1960s and 1970s the petroleum industry developed, prompting greatly increased export earnings and allowing massive investments in industry, agriculture, infrastructure, and social services. Many of these large investments, often joint venture with private corporations; failed due to the fall in oil prices.
In 1997 Nigeria's (GDP) was $40 billion which is similar to Kuwait’s (GDP), but the problem is the fact that Nigeria has a population 50 times more than Kuwait’s which is why it’s not as wealthy. GDP has varied widely, depending on the oil market: $81 billion in 1985, $33.2 billion in 1994, $40.5 billion in 1995. Although petroleum accounts for as much as 98 percent of export earnings and produces about four-fifths of government revenues, the production of GDP is divided almost equally between the petroleum, agriculture, and service sectors. In 1997 Nigeria's gross national product (GNP) per capita was only $280, among the 20 lowest in the world and well below the average for sub-Saharan Africa. In 1990 foreign aid per capita was only $2, far below the average of $33 for sub-Saharan Africa not because they needed it but because they had to and were forced. The poor have been especially hard hit, notably by devaluations of the currency, which make basic imported goods, such as food, more expensive; cutbacks in services and increases in fees for services; and a rate of inflation that exceeded 60 percent in 1996. Thankfully, that fact no longer lives after the change that occurred in Nigeria’s government and the change towards democracy.
Nigeria’s defense forces that peaked at 300,000 at the end of the civil war in 1970, had 77,000 personnel in 1997, which compared to the region’s other countries were still large and expensive. The 62,000 army with major divisions based in Lagos, Ibadan, Enugu, Kaduna, and Jos. The air force is consisted of 9,500 personnel in four air commands in Ikeja, which is near Lagos, Kadruna, Ibadan, and Makurdi. In Lagos and Calabar the 5,500 person navy is centered and has been strengthened in recent years to provide security for oil installations. The Military force has been down sized after the rule of Obasanjo because the new democratic government of Obasanjo wants a major rebuild of Nigeria and doesn’t want to continue destroying it by paying the most attention on the military forces as the military rulers did. At least this force is capable of defending Nigeria from neighbors and to control security.
The Nigerian Defense Academy is located at Kaduna. The cooperation between the UN and Nigeria has been summarized in Nigeria’s participation in peacekeeping operations of the United Nations and has provided the majority of soldiers for joint West African peacekeeping force in Liberia (since1990) and Sierra Leone (since 1997). Military service is voluntary in Nigeria. The participation decreased since a new civil democratic government appeared.
Views on world problems:
Nigeria has participated in peacekeeping operations of the United Nations and has provided the majority of soldiers for the joint West African peacekeeping force in Liberia (since 1990) and Sierra Leone (since 1997). Military service is voluntary. At independence in 1960 Nigeria joined the United Nations (UN) and it’s affiliated agencies. It also joined the British Commonwealth of Nations. Its membership in the Commonwealth was suspended between 1995 and 1999 to protest human rights abuses and the slow rate of democratization by the Abacha’s military government. Now, relationships between the British Common Wealth and Nigeria returned stronger than before. Nigeria is also a member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), the World Trade Organization (WTO), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the NonAligned Movement (NAM). A founding member of the Organization of African Unity (OAU), Nigeria took the lead in opposing the regime in South Africa. It is also the dominant partner in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and a member of the African Development Bank and the Lake Chad Basin Commission. All these leading positions are since it has the most amount of money between members, and also because of the great population it handles.
The Nigerian Labor Congress, which had already held a general strike to protest the annulled election of Abiola, organized another general strike to protest Abacha's coup. Political pressure groups such as the Campaign for Democracy also stepped up protests against Abacha. In May 1994 the government announced plans for political reform and held elections for local governments and delegates to yet another constitutional conference. In October 1995 Abacha lifted the ban on political activity, and promised a transfer to civilian power in 1998. The government dubiously accused the activists of murdering government supporters, gave them a hasty, unfair trial, and executed them. The Abacha government imprisoned many people, among the most prominent being former President Olusegun Obasanjo, former vice-president Shehu Musa Yar'Adua (who died in prison in December 1997), and the 1993 president-elect Moshood Abiola. The execution and imprisonment of opponents and other violations of human rights intensified international pressure on Abacha and resulted in Nigeria's suspension from the British Commonwealth of Nations.
Abacha was widely expected to be declared the winner of the elections, as all five officially sanctioned political parties had nominated him in April 1998. However, in June 1998 Abacha died suddenly of a heart attack. Moshood Abiola, imprisoned since apparently winning the 1993 presidential election, was widely believed to be the frontrunner for the presidency. However, just before he was to be released from prison, Abiola also died suddenly without being executed nor exiled in any ways.
Abubakar promoted the establishment of political parties and freed political prisoners arrested by Abacha, including former president Olusegun Obasanjo. Nigeria held legislative and presidential elections in February and March 1999, and Obasanjo was elected president. The military administration handed over power to Nigeria's new civilian government on May 29. The Commonwealth of Nations lifted its suspension of Nigeria's membership to coincide with the resumption of civilian rule.
Issue 101: The question of treatment and condition of refugees.
The Federal Republic of Nigeria seeks for development and agrees that refugees all around the world should be well treated and in good condition. Refugees are defined to be, "any displaced person as a result of civil strife, war, and, or famine." The fact of the radical increase in the number of refugees is disturbing. The problem is that the treatment and the condition of refugees’ worldwide is unpleasant.
We, as a county of the world, want the world to be the best place for living, the most pleasant and fair place. We as nations of the world don’t want nightmare crises such as Rwanda’s to reappear when it resulted with the fleeing of nearly one million refugees seeking for shelter, warmth, and food. Every month a new crisis appears, so let’s put our hands together to stop the abuse of human rights by sending citizens into refugee. Nations should do more than what they’re doing this moment since these current efforts do not prevent these crises.
Issue 102: The question of role of regional organizations in settling international conflict.
The Federal Republic of Nigeria finds that regional organizations have a considerable role in settling international conflict. Regional organizations play a main character in settling international conflict. Nigeria believe in the role of regional organizations in settling international conflict is coincide by the fact that they have membership in International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the NonAligned Movement (NAM), and is proudly a founding member of the Organization of African Unity (OAU). Nigeria took the lead in opposing the apartheid regime in South Africa. It is also the dominant partner in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and a member of the African Development Bank and the Lake Chad Basin Commission. All these memberships and leading positions show Nigeria’s belief in the role of regional organizations in settling international conflict.
Issue 103: The question of growth and implementation of information technology on global communications.
The Federal Republic of Nigeria finds this issue the most important issue that concerns the developing countries and Nigeria itself. The growth and implementation of information technology is an important worldwide and especially developing countries need. The UN is thankful for developing the information technology by establishing the United Nations Centre For Regional Development, the (UNCRD). Nigeria is mostly disturbed by the fact that military rule effected the development of information technology worldwide. Now, we invite technically advanced countries to help Nigeria and all developing or seeking development nations to spread technology there. This would all positively affect the welfare and education of the world, which is the most important issue concerning most nations.
Defining technologically advanced countries as countries that have 1 or more than 1 computer per 10 people.
Believing that the growth and implementation of information technology is an important world wide and special developing and seeking for development countries need,
Recalling the dark past of African technology absence and the hope of having a bright future of African technology advancement,
Noting with appreciation the UN’s efforts for developing information technology by establishing the United Nations Centre For Regional Development (UNCRD),
Realizing that the growth and implementation of information in Nigeria and most developing countries is slow,
Pointing out that the whole world would be affected to the rapid growth and implementation of information technology and the slow growth in developing countries technology,
Deeply disturbed by the fact that the military rule effected the development of information technology world-wide,
Viewing with appreciation the UNDP’s decision for reconsidering development support to Nigeria after return of democracy,
Fully alarmed by the slow development of developing and under developed countries which was represented in Nigeria’s recent independent evaluation that says, " Only 50.5% of women listen to radio and 20% watched television at least once a week.’
1.Draws the attention to the rapid growth and implementation of information technology in technically advanced countries,
2.Further reminds that illiteracy, lag, and slow down of the growth and implementation development of information technology would affect not only developing and under developed countries but the whole world.
3.Calls upon highly technologically advanced countries to help developing countries prevent and fight the illiteracy and lag of developing countries through technology,
4.Further recommends the UN and technologically advanced nations grant financial aid to help developing and under developed countries catch up with worldwide global communications rapid growth, by: a) Increasing the dues on technologically advanced countries as previously defined by an amount of 2.5%, b) Donations from Regional Organizations and the United Nations extra dues to all developing who: a)Have a leader and government that apply to the program and have a true will to modernize, b)Have adopted a plan for the future debts payback, c)Have an adult literacy rate below 50%,
5.Has resolved that the UN must properly recognize developing countries that are working on the growing and implementation of information technology with full cooperation and welcoming by: One)Lowering the payback of debt by 20% on technical advancement purchases, Two)Granting those countries financial support for all their development efforts that they offered to their citizens,
6.Strongly condemns military and arduous governments who have slowed down or stopped the growth and implementation development of information technology,
7.Further resolves that the UN should immediately: One)Cut donations to the countries and governments slowing down or stopping the growth and implementation development of information technology, Two)Impose a UN special team to value the countries and governments co-operation with the development of information technology,
8.Further proclaims the importance of the co-operation between technologically advanced countries and developing countries to reduce illiteracy and lag; and to spread technology in developing countries to increase literacy,
E – bawoni," the Federal Republic of Nigeria would like to welcome all delegates participating in this weighty and significant MUN event. Nigeria would like to celebrate with all delegates the return of democracy, freedom, and human rights to its country after the successful presidential elections that took place in the last few months. Nigeria welcomes the countries of the world to discover the great opportunities in its rich land. Please consider this a personal invitation to all of you delegates to help build up and run investments that would help develop new Nigeria.
Nigeria recognizes the need for economical balance between the countries around the world. Donations and technical assistance should be handed from wealthy countries through the UN and regional organizations to poor countries for the welfare of the world. Many countries around the world have the natural and humanitarian resources, but seek a civilian, clean-handed government that works to achieve what is to the welfare of its people. Some counties today are rich, but others are only rich in spirit and seek opportunities to develop their potential. Nigeria dreams of improving the welfare of it’s people. To the welfare of the people, to the welfare of the countries, and to the welfare of all, lets put join hands to work and make this dream come true, together.