Chile

Student: Ghazi al Sharhan
Event: mini-MUN 2000

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The Chilean National Anthem: Chile

Dulce Patria recibe los votos
con que Chile en tus aras juroacute;
que, o la tumba sera acutes de los libres,
o el asilo contra la opresioacuten.

1.-Ha cesado, la lucha sangrienta
ya es hermano, el que ayer opresor;
del vasallo borramos la afrenta,
combatiendo en el campo de honor.
El que ayer doblegabase esclavo,
hoy ya libre y triunfante se vé;
Libertad es la herencia del bravo;
la victoria se humilla a su pieacute;.

2.-Alza, Chile, sin mancha la frente;
conquistastes tu nombre en la lid;
Siempre noble, constante, valiente
te encontraron, los hijos del Cid.
Que tus libres, tranquilos coronen
a las artes, la industria, la paz
y de triunfos cantares entonen
que amedrenten al deacute spota audaz.

3.-Vuestros nombres valientes soldados,
que habeis sido de Chile el sosteacute;n,
nuestros pechos los llevan grabados...
Lo sabrán nuestros hijos tambiea cuten.
Sean ellos el grito de muerte
que lancemos marchando a lidiar
y sonando en la boca del fuerte,
hagan siempre al tirano temblar.

4.Si pretende el caentildeon extranjero
nuestros pueblos osados invadir,
desnudemos al punto el acero
y sepamos vencer o morir.
Con su sangre el altivo Araucano,
nos lego acute por herencia el valor,
y no tiembla, la espada en la mano
defendiendo de Chile el honor.

5.-Puro Chile es tu cielo azulado,
puras brisas te cruzan tambie acute;n,
y tu campo de flores bordado,
es la copia feliz del Edea cute;n.
Majestuosa es la blanca montantilde;a
que te dió por baluarte el Señor
y ese mar que tranquilo te bantilde;a,
te promete un futuro esplendor.

6.-Esas galas, oh Patria, esas flores
que tapizan tu suelo feraz,
no las pisen jama acutes invasores;
con sus sombras, las cubra la paz.
Nuestros pechos sera acuten tu baluarte,
con tu nombre sabremos vencer
o tu noble, glorioso estandarte
nos vera acute; combatiendo, caer.

English Translation

Chile, your sky is a pure blue,
Pure breezes blow across you,
And your field, embroidered with flowers,
Is a happy copy of Eden.
Majestic is the snow-covered mountain
That was given to you by the Lord as a bastion,
(repeat)

And the sea that tranquilly washes your shore
Promises future splendour for you.
(repeat previous two lines)

CHORUS

Gentle homeland, accept the vows
Given, Chile, on your altars,
That you be either the tomb of the free
Or a refuge from oppression.
(repeat previous two lines three times)
Or a refuge from oppression.
(repeat four times)


Chile


Country Profile

Political Structure:

The country's name is the "Republic of Chile. It has 13 regions, and its capital is "Santiago". Its National holiday is its Independence Day, which was September 18th, 1810 (from Spain). The former president of Chile is Ricardo Lagos. The last presidential elections were held on Sunday, January 16, 2000, and the next elections will be held on January 2006. So, the presidents are elected for a six year term. President Lagos won by getting 58% of the votes. The Chilean flag is consisted of two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red. Also, there is a blue square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the white band. The square bears a white five-pointed star in the center, and the design was based on the US flag.

Geography:

The total area of Chile is 756,950 sq. km. It is located in Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, and within land, it's between Argentina and Peru. Chile has a total main boundary of 6,171 km. This main boundary is divided into three borders. Argentina took the most of Chile's border: 5,150 km, Bolivia: 861 km, and Peru: 160 km.

The climate in Chile is mainly temperate. In the north it's a desert, but in the south it's cool and damp. Near the sea, there are some low coastal mountains. In the center there is a fertile Central Valley. However, in the east, there are some rugged mountains called the Andes.


Natural Resources:

Chile's main Natural Resources are:

Copper, steel, zinc, wheat, corn, grapes, beans, sugar beets, potatoes, fruit; beef, poultry, wool; timber, wood, fish (1994).

Chile has many Industries, and these industries are in charge of some of Chile's natural resources, such as: copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement, textiles.

Chile's Industrial production growth rate in 1998 was -1.1%. Its Electricity production in 1996 was 35.81 billion kWh. There were two main sources of power that Chile used to make electricity, and they were fossil fuel: 41.89%, hydro: 58.11%. Its total exports for 1998 were exactly $14.9 Billion.


Cultural Factors:

The population of Chile is 14,973,843 people. 28% of them are below 15 years, 65% of them are between 15-64 years, and 7% of them are above 64 years. The total Sex Ratio is 0.98 Male(s)/Female. The life expectancy at birth for the whole population is 75 years. There are two main Ethnic Groups. White and White-Amerindian 95%, Amerindian 3%, and other 2%. However, there are three main Religions. Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 11%, and Jewish are less than 1%. The main language of the country is Spanish.


Economy:

Chile has a prosperous, essentially free market economy. Civilian governments-which took over from the military in March 1990-have continued to reduce the government's role in the economy while shifting the emphasis of public spending toward social programs. Growth in real GDP averaged more than 7.0% in 1991-1997 but fell to about half of that average in 1998 because of spillover from the global financial crisis. Inflation has been on a downward trend and hit a 60-year low in 1998. Chile's currency and foreign reserves also are strong, as sustained foreign capital inflows-including significant direct investment-have more than offset current account deficits and public debt buy-backs. President FREI, who took office in March 1994, has placed improving Chile's education system and developing foreign export markets at the top of his economic agenda.

The Chilean economy remains largely dependent on a few sectors-particularly copper mining, fishing, and forestry. Success in meeting the government's goal of sustained annual economic growth of 5% depends largely on world prices for these commodities continued foreign investor confidence, and the government's ability to maintain a conservative fiscal stance. In 1996, Chile became an associate member of Mercosur and concluded a free trade agreement with Canada.



Defense:

There are five main military branches in Chile. There is the Army of the Nation, which is the main army. There is also the National Navy, which includes Naval Air, Coast Guard, and Marines. Air Force of the Nation is another military branch. Also there is the Carabineros of Chile, which is the National Police. The last military branch to be mentioned is the Investigations Police.

The minimum military age in Chile is 19 years, and it's restricted to men only. The available number of men in military in 1999 was 3,968,176 persons. However, the number of military men fit for service in 1999 was 2,943,206 persons. The number of men reaching the annual age of military service in 1999 was 132,202 persons.

The Military Expenditures of Chile in 1998 were $2.12 billion. This figure also includes earnings from CODELCO Company and costs of pensions. However, it does not include funding for the National Police (Carabineros) and Investigations Police.


Views on World Problems:

Chile, in general, doesn't have an active political part. However, it has signed many environmental and humanitarian agreements. Some of this large number of agreements is also very useful, such as:

Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, and Whaling.


History:

In the last several years, there had been a major stun in the political basis and the stability of Chile. On 11 September 1973, the Chilean military violently overthrew the democratically elected government of Salvador Allende, welcomed the accomplishment of a policy of systematic human rights violations under the direct command of General Augusto Pinochet. To combine power, the military commanders supplied a planned systematic, widespread policy of human rights violations. Thousands were detained, tortured, executed and disappeared.




Policy Statements


ISSUE: International Cooperation in Drug Abuse Control and Rehabilitation Programs

Chile believes that the definition of Drug Abuse Control is "Preventing all illegal drugs from entering a country or a region".

Chile and other countries of the Americas pledged two years ago to attack the multinational drug problem. The leaders of these countries agreed on anti-drug alliance that will put as much effort as possible into reducing consumption in the United States as well as other countries in the act of production in the fields of Latin America. The alliance has begun its work since May 4, 1998.


ISSUE: The issue of external debt crisis

Chile today is a mature and sophisticated borrower, whose macroeconomic management and performance continue to be excellent. Continued balance of payments surpluses and high domestic savings rate, coupled with ready access to international financial markets, have redefined Chile's relationship with the international financial community, including the World Bank.

Chile has made significant strides in reducing external indebtedness. Debt prepayments, debt-equity conversion, rescheduling agreements with commercial banks-and strict compliance with those agreements-reduced public and publicly guaranteed external debt by $8.9 billion over 1987-95. The ratio of external debt to GDP fell from 124 to 35 percent over 1985-95.

By the end of 1995 Chile had prepaid $540 million of its outstanding debt to the Bank and $727 million to the Inter-American Development Bank, and had canceled its total debt of about $210 million with the IMF (International Monetary Fund). Chile's projected rates of GDP and export growth, coupled with reduced public borrowings, implies that dependence on the international financial institutions will decrease rapidly in the future.


ISSUE: The issue of the review and implementation of the UN program on AIDS

Chile has a relatively low prevalence of HIV infection. As of July 1997, there have been 1,967 reported cases of AIDS in a population of 14.5 million. However, medical authorities in the country estimate that the actual number of HIV carriers could be 10,000. President Eduardo Frei announced in April of 1997 that an estimated 10 Chileans are infected with the AIDS virus every day, most of them aged 18 to 24. A controversial national prevention strategy based upon public education has emerged in response to this increase.

AIDS is a disease caused by the HIV virus that attacks the Immune System of a human body, making it unable to fight any other disease or bacteria. Then a simple virus, like the cold virus, could be life threatening.

Therefore, in 1997, the Ministry of Health began a television campaign to prevent HIV/AIDS infection. The objective was to present options for "responsible conduct" in a framework of sensitivity and respect for "individual liberty and national values." However, Catholic Television and Megavision, two major networks in Chile, censored the program because of allusions to condom use. The campaign repeats the message of "safer sex," by abstinence or condom use. Critics point out that the two TV stations do not apply similar moral categories when they broadcast soap operas and films with an erotic content. [Source: IPS 4/10/97]

In November of 1997, the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS launched a program to increase access to HIV treatments in developing countries such as Chile. Pharmaceutical manufacturers including Glaxo Wellcome, F. Hoffmann-La Roche, and Virco have agreed to provide drugs at reduced prices for the program. A $1 million donation from UNAIDS and further support from the government will go to the reworking of the nation's medical infrastructure to facilitate distribution and proper use of the treatments. In addition, a non-profit import company will be created in Chile to receive drugs from the participating companies and set up an HIV/AIDS Drug Advisory Board, under the Ministry of Health, to coordinate national HIV/AIDS care policy. [Source: Reuters Health Information Services 11/06/97]




Resolution


Delegation: Chile
Delegate: Ghazi Al-Sharhan
Form: Economic and Social Council

QUESTION OF: The issue of external debt crises

Deeply Concerned in the fact that some countries are not cooperating with the IMF (International Monetary Funding) in the act of not repaying their debts.

Approving those countries that are cooperating with the IMF.

Confident about the fact that those countries who are cooperating with the IMF will notice a big rise in their countries economy.

Realizing the hard work that some countries are doing to try and repay their debts.

Fully Deploring that some countries are not giving any thought to their debts.

1. Emphasizes that if the countries in debt repay their debts, then they'll have a better rising economy.

2. Urges those countries that are in debt to repay their debts, if they want to have a better economy.

3. Regrets the fact that there are some countries who are in debt and are not cooperating with the repayment of their debt.

4. Requests the IMF to stop giving loans to countries that are in debt of $1 billion minimum.

5. Encourages countries and organizations that gave loans to other counties decrease the amount of payback money that the countries in debt need to pay.

6. Urges the UN to create an organization that will expose the following solutions for debts:
(a) Refinancing the loans.
(b) Loan reduction.
(c) Extending the due dates of the loans.



Opening Speech


Delegation: Chile

Honorable chair, fellow delegates, and helpful administration staff, good morning. Chile, during the last decade, has worked effectively in the act of trying its best to decrease the amount of debts on it. It started it by paying the World Bank $540 million. Then it worked on paying-back its loans to the Inter-American Development Bank, and it achieved it when it paid the bank a total of $727 million.

Chile has made significant strides in reducing external indebtedness. Debt prepayments, debt-equity conversion, rescheduling agreements with commercial banks-and strict compliance with those agreements- reduced public and publicly guaranteed external debt by $8.9 billion over 1987-95. The ratio of external debt to GDP (Growth Domestic Production) fell from 124 to 35 percent over 1985-95. Accordingly, Chile's projected rates of GDP and export growth, coupled with reduced public borrowings, imply that its' dependence on the international financial institutions will decrease rapidly in the future. Therefore, Chile strongly urges those countries that are in debt to work on repaying their debts, since Chile has done it before and benefited from it a lot.