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Italian Brothers, Italy has awakened, She has wreathed her head With the helmet of Scipio. Where is Victory? She bows her head to you, You, whom God created As the slave of Rome. Let us band together, We are ready to die, (repeat) Italy has called us. (repeat previous four lines) (repeat entire song)
Italy is the leading tourist country of Europe. Every year, millions of visitors from other countries come to Italy. Rome, the capital and largest city, has been an important center of civilization for more than 2,000 years. Millions of persons visit Rome's historic ruins, ancient monuments, and beautiful churches and palaces. Vatican City, the world center of the Roman Catholic Church, lies completely within Rome. The Historic land of Italy is a peninsula that extends into the Mediterranean Sea from southern Europe. The country also includes two large islands, Sardinia and Sicily.
Italy is shaped like a boot, with the toe pointing toward Africa. The country got its name from the Ancient Romans. They called the southern part of the Peninsula Italia, meaning land of oxen or grazing land. Italy is about as large as the state of Arizona, but it has about a fourth as many people as the entire United States. The climate is generally warm, because the Alps protect Italy from the cold air of the north. The Mediterranean Sea also warms the country. Both houses of Parliament elect the president of Italy to a seven-year term. He must be at least 50 years old. He appoints the premier, who forms a government. The president has the power to dissolve Parliament and call new elections. He is the commander of the Italian armed forces, and can declare war. Italy has no vice-president. If the president becomes ill, the president of the senate serves in his place. If the president dies, a new election is held to replace him. Italy has a unitary system of government. In Italy, this means that the national government has most of the power.
Italy is divided into large government units called regions. Each region is divided into provinces, and each province consists of a number of communes. Each region, province, and commune has an elected one-chamber council called a consiglio, and an executive body called a giunta. Since World War II, Italy has had more than 40 cabinet changes. Few Cabinets have lasted more than a year. To continue to govern, the Cabinet must have the support of a majority of the members of each house of Parliament. As many as 10 political parties may be represented in the two houses. The large number of parties often makes it difficult for parliament to reach agreement. If some of the parties disagree with the premier or Cabinet, they may form coalitions and demand a new government.
Italy is often called "Sunny Italy," but this description is only partly true. Spring, summer, and fall are generally sunny, but winter is rainy and cloudy. In early spring, hot, dry air from the Sahara expands across the Mediterranean Sea northward to the Alps and covers Italy. The summer climate of much of Italy is dry, with occasional rainstorms. In fall, the Saharan air mass contracts, and cool moist air from the Atlantic Ocean flows eastward over the country. Winters are cold and snowy on the upper slopes of the Alps and the Apennines. Along the Mediterranean Sea, the days are usually warm. Although Italy is 700 miles long, the climate does not vary greatly between the north and south, except in winter. The Alps protects Northern Italy from intense cold. The hot sun makes the outdoor recreation popular in Italy. But the heat, combined with dryness, is a handicap to farming. The north has enough rain to raise crops, often 30 inches or more a year, but dryness increases to the south. Southern Sicily has only about 15 inches of rain a year.
The rich farmland of the Po Valley is Italy's most important natural resource. Soils. The fertile valley of the Po River has one the most highly developed irrigation systems in the world. Irrigation has made the Po Valley an important producer of corn, rice, sugar beets, and wheat.
Southern Italy is dry and hilly, and much of the land can be used only for pastureland. The volcanic soil and the clay of the south and of Sicily are good for growing citrus fruits, olives, and grapes. Most of the Sardinia is rocky, but some areas are used for grazing sheep and raising wheat.Italy has few mineral resources. Mercury and sulfur are the only minerals mined in quantities large enough to export. Forests cover about 20 per cent of Italy. The most important forests are on the Alpine slopes and on Sardinia. Italy has shortage of wood, and the country imports large amounts.
Italy has about 70-government owned museums and art galleries. Many of them are the former palaces of kings, or the houses of royal families. Among the most famous are the Pitti Palace and the Uffizi Palace in Florence, and the Villa Borghese in Rome. Italy's most population private museums are those at the Vatican. The Vatican Museums have one of the world's largest collections of ancient and religious paintings and statues.
All large Italians cities have public libraries. National central libraries, similar to the U.S. Libraries of Congress are in Florence and Rome. Both national central libraries receive all new Italian books. The one in Rome is the center for foreign books. Italy has national libraries in Bari, Milan, Naples, Palermo, Turin, and Venice.
Over 95 percent of the Italian people are Roman Catholics. Only Spain has a higher percentage of Catholics. Although the communist party discourages religion, most Italian Communists are church members. The Roman Catholic Church receives some financial support from the Italian government. In most towns, churches are the largest and most impressive buildings.
Since World War II, the Italian economy has changed from one based on agriculture into a ranking industrial economy, with approximately the same total and per capita output as France and the UK. This basically capitalistic economy is still divided into a developed industrial north, dominated by private companies, and a less developed agricultural south, with large public enterprises and more than 20% unemployment. Most raw materials needed by industry and over 75% of energy requirements must be imported. In the second half of 1992, Rome became unsettled by the prospect of not qualifying to participate in EU plans for economic and monetary union later in the decade; thus, it finally began to address its huge fiscal imbalances.
Subsequently, the government has adopted fairly stringent budgets, abandoned its inflationary wage indexation system, and started to scale back its generous social welfare programs, including pension and health care benefits. In December 1998, Italy adopted a budget compliant with the requirements of the European Monetary Union (EMU); representatives of government, labor, and employers agreed to an update of the 1993 "social pact," which has been widely credited with having brought Italy's inflation into conformity with EMU requirements. In 1999, Italy must adjust to the loss of an independent monetary policy, which it has used quite liberally in the past to help cope with external shocks. Italy also must work to stimulate employment, promote wage flexibility, and tackle the informal economy.
All Italian Men must serve in the armed forces after they reach the age of 18. The length of service is 16 months for the army and air force, and 28 months for the navy.
Views On World Problems:
Italy has a very big influence in the role of food in the world. One of the world's finest restaurants is Bay Wolf. A Bay Area tradition for twenty-five years, Bay Wolf offers an elegant yet relaxed setting in which to enjoy fine cuisine inspired by the regions of the Mediterranean. Founding chef and owner Michael Wild opened Bay Wolf in 1975 with the goal of serving simple food bright with flavor in an inviting, comfortable environment.
Since then, he has cultivated a place where food and wine, conversation, and celebration happen naturally.
Italy became an integral member of NATO and the European Economic Community (later the EU) as it successfully rebuilt its postwar economy. A prolonged outbreak of terrorist activities by the left-wing Red Brigades threatened domestic stability in the 1970s, but by the early 1980s the terrorist groups had been suppressed. Scandal brought the long reign of the Christian Democrats to an end when Italy's 40th premier since World War II, Arnaldo Forlani, was forced to resign in the wake of disclosure that many high-ranking Christian Democrats and civil servants belonged to a secret Masonic lodge known as "P-2." During 1993, the nation was riveted by a political scandal of a seemingly ever-growing size involving the Mafia and many government leaders. In a referendum, voters approved changing the proportional system of representation in the Senate for one utilizing majority voting. This series of scandals led to the collapse of the post-World War II party system and new parties filled the political vacuum.
In 1996, Italians elected a government dominated by a center-left coalition for the first time since the proclamation of the Italian Republic. In 1997, Italian forces assumed leadership of a military mission to protect international aid reaching strife-torn Albania. The Communists, Italy's single largest party, refused to support the operation but refrained from withdrawing support from the government.
Italy adopted the euro as its currency in Jan. 1999. Treasury secretary Carlo Ciampi, who is credited with the economic reforms that permitted Italy to enter the European Monetary Union, was elected president in May 1999. Italy joined its NATO partners in the Kosovo crisis. Aviano Air Base in northern Italy was a crucial base for launching air strikes into Kosovo and Yugoslavia.
1. The issue of external debt crisis:
Foreign debts in December 1996 were 68,013bn lire. The government of Italy is committed to a reduction in borrowing, a storing currency and low inflammation. It has embarked on a ambitious privatization program to reduce radically its presence in industry and banking. Italy supports policies that attempt to get the dept back from countries that owe Italy.
2. Aids in Italy
AIDS in Italy: In 1990 Italy spent around 7.5 percent of its national income on health care. Much importance was given to tackle the issue of Aids. All government run health centers provide free medical care for all Italians. All health centers follow the measures for the prevention and control of numerous infectious diseases. To tackle the issue of AIDS, Italy, has made a reciprocal health agreement with the rest of the EU (European Union). According to WHO figures issued in Dec 1994 and September 1995 respectively, there were an estimated 90,000 people infected by HIV and 30,447 reported cases of AIDS. Italy supports any policy that attempts to help countries that have aids crisis by raising awareness about aids, and by increasing the payment for the treatment and prevention of aids.
3. Issue of International Cooperation in drug control and Rehabilitation
"A zero-tolerance" law was passed in 1990. This law states that the possession of any amount of narcotics or even "soft drugs" such as marijuana is totally illegal. Travelers have been jailed for as little as 3 grams, because it is hard to prove that they are not selling it. In the case of all drug offense, penalties are strictly enforced. Internationally, all governments are aware that they are relatively powerless in the judicial system of Italy. All foreigners are subject to Italian law. Italy tries to limit the drug problem and help countries that have drug crisis to find solutions to their problems.
Aware of the fact that the growing problem of drug abuse is not confined to Italy, but is a matter of concern for all countries in Europe.
Believing that this problem cannot be solved by the actions of individual countries on their own.
Fully alarmed that not only by the growth of this problem, both in Italy and elsewhere in Europe.
Noting With Regret that the failure of some countries to cooperate in controlling both the production and transports of illicit drugs.
Welcoming the efforts of countries such as Iran and Turkey to stem the flow of such drugs towards the west, and expressing its satisfaction with the steps these countries are taking.
Regrets the failure of these countries to control the flow of illegal immigrants who have become major carriers of illicit drugs into Europe.
Expresses its hope that these countries will devote the same energy to controlling the movement of illegal immigration across their territories towards Europe as they have in the tempting to control production and movements of illicit drugs.
Fully believing that international cooperation is the only way to solve the interconnecting problems of the drug trade and illicit immigration.
Affirming that Italy is fully prepared to play an active role in cooperation with the international community to deal with these problems.
Encouraging the more advanced richer countries of the west to give economic assistance and political support to those countries from which the illicit immigrants come in an effort to solve the social, economic, and political problems that generates illegal emigration using the European community and the world bank to finance such social and economic development.
Expresses it hopes that such assistants will drastically reduce the importation of illegal drugs into Europe.
Reminding other countries in Europe and the Middle East that this is a problem that crosses national boundaries.
Resolves that the United Nations will form both an agency for dealing with illegal immigration apart from United Nations high commission for refugees, and a task force to eliminate the production of illegal drugs. In cooperation with individual governments, and that an international treaty be drawn up binding all member states of the United Nations to accept the active intervention of the United Nations task force to destroy the production of illegal drugs.
Italy is proud to attend this ECOSOC today. The economic and social conflicts are the most threatening kinds of problems that challenge our world. We hope that all countries present will cooperate in solving these conflicts efficiently.
Ladies and Gentlemen, for centuries a storm, a hurricaine, has been overwhelming us. This hurricaine was preventing us from solving the economic and social problems that are facing each nation present in this council. A new millennium has begun, which means that the catastrophic storm is over. This new beginning permits us to tackle the economic and social problems again.
Italy hopes that this session will be productive in proposing proper solutions to all three issues at hand. We hope that the council will be constructive in proposing these solutions, and these solutions will work because we have used the opportunity that knocked on our doors.