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My country, my native land The people living united and progressive May God bestow blessing and happiness May our Ruler have a successful reign (repeat previous two lines)
Malaysia is a Federal parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch. It got independence: August 31, 1957. (Malaya, what is now peninsular Malaysia, became independent in 1957. In 1963 Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore formed Malaysia. Singapore became an independent country in 1965.)
Constitution: 1957. Subdivisions: 13 states and the federal territory (capital). Each state has an assembly and government headed by a chief minister. Nine of these states have hereditary rulers, generally titled "sultans," while the remaining four have appointed governors in counterpart positions.
Branches: Executive--Yang di-Pertuan Agong ("paramount ruler," who is head of state and customarily referred to as the king and has ceremonial duties), prime minister (head of government), cabinet. Legislative--bicameral parliament, comprising 69-member Senate (26 elected by the 13 state assemblies, 43 appointed by the king on the Prime Minister's recommendation) and 192-member House of Representatives (elected from single-member districts). Judicial--Federal Court, Court of Appeals, high courts, magistrate's courts, session's courts, and juvenile courts. Syariah courts hear cases on certain matters involving Muslims only. Political parties: Barisan Nasional (National Front)--a coalition comprising the United Malays National Organization (UMNO) and 13 other parties, most of which are ethnically based; Democratic Action Party (DAP); Parti Se-Islam Malaysia (PAS); Parti Bersatu Sabah (PBS); Parti KeADILan. There are more than 30 registered political parties, including the foregoing, not all of which are represented in the federal parliament. The king Yang di-Pertuan Agong holds the POWER!
Malaysia is located Southeastern Asia, peninsula and northern one-third of the island of Borneo, bordering Indonesia and the South China Sea, south of Vietnam. The total area of Malaysia is 329,750 sq km. The land area is 328,550 sq km and the water area is 1,200 sq km. The total land boundaries are 2,669 km and it borders the countries of Brunei 381 km, Indonesia 1,782 km, and Thailand 506 km. Malaysia has a coast line border of 4,675 km (Peninsular Malaysia 2, 068 km, East Malaysia 2,607 km). Malaysia’s climate is tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons. The coastal plains rising to hills and mountains. The natural resources are tin, petroleum, timber, copper, iron ore, natural gas, and bauxite.
Malaysia is rich in mineral resources. The major metallic ores aretin, bauxite (aluminum), copper, and iron. A host of minor ores found within the country include manganese, antimony, mercury, and gold. The production of tin formed one of the main economic pillars upon which the country's development effort has been built. It is found largely in alluvial deposits along the western slopes of the Main Range in Peninsular Malaysia, with smaller deposits on the east coast of the peninsula. Malaysia's most valuable mineral resources, however, are its reserves of petroleum and natural gas. The major fields are all offshore, off the east coast of the peninsula and off Sarawak. Malaysia also has large reserves of coal, peat, and wood, and it has considerable hydroelectric potential.
The Malay Peninsula, situated at one of the great maritime crossroads of the world, has long been the meeting place of peoples from other parts of Asia. As a result, the population shows the ethnographic complexity typical of Southeast Asia as a whole. In general, there are four groups of people, given in the order of their appearance on the peninsula: the Orang Asli (aborigines), the Malays, the Chinese, and the South Asians. In addition, there are small numbers of Europeans, Americans, Eurasians, Arabs, and Thai.
The Malay are Malaysia's largest ethnic group, accounting for over half the population and the national language. Almost all Malays are Muslims, though Islam here is less extreme than in the Middle East. The Chinese traded with Malaysia for centuries, then settled in number during the 19th century and form about 35% of the population. Indians had been visiting Malaysia for over 2,000 years, but did not settle until the 19th century. Today 10% of Malaysia is Indian. The oldest inhabitants of Malaysia are its tribal peoples but account for about 5 percent of the total population. Thankfully these group live along cooperatively.
The main aim of the Malaysian armed forces is defending the sovereignty and strategic interests of the nation. The Malaysian arm forces are branched into Malaysian Army, Royal Malaysian Navy, Royal Malaysian Air Force, Royal Malaysian Police Force, Marine Police, and Sarawak Border Scouts. The military manpower age is 21. The military manpower availability is for males age 15-49: are 5,526,555, the one’s reaching military age annually 183,928, and the one’s fitting for military service from males age 15-49: are 3,349,066 (1999 est.). The military expenditures were $2.1 billion in 1998, and this takes up 2.1% of the Malaysia’s GDP. Yes Malaysia with it’s forces can defend itself.
After a decade of 8% average GDP growth, the Malaysian economy—severely hit by the regional financial crisis—declined 7% in 1998. Malaysia will likely remain in recession for the first half of 1999; official statistics continue to show anemic exports, and some private financial analysts forecast a further drop in GDP of 1% in 1999. Prime Minister MAHATHIR has imposed capital controls to protect the local currency while cutting interest rates to stimulate the economy. Kuala Lumpur also announced an expansionary budget for 1999 to combat rising unemployment. Malaysia continues to seek funding from domestic and international sources to help finance its budget deficit and recapitalize its weakened banking sector. The GDP- purchasing power parity—$215.4 billion (1998 est.). The GDP’s—real growth rate: -7% (1998 est.). The GDP—per capita: purchasing power parity—$10,300 (1998 est.). The GDP is composed by three main sectors. These sectors are agriculture, services, and industry. The Largest sector id the industry taking up to 46%, then comes the services sector taking 41%, and agriculture taking 13% in 1997. The population below poverty is 15.5% since 1989. The inflation rate in 1998 was 5.3% and the labor force is 8.398 million in 1996. The unemployment rate is 2.6% in 1996. The budget’s revenue is $22.6 billion, while the expenditures were $22 billion in 1996 including capital expenditures of $5.3 billion. The exports- partners are: US 21%, Singapore 20%, Japan 12%, Hong Kong 5%, UK 4%, Thailand 4%, Germany 3% (1995), while the imports partners are: Japan 27%, US 16%, Singapore 12%, Taiwan 5%, Germany 4%, South Korea 4% (1995). The external debt was $39.8 billion in 1998. Malaysia is a recipient of an economic aid worth $125 million in 1995. Now Malaysia I trying hardly to pay back it’s loans and is improving economically.
Views on world problems:
1. Disputes—international: involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; Philippines have not fully revoked claim to Sabah State; two islands in dispute with Singapore; two islands in dispute with Indonesia.2. Illicit drugs: transit point for some illicit drugs going to Western markets; drug trafficking prosecuted vigorously and carries severe penalties. It executes drug dealers. Malaysia is also a very cooperative member of the UN. It has involved with the UN in the military basis very cooperatively. It has involved in the crisis of Congo, Namibia, Cambodia, Somalia, and Bosnia. Malaysian army officers have also served in Angola, Mozambique, Western Sahara, Chad and along the Iran/Iraq border monitoring UN supervised cease fires.
In the 1980s, Dr. Mohamed Mahathir succeeded Datuk Hussein as prime minister. Mahathir instituted economic reforms that would transform Malaysia into one of the so-called Asian Tigers. Throughout the 1990s, Mahathir embarked on a massive project to build a new capital from scratch in an attempt to bypass congested Kuala Lumpur.
Beginning in 1997 and continuing through the next year, Malaysia suffered from the Asian currency crisis, with the Malaysian ringgit plummeting. Mahathir blamed foreign market speculators for the crisis, and many of his ambitious building projects had to be placed on hold as a result of the economic downturn.
In Sept. 1998 Prime Minister Mahathir bin Mohamad sacked his heir apparent, Anwar Ibrahim, from his posts as deputy prime minister and finance minister, after a disagreement over how to deal with the country's economic problems. In defiance, Anwar launched a reform movement attacking the government. The prime minister then jailed Anwar, who was beaten and charged with trumped-up corruption and sex crimes. In April 1999, after the longest trial in Malaysian history, Ibrahim was sentenced to an unexpectedly severe six-year jail sentence. Protests followed in Malaysia and international condemnation was swift. Another trial followed, this time for sodomy, and from the various rulings of the Malaysian courts, it became clear that the judicial system was in the hands of the government.
Instead of following the economic prescriptions of the International Monetary Fund and World Bank, the prime minister went his own way, opting for fixed exchange rates and capital controls. In late 1999, Malaysia was on the road to economic recovery and it appeared Mahathir's measures were working.