Country: Saudi Arabia

Event: Mini-MUN 2000
Student: Nouf al Fraih

 

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The Saudi National Anthem

Saudi Arabia


Country Profile


Political Structure;

Saudi Arabia is the biggest country in the Gulf. For this fact, it is the “leader” of the GCC countries. There are two languages widely spoken in Saudi Arabia; Arabic and English. The country’s main language is Arabic though, the language of Islam’s holy book, the Qur’an, as Saudi Arabia revolves entirely around Islam.

Saudi Arabia is a monarchy Kingdom ruled by the Al-Saud Family. The king nominates his brother or his son to be the next king. The king is also the head of ministers as well as the commander of the army. Also, the king appoints all ministers and members of the Shorah Council, which is made up of 12 members; Its goal is to help ruling the country by giving advice and making important decisions.


Geography;

Saudi Arabia occupies most of the Arabian Peninsula, with the Red Sea to the west, the Arabian Gulf to the east. Neighboring countries are Jordan, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar the United Arab Emirates, the Sultanate of Oman, Yemen, and Bahrain, connected to the Saudi mainland by a causeway. Saudi Arabia contains the world's largest continuous sand desert, the Rub Al-Khali or Empty Quarter. Its oil region lies primarily in the eastern province along the Arabian Gulf.

The climate in Saudi Arabia varies greatly according to region. In the Kingdom’s Red Sea coast the weathers hot and humid in the summer. In the winter, the Kingdoms Red Sea coast is mild with light rains between November and February. In the central region summer averages to 45 degrees Centigrade, with the winter dry and cool. The eastern region is high in humidity, with temperatures rising to 43 degrees Centigrade during the warmest season, and moderating in winter. Rainfall is light and occurs primarily during the winter season.

Natural Resources;

Saudi Arabia is a country where several natural recourses are found. Fertile oases are scattered through the Saudi Arabian desert like north of Rub` al Khali, and larger area of grassland in Ad Dhana`, and high ground regions. The great Saudi Arabian oil fields are located in the coastal area adjoining the Persian Gulf. Due to the dryness, vegetation is not extensive, but there are various fruit trees, notably, the date palm, where water is available. Also, other natural resources are natural gas, oil, and iron ore.


Culture Factors;

Saudi Arabia’s culture revolves almost entirely around Islam. Two of Islam’s holiest sites are in the country, and it considers itself the birthplace of religion. A monotheistic religion, Islam’s holy book is the Qur’an, and Friday is the Sabbath day. Muslims generally regard Christians and Jews with respect. In Islam, Jesus is regarded as one of the prophets of Allah, and Jew and Christians are considered fellow people of the book. Mohammed was the last prophet, and it was to him that god dedicated the Qur’an. The Qur’an is Saudi Arabia’s constitution, and Sharia’ah (Islamic law) is the foundation of it’s legal system. Saudi Arabia was divided into several principalities when the Ottomans attempted to control the peninsula. That lasted until Mohammed Ibn `Abd al-Wahhab began calling for the reform of Islam, and the Wahabi movement swept across Arabia.

Islamic law forbids eating pigs and drinking alcohol, and this law is followed pretty strictly throughout Saudi Arabia. Arabic unleavened bread, or khobz, is eaten with almost everything.

One of Saudi Arabia’s most compelling rituals is the Ardha, the country’s national dance. This sword dance is based on ancient Bedouin traditions; drummers beat out a rhythm and a poet chants verses while sword-carrying men dances shoulder to shoulder.

Saudi Arabia dresses strongly symbolic to their past, tradition, and religion. Traditionally, the men wear ankle-length shirt woven from wool or cotton, with ghutra worn in the head. Women cloths are decorated with tribal motifs, coins and sequins, but they must wear a black cloak and veil (abaya) when they leave their house, to protect their modesty.


Economy;

Before the discovery of oil, the economy was dependent upon the pilgrimage to Makkah and Medina and on the export of dates. Saudi Arabia is still one of the world's leading producers of dates, but today the economy is dominated by oil. Petroleum revenues have been used to create an infrastructure, which will in time transform Saudi Arabia into a different industrial state.

Oil and petroleum products account for more than 90% of the country's income. At Jubail on the Arabian Gulf and Yanbu on the Red Sea, major new industrial centers have been built. The power to run them is derived from natural gas from the oil fields. In addition to oil and petroleum products, the country produces iron and steel, processed foodstuffs, cement and electrical equipment. Desalination plants meet domestic water requirements. Nowadays, Saudi Arabia has improved in vegetation, and is trying to make it one of the country’s incomes. Moreover, Saudi Arabia has improved notably in industry, and is willing to make it another income of the kingdom. Saudi Arabia has made it a goal for the past few years to increase the country’s income in various ways, and has showed great results since they first set this goal.

Defense;

Saudi Arabia mostly relies on the American troops in the region. When Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990, the Saudis started getting nervous, and asked the USA to send troops to defend the kingdom. Although Saudi Arabia was not invaded, the crises stirred up demands for political change, and in 1993 the king set up a Consultative Council to comment on proposed laws.

Their armed Forces consist of army, navy, air force, and air defense force, plus Saudi Arabian National Guard, although latter primarily for internal security. Estimated strengths in 1992: army--73, 000; navy--11, 000, including 1,500 marines; air force--18,000; air defense force--4,000; national guard--55,000 active, 20,000 tribal levies. Four regular armed forces recruited volunteers; National Guard used system of tribal levies. This is a tiny compound compared to Iraq.


Views on world problems;

Saudi Arabia is friendly when it comes to relationships with other countries. However, Saudi relations with Iraq have been the most problematic. It’s diplomatic relations with Iraq were relatively friendly by the time the Iranian Islamic Revolution erupted in 1979. Saudi Arabia's postwar concerns about Iraq led to a rapprochement with Iran during 1991. The Saudi government consequently was not displeased when Iraq invaded Iran in September 1980. Nevertheless, Saudi Arabia remained officially neutral throughout the Iran-Iraq War, even Saudis recognized after the war that they and the Iranians shared an interest in containing Iraq and agreed to discuss the prospects of restoring diplomatic relations though in practice its policies made it an effective Iraqi ally, which made them allies.

As for the United States, Saudi Arabia and the United States obviously did not share any borders; the kingdom's relationship with Washington was the cornerstone of its foreign policy as well as its regional security policy. The United States-Saudi security relationship steadily expanded during the Cold War. This process was facilitated by the shared suspicions of Riyadh and Washington regarding the nature of the Soviet threat to the region and the necessity of containing Soviet influence. As for the GCC countries, Saudi Arabia has no problem with them. For it is a very friendly and helpful bordered neighbor to all of them.

As a prominent member of the OPEC and OAPEC, Saudi Arabia has played an important role as a moderating influence in negotiating over the stabilization of oil prices. The Kingdom has also been active in advocating unified pricing and adherence to production quotas.


History;

Saudi Arabia is not only the homeland of the Arab peoples it is thought that the first Arabs originated on the Arabian peninsula but the homeland of Islam, the world's second largest religion. Muhammad founded Islam there and it is the location of the two holy pilgrimage cities of Mecca and Medina. The Islamic calendar begins in 622, the year of the hegira, or Mohammed’s flight from Mecca. A succession of invaders attempted to control the peninsula, but before1517 the Ottoman Empire dominated, and in the middle of the 18th century, it was divided into separate principalities.

In 1745 Muhammad Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab began calling for the purification and reform of Islam, and the Wahabi movement swept across Arabia. By 1811, Wahabi leaders had waged a jihad, a holy war against other forms of Islam on the peninsula, and succeeded in uniting much of it. However, 1818 had driven the Wahhabis out of power again by the Ottomans and their Egyptian allies.

The kingdom of Saudi Arabia is almost entirely the creation of King Ibn Saud (1882-1953). A descendant of Wahhab leaders, he seized Riyadh in 1901 and set himself up as leader of the Arab nationalist movement. By 1906 he had established Wahabi dominance in Nejd and conquered Hejaz in 1924-25. Hejaz and Nejd was merged to form the kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932, which was an absolute monarchy ruled by sharia, Islamic law. A year later the region of Asir was incorporated into the kingdom.

Oil was discovered in 1936, and commercial production began during World War II. Its wealth allowed the country to provide free health care and education while not collecting any taxes from its people. Saudi Arabia was neutral until nearly the end of the war, but it was permitted to be a charter member of the United Nations. The country joined the Arab League in 1945 and took part in the 1948-49 war against Israel. Saudi Arabia still does not recognize the state of Israel.

Saudi Arabia and the smaller, oil-rich Arab states on the Persian Gulf, feared that they might become Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini's next targets if Iran conquered Iraq made large financial contributions to the Iraqi war effort during the 1980s. At the same time, cheating by other members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), competition from nonmember oil producers, and conservation efforts by consuming nations combined to drive down the world price of oil. Saudi Arabia has one-third of all known oil reserves, but falling demand a rising production outside OPEC combined to reduce its oil revenues from $120 billion in 1980 to less than $25 billion in 1985, threatening the country with domestic unrest and undermining its influence in the Gulf area.

At the start of 1996, King Fahd passed authority to Crown Prince Abdullah, saying he needed rest. Although not an abdication, it was unclear how long the king would be absent. In 1998 the country's oil income fell by 40% because of a worldwide decline in prices, and entered its first recession in 6 years. In the end of 1999, and the beginning of 2000, the oil prices in Saudi Arabia have increased noteworthy, which raised Saudi Arabia’s budget, and is now living under good economic conditions.

 

Policy Statements


Issue #1; The Issue of external debt crises

Saudi Arabia’s policy of external debt crises is like any other rich country’s policy. Saudi Arabia tries its best to help all poor countries in being the best they can be. Saudi Arabia is not in debt crises, and never was. Eventually, Saudi Arabia is a country that lends other countries under simple and easy conditions. Most of the time, Saudi Arabia donates to countries in need, especially the African and Islamic countries.



Issue#2; the issue of review and implantation of the UN program on AIDS.

Saudi Arabia believes the UN is doing a good job in the review and implementation program on AIDS. Even though Saudi Arabia doesn’t have a problem with AIDS, since an extremely small percentage of the population suffers from it, it strives to implement AIDS. It also tries it’s best to stop the spreading of AIDS, and provide care for those with the infected disease.



Issue#3; the issue of international cooperation in drug abuse and rehabilitation programs.

Saudi Arabia, a strict Islamic country, strongly believes threat this program should do it’s best to achieve their united goal. Saudi Arabia has strict rules for drug dealers, as if any drug dealer is caught, he/she would be executed. As for the drug addicted people, Saudi Arabia’s policy is keen towards them. Saudi Arabia has proved special sessions for the rehabilitation program, in addition to psychological therapy. Moreover, Saudi Arabia has strong controls in the borders and in the airport, especially when its time for the hejaj to arrive. Moreover, Saudi Arabia asks other countries not only to add advertisement against drugs, but to also teach it as a major subject in schools. Saudi Arabia feels that in every country students should know more about drugs and how they have side affects not only to themselves, but also to their society. Also, Saudi Arabia urges other countries’ governments to tighten the security in all borders whether it was land, air or water borders. To be safer, Saudi Arabia strongly encourages local conferences and sessions to make all educated and uneducated people learn more about drugs and the harms that come from them.




Resolution




FORUM: ECOSOC- General Assembly
QUESTION OF: The issue of international cooperation in drug abuse control and rehabilitation program.
DELEGATION: Saudi Arabia.
DELEGATE: Nouf Al- Fraih.

Defining drug. “A substance that affects bodily activities often in harmful way.”

Alarmed by how drug-addicts are increasing widely around the world.

Welcoming everyone’s effort to help drug-addicts.

Deeply disturbed about how drugs are not only affecting the drug-addicts, but the whole society that revolves around them. To worsen it, it is increasing with young teenagers, children, and young adults who are using drugs more than ever before.

Noting with deep concern that drug abuse IS a problem worldwide and is increasing.

1- Draws the attention to the drug abuse problem that’s increasing worldwide.

2- Strongly Condemns ignoring drug abuse, and requests serious action as quickly as possible.

3- Supports the United Nations international cooperation in drug abuse and rehabilitation programs.

4- Further resolves that any nation willing to help to form a committee called The National Drug Control Committee (NDCC), that will try it’s best at all times, and will meet a couple times a year. They will meet in a different country with where there are major problems, so they can see what’s happening in these areas and the improvement they’ve had once The NDCC will be:
a)Teaching students in school, as a major coarse, about drugs and the side effects they have.
b)Increase the media advertisement in:
1. Radio’s- during the most famous programs.
2. Television- as a commercial during the most favored program showing how life would be with drugs and without.
3. Posters-especially a popular hangout amongst teens, and other popular public places.
4. Advertisement in magazine- again especially in teen magazines, concentrating in the most selling magazines.
c) Make a "Drug awareness month." During that month each country will have a big festival that will have all sorts of activities. The country’s income from that festival will be donated to drug-addicts to be cured and to build special institutions.
d) Destroying all drug plants and replacing them with various fruit trees.

5) Further recommends all countries willing to help to place a 2% tariff on its oil imports, especially the oil-rich countries, like the Gulf countries.

6) Further requests donation to the NDCC from:
One- Citizens who are willing to help.
Two- Countries give other countries with drug abuse a hand in how to solve their problems.

7) Encourages the United Nations to provide generous compensation from its budget.

8) Calls upon the IMF for financial support.

9) Further resolves that the NDCC will build hospitals and special institutes that will provide extra care and help cure drug addicts. These institutions and hospitals will include:

10) Urges all countries willing to help with drug control to tighten the security in the air, land, and sea borders. All members of the NDCC will be expected to follow this rule.

11) Further requests that if any drug dealer were caught he/she would be executed. This will help decrease the drug dealers since
One- it will terrify all drug dealers if one is caught
i. Which will make them quit selling drugs, or
ii. Sell them less often and in "hard to find" places.

12) Expresses its hope that all citizens
One- Encourage drug addicts to quit taking drugs.
Two- Treat former drug-addicts as though they never took drugs.
Three- Help drug addicts realize that life is more beautiful without drugs.
Four- Report if they know any drug dealer.



Opening Speech


Fellow delegates, secretary general “al Salam alaikum wa rahmat Allah wa barakatoh.” Which means peace upon you. Saudi Arabia is proud to be here today and welcome the other delegates.

Welcome to Saudi Arabia….the birthplace of religion, where two of Islam’s holiest sites are in the country, Mecca and Medina. Where the culture revolves almost entirely around Islam. The air is so hot there, you can almost taste the aroma of bokhour and teib. Gazelles and camels cool themselves under the trees, and reptile fight for a place on big rocks to admire the scene of the endless desert.

Saudi Arabia is here today to highlight the issue of international cooperation in drug abuse and rehabilitation programs. Being a strict Islamic country, Saudi Arabia is pretty strict about the drugs issue, especially since its against and forbidden in the constitution and Sharia’ah (Islamic law), which are both legal systems of their foundation. Saudi Arabia highlighted the issue of drug control because Saudi Arabia believes that it’s the most important to Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia doesn’t have a problem with AIDS, is not in debt crises, and never was. The drug control problem, however, is increasing in Saudi Arabia, and all over the world. Saudi Arabia also believes that drug abuse is a problem that effects the world badly. Saudi Arabia would like to call upon the United Nations and take an action as soon as possible to conquer the drug problem.