Event: mini-MUN 2000

Country: The United States

Delegate: Mustafa Malaki
and Nabil al Khaled



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The American National Anthem



The Star Spangled Banner

Oh, say! can you see by the dawn's early light
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming;
Whose broad stripes and bright stars, through the perilous fight,
O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming?
And the rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there:
Oh, say! does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?

On the shore, dimly seen through the mists of the deep,
Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes,
What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep,
As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses?
Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam,
In fully glory reflected now shines in the stream:
'Tis the star-spangled banner! Oh, long may it wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave!

And where is that band who so vauntingly swore
That the havoc of war and the battle's confusion
A home and a country should leave us no more?
Their blood has washed out their foul footsteps' pollution!
No refuge could save the hireling and slave
From the terror of flight or the gloom of the grave:
And the star-spangled banner in triumph doth wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

Oh, thus be it ever, when freemen shall stand
Between their loved home and the war's desolation!
Blest with victory and peace, may the heav'n-rescued land
Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a nation!
Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just,
And this be our motto: "In God is our trust":
And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.



The United States of America



Country Profile



Political Structure:

The Americans (US citizens) originate from all over the world. It is an international country. The first immigrants were from England. The constitution was written when George Washington held the office of president. It addresses the countryís laws and policies, it is the document that runs the government. The President is the highest office attainable in the US government. Under him is the congress, which also has a power over new laws and all the decisions made. If the president makes a law or decision then it must pass through the congress before it is to be accepted. Likewise the president has the power to veto some decisions made by the congress. The congress is dominated by two parties, which include the Democrats and the Republicans. The USA is probably the most stable country on earth presently. It has the most advanced war technology and capabilities. It is very strong economically due to its many factories and abundant natural resources.

Natural Resources:

The US has abundant natural resources and has a huge area. It is the worldís third largest petroleum-producing nation. It also has a large reserve of coal. Some of the major metals found in the USA include iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, uranium, manganese, tungsten, bauxite, and nickel. Of the total land area 44 % is utilized for farming. Tobacco, cotton, grapes, citrus fruits, corns, and wheat are a few of the crops that are grown in the US. The US is a major exporter of grain and its derivatives. There are many dairy farms located mainly in the Midwest.

Cultural Factors:

There are five main ethnic groups in the US. There are the Caucasians who are of European and Hispanic descent who make up 83.9% of the population. The blacks, who make up around 12.3% were brought from Africa for slave labor. The Indians, who are the natives of America make up around 0.8% of the population. The Oriental Americans, who came from China, Japan, and other Oriental nations, make up about 3%. Nearly a quarter of the US population is Roman Catholic, and about 6 million are Jews. There is no, one, culture for the US since it is made up of five major ethnic groups. The easiest way to define American culture is that of freedom and patriotism. The people of the US are united under their countryís flag.

Defense:

The US military is composed of three main branches which include the Department of the Army, Department of the Navy (includes Marine Corps), and the Department of the Air Force. Its military expenditures have been about $267.2 billion in 1997, thus forming 3.4% of the GDP.

The US has the strongest, largest, and the most technologically advanced military in the world. Itís especially advanced in making military planes, missiles, and nuclear weapons. However, it has not yet signed the nuclear nonproliferation treaty although criticized by other nations. The USí allies are mostly European countries, such as Great Britain and France. It is also the most important country in NATO. The US is also using its military to stabilize peace in tense regions of the world such as the Persian Gulf, Kosovo, and in the Straits of Taiwan.

Geography:

The US has two bordering countries. These include Canada and Mexico. The US has no natural enemies and is very difficult to attack due to its strategic geography. Canada is larger than the US area wise and is located to the north of the US. Mexico is smaller than the US and is located below the US. The Mexico and US share the Gulf of Mexico while the US and Canada share Hudsonís Bay. An Ocean surrounds the US on either side. On the west it is the Pacific and on the east it is the Atlantic. In the center of the US is the Great Plains Region. This is flat land that covers a huge amount of land. Closer to the coastal regions we find mountain ranges on both sides. On the west there are the Rocky Mountains and on the east there are the Appalachian Mountains. After the mountain ranges we reach the coastal regions.

Views on World Problems:

The US attempts to run the world. It attempts to keep peace and stability in less stable countries, mainly in Africa and Central Asia. A good example of this is its involvement in the Gulf War and its involvement in the Arab-Israeli peace talks. It is the most active country in NATO and the UN. Currently the US and Britain are responsible for the NATO action against Yugoslavia. The US wants world peace and stability. The long-term goals are to achieve the goals of the UN and NATO and of course the USís personal interests.

Economy:

The United States of America has the most powerful, diverse, and technologically advanced economy in the world. Its GDP per capita is $31, 500, which is the highest among all industrial countries today. This high GDP is because is due to the private market-place that controls the economy, since the government itself buys what it needs from this market. Therefore, individuals and the private sector have great privileges in the US. Also, the US business are more able to expand capital plant, lay off surplus workers, and develop new products; on the other hand, US rivals such as Japan and countries in Western Europe do not have such expandable economies.

However, US firms are hardly allowed to enter markets of other countries, while other countriesí firms are easily allowed to enter the US market. This can be a strategic plan made by the government of the US, since it wants the money to remain in the US, and it wants to charge foreign firms for high taxes as a result of their investment.

US firms lead all others in technology, but this results in a "two-tier labor market" where people of low social status remain uneducated and deprived of many privileges such as health insurance and other benefits. Fortunately, the inflation rate in the US has decreased since 1994, for it is only 1.6% of the whole population. The US economy faces problems such as inefficient investment in economic infrastructure, rising medical costs of an aging population, large trade deficits, and recession in the family income of lower economic groups. The crisis in Russia and East Asia affected the US economy a great deal, since firms had a lot of investment in countries such as Japan, Malaysia, and South Korea.

The US budgetís revenues as estimated in 1998 was around $1.722 trillion, while the expenditures were $1.653 trillion, thus having a surplus of around $70 billion. The USí exports in 1998 were estimated to be worth $663 billion to partners such as Canada, Western Europe, Japan, and Mexico. Export products included capital goods, automobiles, industrial supplies, and raw materials. Although the US has minor conflicts with Canada and Mexico on the border, it considers the economy a totally different sector and believes that political conflicts should not intervene with economic relations. The US imports were worth $912 billion. This does not mean that the US is not self-sufficient; in fact, it exports mostly crude oil, refined petroleum products, and industrial raw materials from Canada, Western Europe, Japan, Mexico, China, and some Persian Gulf nations. Using the crude oil and raw materials, it makes industrial products out of them at low labor prices and sells them to Third World countries that lack adequate industry opportunities are high prices. Therefore, a lot of profit is obtained. The US is part of many international organizations, such as the IMF and WTO.

History:

The Cold War was a time when tensions were very high between the US and the Soviet Union due to the nuclear threat. Since then the US has been involved in three major wars including the Korean War, Vietnam, and the Gulf. Lately its been heavily involved in Yugoslavia. The US has seen many rises and falls in the economy but has managed to stay stable. It saw some major advancement in military technology starting in the early 80ís. The US got involved in the Gulf War against Iraq in 1990. Itís currently involved in the war in Yugoslavia while maintaining peace in the Middle East. It has been very active concerning negotiations between the Israelis and the Palestinians. Iraq has kept the US active in the Persian Gulf since 1990.

 

United States of America

Policy Statements


Delegation: United States of America

Forum: Security Council

Issue #1: The ongoing conflict in Chechnya

Chechnya has ever since tried to gain its independence from Russia thorough engagement in several wars, such as the one that took place in 1994. In that war, thousands of Chechnyan civilians were killed, tortured, raped, and deprived of basic life necessities. In 1999 again, the Russian army led by Vladimir Putin carried out a sudden attack on the province of Chechnya. Russia had used the Moscow bombings by Islamic militants as an excuse to keep Chechnya under control.

The US policy towards this conflict is beneficial to peace and security in the world. The US condemns Russia for attacking Chechnya, killing thousands of innocent civilians, torturing them while detained, and forcing them to evacuate their lands and seek asylum in other countries. Although the US respects the national sovereignty of Russia, it believes that the situation is much more serious than expected, and encourages Russia, through sponsoring resolutions in the SC, to allow UN peacekeeping forces to intervene having a positive will. The US has volunteered itself to send in peacekeeping forces in order to promote security and provoke stability in the region. The US believes that Russian and Chechnyan officials should negotiate to reach a mutual consent that satisfies both sides. However, this doesnít mean that Chechnya should be declared an independent state, and the US does not have anything to do with its independence. What concern the US are peace, security, and human rights in all regions of the world, for the US is a strong country and should be a raw model for all other nations. The US has and will welcome any Russian initiative that has or might serve the conflict in a productive way.


Delegation: United States of America

Forum: Security Council

Issue #2: Measures to reduce the military build-up in the Straits of Taiwan

The conflict in East Asia nowadays has resulted in tension in that strategic area of Asia. Taiwan claims and attempts to gain its independence and become a prospered nation. At the same time, China claims that Taiwan is a province of China, and that it should remain a part of China. China strongly refuses any intervention by the international community, and considers it a violation of the national sovereignty of China.

The United States of America has a positive view towards this conflict. The US does not support either sideís point; instead, it tries to act as a mediator between both sides. However, the US insists on the prevalence of peace, security, and prosperity in all regions of the world, and believes that Taiwan should have the right to prosper. This does not imply that the US wants Taiwan independent; as long as Taiwan is prosperous it does not matter to the US whether or not it is independent. The US respects the national sovereignty of all countries including China, but encourages China to improve its human rights record and shift the political system into a democracy. This way, China would be less vulnerable to internal and external conflicts, and the Chinese people will be more satisfied with their government.

The US encourages both the leaders of China and Taiwan to negotiate as soon as possible to reach a mutual consent that brings back peace and security to the region, and would be very pleased if it were to have a significant role in the peace process. The US is not destabilizing the region by accumulating its naval forces in the Straits of Taiwan; it has done so based on an official request by the Taiwanese leadership.


Delegation: United States of America

Forum: Security Council

Issue # 3: Measures to promote peace and stability in Afghanistan

In 1989 after the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, a civil war erupted in that South Asian country. Taliban, an ethnic group who have been in power Afghanistan for more than 400 years, initiated this war. This Sunni anti-Shiite group aimed to cleanse Afghanistan of any minorities, especially the Shiite, and this caused Iran, a powerful neighbor, to confront Taliban. On the other hand, the US was supportive of Taliban since the anti-US Islamic Revolution had just taken place in 1979. Now, the civil war is much more than it sounds like, for innocent Afghan civilians are killed, abused, and sent to refuge by Taliban. Besides, this group performs terrorist acts that are widely condemned by the international community.

The US policy towards instability in Afghanistan asks for an end to the war. The US is concerned not only with Afghanistan, but also with South and Central Asia as a whole. The Talibanís presence in Afghanistan provokes instability in other countries. The US is also concerned about the human rights issues in Afghanistan, and has repeatedly asked Amnesty International to try Taliban leaders. Besides, the US has a long history with Osama Bin Laden, for the latter has launched attacks on US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, and therefore, the US believes that the UN and other related organizations should make their best efforts to stop worldwide terrorism. The US has been an active member in the SC ever since, and has sponsored many resolutions asking Taliban to hand over Osama Bin Laden, which have been approved by the big five. Mainly, the US attempts to stop the civil war in Afghanistan in order to reduce tension in the region, as this leads to destabilization, insecurity, and the lack of peace, which the US heavily resents.

 

 

United States of America


Proposed Clauses

Issue #1: The ongoing conflict in Chechnya

Urges the International Court of Justice (ICJ) to try all Russian officials that have committed war atrocities in the war against Chechnya.

Requests Vladimir Putin to drag his forces out of Chechnya in order to receive the desired loans from the International Monetary Fund (IMF).


Issue #2: Measures to reduce the military buildup across the Straits of Taiwan

Calls upon the Peopleís Republic of China to hold bi-monthly bilateral talks with the state of Taiwan in order to reduce the military buildup across the Straits of Taiwan.

Urges China to reduce the tensions acroos the Straits of Taiwan by stopping all threats against Taiwan.

Urges the state of Taiwan to reduce the tensions across the Straits of Taiwan by stopping attempts at independence.


Issue #3: Measures to promote peace and stability in Afghanistan

(The following clauses were written on transparency film but werenít proposed due to the emergence of the emergency situation)

Resolves to send in a UN peacekeeping force into Afghanistan by September 2000 at the latest in order to separate the Taliban from civilians and prevent the Taliban from performing any attack on them.

Further resolves that the UNHCR and the International Red Cross (IRC) enter Afghanistan in order to provide:

One) shelter

Two) food

Three) medication

Four) basic education to children

Five) means of transportation for refugee civilians from Afghanistan to bordering countries.

 

United States of America

Opening Speech

Honorable President, honorable delegates,

The United States of America is especially proud to be here in this session today. The United States welcomes all nations to the Security Council. We are at the dawn of a new era, and we have to embrace it. As members of the highest body in the Security Council, we must transfer our goals from vision to action in the new century. As a politically signifact nation in the international community, the United States seeks feasible solutions in all troubled regions in the world.

The agenda that has been set for discussion covers three significant regions in the world. The United States would like to highlight the issue of the military buildup across the Straits od Taiwan. Each moment, tension is increasing between Taiwan and China, and the United States hopes that we can mediate the governments into reducing, even eliminating, the military tension on both coasts. The United States also urges all SC members into proposing long-term solutions to the conflict.

In conclusion, the United States hopes that todayís discussion will be constructive, and not destructive. We hope that all nations shall co-operate in proposing and passing practical solutions to all the issues. Afterall, we are here to promote peace, security, and prosperity in all regions of the world, and to abolish all forms of hostility, hatred, and violence between nations. The United States bears all nations in the Security Council great gratitude for attending this meeting and congratulates them for projecting such a positive reputation of themselves in the international community.