Country: Argentina

Event: CACMUN 2000

Student: Saad al Ghawas

 

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The Argentine National Anthem

The Republic of Argentina

I. Country Profile


Argentina

 

Argentina: Country Profile

By: Saad Al-Ghawas (BBS)

Political Structure:

On July 9, 1816, independence was formally declared. Juan Diaz De Solis first explored Argentina in 1516. Argentina developed slowly under Spanish colonial rule. Buenos Aires was settled in 1580; the cattle industry was thriving as early as 1600. Invading British forces were expelled in 1806-07, and after Napoleon conquered Spain (1808), the Argentineans set up their own government in 1810.

Argentina is a federal union of 23 provincias and a federal capital district, the city of Buenos Aires. The constitution promulgated in 1994 provided for consecutive presidential terms, which had not been allowed previously, but few other changes distinguish it from the 1853 document; in its largely original form, the constitution has sustained Argentina with at least a nominal form of republican, representative, and federal government.

A president holds the executive office in Argentina and he wields a lot of decision making power. The political party system in Argentina has been volatile, particularly in the 20th century, with numerous parties forming, taking part in elections, and disbanding as new factions evolve. The military plays an important role in Argentinean elections as whoever controls the military usually have the upper hand because the people are afraid of a coup attempt.

Natural Resources:

Argentine industry is well served by the country's abundance of energy resources. Oil deposits are scattered throughout the country. Argentina is abundant in oil, natural gas. It mines some coal but most of its needs are met by imports. Small deposits of iron ore, uranium, lead, zinc, silver, copper, manganese, and tungsten are worked. There are also salt deposits, clay, limestone, granite, and marble.

Argentina is part of the Southern Common Market with Brazil, Uruguay, and Paraguay. Brazil is Argentina's most important trading partner. Other important trade partners include the USA, Italy, Germany, The Netherlands, Chile, and Uruguay.

Argentina is completely self-sufficient in the fuel, and agriculture sectors. Argentina imports most of its military armament from the USA and other European countries excluding Britain. Argentina is considered a developing country with a low GDP because of the massive investments the country is making in infrastructure mainly.

Cultural Factors:

The population of Argentina has increased 20-fold since 1869, when 1.8 million people were recorded there by the first census. Heavy immigration, particularly from Spain and Italy, has produced in Argentina a people who are almost all of European ancestry. Several native tribes still exist in Argentina and among these are the Diaguita tribes of the Andean Northwest.

Spanish is the national language although there are several dialects. The vast majority of Argentine people are adherents of Roman Catholicism. Of the remainder, about equally small percentages are Protestants and Jews. Roman Catholic influence is strongly reflected in government and society, and Catholicism is constitutionally recognized as the official state religion, although freedom of worship is guaranteed.

The cultural comes mainly from a mix of Spanish, Italian, and French origin with hints of the native tribes here and there. It is basically Latin European.

Defense:

Argentina had a very large and powerful military at the time of the Falkland wars in 1982. Since the resolution of that war Argentina's military prowess has declined greatly as it is using its funds in more economic ventures. It still has a formidable number of planes, ships, and armored vehicles though. The soldier to civilian ratio is fairly low for a South American country.

Argentina has military agreements with both Chile and Peru concerning border defense and so it has military alliances with these two states. Argentina has a neutral stance towards Brazil. It is not currently engaged in war.

Argentina builds some of its own weapons but mainly imports heavy weapons from industrial countries such as the United States of America, Russia, France, and Italy. In small armaments such as infantry equipment it is self-sufficient but in heavy weapons it has much dependence on the aforementioned countries. Military service is not mandatory for citizens unless there are circumstances that require drafting (even then the drafting age is 21).

Geography:

Argentina occupies most of the southern portion of South America. It is the eighth largest country in the world, with an area of 1,073,399 square miles. Shaped like an inverted triangle with its base at the top, it is only about 884 miles across at its widest from east to west, but it stretches 2,360 miles from the subtropical north to the subantarctic south. This great length embraces regions of striking diversity, including the Andes Mountains; the thorny scrubland and seasonal swamps of the Gran Chaco; the broad, fertile plains of the Pampa; the stark tableland of Patagonia; and an undulating Atlantic coastline of 2,936 miles. Argentina also claims a 49-degree wedge of Antarctica and several islands in the South Atlantic, including the British ruled Falklands. It is bound by Chile on the south and west, Bolivia and Paraguay on the north, and Brazil, Uruguay, and the Atlantic Ocean on the east.

Views on world problems:

Argentina is a fairly neutral country that promotes peace and that has not been engaged in war since 1982. It supports poor developing nations by giving loans and other aid. Argentina usually supports resolutions in the UN that are against the use of illicit drugs since Argentina itself has a very large drug abuse problem. Argentina does not actively support human rights issues although it does not fight against them either. Usually Argentina will abstain from resolutions having to do with human rights or humanitarian causes such as Amnesty International.

History:

Argentina was founded in 1810 by Spanish separatists after Napoleon conquered Spain. It declared independence on July 9, 1816. Argentina was only engaged in one major war which was the Falkland Islands War, "the dirty war," against Britain over the Falkland Islands. Argentina lost the Falkland Islands and the war. Peron injected important virtues into the Argentinian political and social systems like redistributing revenues to the workers and industrial sectors, public services were nationalized, and many other important changes were made to improve the country. Argentina has had many leaders assassinated or overthrown by way of military coups and takeovers. The shortest presidential term was served by Gen. Arturo Rawson who resigned after two days in office due to a loss of military support.

Col. Juan Peron was an important figure in Argentina's history. He helped unions win favorable settlements from employers; he pushed through a welfare program that provided vacations, retirement benefits, and severance pay. He was elected president at which point Argentina declared war on Germany allowing it to enter the United Nations. Peron was overthrown in 1955 in a military coup. Peron had extremely right wing policies that were bordering on radicalism. After Peron's demise a three man military junta ruled the government.

After the loss of the Falkland Islands to Britain Argentina was prosecuted on the grounds of human rights violations. This was caused by the political unrest that was taking place in the country. This was due to the persecutions of many officers in the army on the grounds of incompetence. After this point new economic policies were adopted and the country began to invest in international markets and in the industrial sector in Argentina.

 

 

Policy Statements for Argentina

 

Issue 1: Sierra Leone and the role of UN Peace Making and Peace Keeping:

Argentina strongly opposes the genocide that has occurred in Sierra Leone. Argentina also believes that the role of the UN in peace making and keeping should be a much more active one in which the UN takes an active and responsible role in preventing such genocide and massacre. If the UN had taken an active role in the Sierra Leone crisis then this catastrophe might have been averted. Argentina would like to remind all nations that the UN's first priority is the preservation of world peace. In the future taking a firmer and more active role in such events might avert such crisis.

Issue 2: Southern Lebanon and the role of the UN in regional stability:

The UN should have an active role in preserving regional stability and peace. Argentina urges the member states of the UN to take firmer action in resolving the Lebanese and Israeli conflict. The UN has a mandate that has world peace at its core and world peace can only be achieved through worldwide regional peace. If this is the case then the regional instability in Lebanon directly affects the UN mandate and action should be taken immediately to rectify the situation.

Issue 3: Ethiopian and Eritrean war and humanitarian crisis:

The war in Eastern Africa is devastating regional stability and economy. This war, as in any war, can only lead to destruction and loss. The UN must promote world peace and therefore the UN must find a way to end the violence in East Africa. This is not only a military crisis but a humanitarian one as well. Marauders from both armies are slaughtering innocent women and children. There is a general indifference among the countries towards human rights and lives. This must stop. It is the UN's mission to promote peace and stability and this is the most obvious example of where the UN is needed to help resolve the conflict.

Issue 4: Review the proposal for revamping peacekeeping which was submitted by the United Nations Security Council with a view to creating a document to provide guidelines for peacekeeping operations:

Argentina agrees with the UN Security Council's decision to redraft peacekeeping guidelines so that future operations may run more smoothly and so that regional commanders may have a set of clear and objective guidelines. This will allow them to accomplish their missions in much greater haste and efficiency. As a result peacekeeping will be an easier and more organized mission in regions ravaged by war. Argentina also believes that such a document will serve as a point of reference for countries and commanders to turn to when they question the methodology of a mission.

 

Issue 3 of GA: Whether Palestine should have full voting rights:

Palestine should definitely have full voting rights. It is a sovereign state that has a voice in the world and therefore it should have voting rights. Argentina fully supports Palestine's independence.

 

 

Resolution Clauses for Argentina

Issue 1: Sierra Leone and the role of UN Peace Making and Peace Keeping:

Urges the member states to take active roles in dealing with the Sierra Leone humanitarian crisis by;

a) Providing sufficient troops to conduct peace keeping and making missions;

b) Delivering humanitarian aid supplies to the affected regions, especially Sierra Leone;

Resolves that the leaders responsible for the ethnic cleansing and massacres taking place in Sierra Leone be brought to justice at an international court in the Hague on ground of committing war crimes and crimes of attrition as described in the Geneva Convention;

Recognizes Sierra Leone as being a country ravaged by internal strife that has caused hundreds of thousands of people to be made refugees or killed and in which humanitarian rights have virtually no meaning among the rebels causing this death and destruction

Issue 2: Southern Lebanon and the Role of the UN in regional stability:

Urges the member states to take active roles in dealing with the Lebanese humanitarian crisis by;

a) Providing sufficient troops to conduct peace keeping and making missions;

b) Delivering humanitarian aid supplies to the affected regions, especially Lebanon;

c) Hosting neutral summits in order to arrange cease-fires, temporary, and permanent settlements between the factions involved;

Resolves that the UN will not tolerate any violation of human rights as prescribed in the Geneva Convention and that all violating parties will be prosecuted at an international court in the Hague's war crimes tribunal for these crimes;

Realizes that the Lebanese situation is a very sensitive one politically but it is in need of major humanitarian aid that must be delivered uninhibited to the needy in the region and that the UN is responsible for insuring the delivery of the aid in any circumstance.

Issue 3: Ethiopian and Eritrean war and humanitarian crisis:

Resolves that the UN will not tolerate any violation of human rights as prescribed in the Geneva Convention and that all violating parties will be prosecuted at an international court in the Hague's war crimes tribunal for these crimes;

Realizes that the Lebanese situation is a very sensitive one politically but it is in need of major humanitarian aid that must be delivered uninhibited to the needy in the region and that the UN is responsible for insuring the delivery of the aid in any circumstance.

Urges the two warring factions to cease hostility and declare a cease-fire so that negotiators may have a chance to try to come to an agreement on the current crisis on the Ethiopia-Eritrea border and quell the violence that has wracked the two countries.

Issue 4: Review the proposal for revamping peacekeeping which was submitted by the United Nations Security Council with a view to creating a document to provide guidelines for peacekeeping operations:

 

 

Opening Speech

Honorable delegates.

Argentina stands here in the United Nations Security Council today for one reason. That reason is the preservation of world peace and democracy. There are four main issues that have attracted the world's attention of late and these issues must be resolved in order to maintain peace and take another step in the direction of world peace. We, as the representatives of our nations that play a vital role in the outcome of world events and the shaping of world policies, need to cooperate in order to conclude the violence and instability in the world today.

Argentina would take a moment to elaborate on the issue of southern Lebanon and the regional instability that is evident in the region. There is a power vacuum in the region of Israel, Palestine, and Lebanon. Israel has a more powerful arsenal than any of its neighbors and this creates a dangerous situation where there is unbalance of power. The United Nations should take steps that will rectify this situation in any manner necessary. A power void can be very dangerous and, if not addressed hastily, could prove catastrophic.

And so, honorable delegates, Argentina urges you to come into this session with an open mind and an open heart. For we hold in our hands a great many peoples fates and lives. If we cooperate and compromise in this assembly Argentina feels that many issues can be resolved and rectified. Thank you for your time and we hope that today can prove to be a productive and invigorating session for the people of the world.




Argentina at CACMUN



I was presented with the opportunity of representing Argentina in the Security Council at CACMUN 2000 which I immediately took advantage of. Argentina of course has a traditional role of being a neutral, peacemaking and keeping nation. I played that role to the best of my ability and am quite satisfied with the results of my actions in the Security Council.

Throughout the event I had formed partial alliances with certain other nations including Malaysia, France, Bahrain, and the United Kingdom. The United States was usually against my policy which consisted of amending the policy that the UN has for peacekeeping troops, specifically their inability to return fire in hostile situations. The US opposed this view vehemently although there were nations that supported my stand specifically Malaysia.

My relations with the United Kingdom were strong despite the issue of the Falklands because none of the issues being debated were relevant to that particular issue. I supported resolutions that called for a more active role for the UN in peacemaking and keeping operations namely in the West Bank and Africa. I believe that I played a vital role in the Security Council and that my presence had a significant effect on the outcome of our session.