Event: CACMUN 2000
Student: Nada Al Abduljader
BoliviaLinks to other sites on the Web: Back to the 2000-2001 Team page
By: Nada Al Abduljader
Political Structure: -
The president and vice president of the Republic of Bolivia are chosen by election that takes place for four years. Before being a president the candidate have to gain more than 50% of the popular votes. If the majority isn’t accomplished, Congress elects the president and vice president from the three final candidates. Bolivia’s government was considered a democratic constitutional government starting from the year of 1985. A Bolivian must be at least thirty-five years old, educated, a registered voter, and a candidate of the political party. Members of the armed force on active duty, Roman Catholic priest, and other religion’s ministers cannot run for office. Also, any relative for an old president cannot run for presidency. If a minister wished to run for presidency, then he has to retire at least half a year before elections.
Natural Resources: -
As known for many years, Bolivia is one of the countries that is gifted from God for its natural resources. One of the main natural resources is the remainder of metallic ores. Other, are present in a great quantity such as tin, leas, silver, copper, antimony, zinc, sulfur, bismuth, and gold. As it is known these mineral resources are one of the important incomes of the country. Salt, oil, and natural gas are other natural resources. Soil from some places of Bolivia is also useful where it’s totally fertile, especially on the mountains.
Bolivia’s population is mostly all consisted of Roman Catholics. Mostly half the population of Bolivia is Indians, 30 per cent are a mixture of Indians and Spanish, and about 15 per cent are whites. Indians are mostly farmers. Meanwhile, the Spanish Bolivians are the richest. These groups have no conflicts between them, since the period of racism and segregation is over. The official language spoken in Bolivia is Spanish; however, some Indian Bolivians speak Quechua and Aymara. In Bolivia there is the freedom of religion, even if most of them are Roman Catholics. Most people in Bolivia know how to read and write since education is free and compulsory from the ages of 7 to 14.
Bolivia’s defense is not that big. Bolivia has selective conscription for 12 months. The armed forces all together are 33,500. In the army there are 25,000, in the navy there are 4,500, and 4,000 in the air force. Bolivia is one of the countries that the number of people working in the defense isn’t that significant, but over that there aren’t any troops from other countries.
Bolivia is a landlocked country in South America. Bolivia is bordered by Peru in the northwest, Chile in the west, Brazil in the north and east, Paraguay in the southeast, and Argentina in the south. Bolivia has an area of 424,165 square miles. Although Bolivia lies in the tropics, its climate varies with evolution from hot to permanently cold. Usually temperatures vary in Bolivia from night to night more than from it varies from season to season.
Views of World Problems: -
Due to the low economic standings, Bolivia has not been given much attention or consideration from other countries. Therefore, it is trying it utmost efforts to expand economically and politically. It’s is also trying to grow in education, where it is now open to the world by all sorts of modern communications, such as the Internet. Yet, Bolivia is a neutral country when it comes to problem between countries. It believes that peace is more lasting when no sides are taken in problems between groups. Recently, Bolivia’s relationship with bordering countries such as Brazil and Peru is getting better because they rely on each other in many things.
Bolivia is a member of the United Nations (UN), the Organization of American States (OAS), the Latin Integration Association (LIA), and the Andean Community.
Bolivia is one of the poorest countries in South America, with economy based on mining and agriculture. The economy of Bolivia may improve under one factor, which is the stability of the government and the economy. The lack of investments is effecting Bolivia’s economy. Bolivia’s government is focusing on few natural resources for exports and foreign exchange. What makes Bolivia even more suffering from economical crises is that it is landlocked so it’s exports come through one of the bordering countries like Brazil. Manufacturing helps the economy of a country, but Bolivia lack manufacturing industries. The overpopulation in the highlands is also effecting the economy because there is big spaces in the lowlands where most rich people are located, and because jobs are wearing out in the highlands so people stay up there jobless. The economy of Bolivia is unstable due to those problems. The Bolivian currency is called Boliviano.
The "reluctant revolutionaries," as the leaders of the multiclass MNR were called by some, looked more to Mexico than to the Soviet Union for a model. But during the first year of Paz Estenssoro's presidency, the radical faction in the party, which had gained strength during the sexenio when the party embraced the workers and their ideology, forced the MNR leaders to act quickly. In July 1952, the government established universal suffrage, with neither literacy nor property requirements. In the first post-revolutionary elections in 1956, the population of eligible voters increased from approximately 200,000 to nearly 1 million voters. The government also moved quickly to control the armed forces, purging many officers associated with past Conservative Party regimes and drastically reducing the forces' size and budget. The government also closed the Military Academy (Colegio Militar) and required that officers take an oath to the MNR. The government then began the process of nationalizing all mines of the three great tin companies. First, it made the export and sale of all minerals a state monopoly to be administered by the state-owned Mining Bank of Bolivia (Banco Minero de Bolivia (Bamin)). Then it set up the Mining Corporation of Bolivia (Corporaci?n Minera de Bolivia (Comibol)) as a semi-independent plan to run state-owned mines. On October 31, 1952, the government nationalized the three big tin companies, leaving the medium-sized mines untouched, and promising compensation. In this process, two-thirds of Bolivia's mining industry was turned over to Comibol.
A far-reaching Agrarian reform (rural amendment) was the final important step taken by the revolutionary government. In January 1953, the government established the Agrarian Reform Commission, using advisers from Mexico, and decreed the Agrarian Reform Law the following August. The law abolished forced labor and established a program of expropriation and distribution of the rural property of the traditional landlords to the Indian peasants. Only estates with low productivity were completely distributed. More productive small and medium-sized farms were allowed to keep part of their land and were encouraged to invest new capital to increase agricultural production. The Agrarian Reform Law also provided for compensation for landlords to be paid in the form of twenty-five-year government bonds. The amount of compensation was based on the value of the property declared for taxes.
During the first years of the revolution, miners wielded extraordinary influence within the government. In part, this influence was based on the miners' decisive role in the fighting of April 1952. In addition, however, armed militias of miners formed by the government to counterbalance the military had become a powerful force in their own right. Miners immediately organized the Bolivian Labor Federation (Central Obrera Boliviana(COB)), which demanded radical change as well as participation in the government and benefits for its members. As a result, the government included three pro-COB ministers in the cabinet and accepted the demand for fuero sindical, the legally autonomous status that granted the COB semi-sovereign control over the workers of Bolivia. The MNR regime gave worker representatives veto power in all Comibol decisions and allowed for a co-government in mine administration. The government also established special stores for the miners, increased their salaries, and rehired fired workers.
The peasants also exerted a powerful influence. At first, the government was unable to control the occupation of land by the peasants. As a result, it could not enforce the provisions of the land reform decree to keep medium-sized productive estates intact. But the MNR eventually gained the support of the campesinos when the Ministry of Peasant Affairs was created and when peasants were organized into syndicates. Peasants were not only granted land but their militias also were given large supplies of arms. The Peasants remained a powerful political force in Bolivia during all subsequent governments.
Committee: ECOSOC (General Assembly)
Delegate: Nada Al Abduljader
1.The Question of the Role of the UN Regarding Intervention in a State or a Region for Humanitarian Purposes.
Bolivia believes in the stronger role of the UN concerning the intervention of humanitarian Purposes. Bolivia believes that the UN should intervene with the help needing countries, or people. There are many poor countries that are not able to afford the price of food because of their unstable economy. The UN must help countries and people. The UN should also educate people that aren’t able to get education due to the economical crises in their countries. Most importantly, aid sick people, where the lives of humans are so significant.
Bolivia as a country that wants/needs the UN intervention like most of the world’s countries, would not only ask the UN to interfere with world problems. It also asks rich countries that also can help in funding.
2. The Question of Developing an International Legal Code to Deal With Criminal Activity on the Internet (WWW) such as hacking, pornography, viruses, etc.
Bolivia agrees with the question of developing an international legal code to deal with criminal activity on the Internet. Bolivia believes that the legal code would settle the peace in the Internet where there won’t be any hacking, screen pornography sites, or viruses. Bolivia believes that developing legal code is so consequential. Pornography on the Internet is demolishing the morals of people where their main goals in surfing the Internet is to find pornography, instead of learning or being benefited from other subjects or topics. Also, making viruses, such as the "love Bug" is so low of a person to make. People are using their brains for a bad and effective cause, and by that people could be spoiled, not knowing that hurting others would build conflicts in the world. The legal code would prevent hackers from going through private properties on the Internet, stealing money from banks, organization, and companies, and changing computer’s settings. Therefore, Bolivia believes that developing a legal code is a noble plan to save the world and people from all kinds of Internet abuse.
However Bolivia believes along with developing a legal code, the UN should make sure that all countries should be computer educated and have access to the internet, before developing a legal code.
3.The question of admittance of Palestine into the UN as a full voting member.
Bolivia believes that Palestine has the right to vote in the United Nations, even though Israel took over Palestine. Many people will refer to the fact Bolivia’s main population are Red Indians, and that the Europeans took over their country. Well that is true, but that happened a long time ago and we are the people of today; what happens today is what counts. Palestine as a country that had it’s place in the map, people, language, religion, and culture should have the right as any country in voting, because even though Palestine is now no longer existing for some countries, it’s people are still there living on earth. By not giving Palestine the chance to vote, Bolivia believes that Palestinian’s human rights are being violated. Therefore, Bolivia strongly agrees on giving Palestine the freedom to vote in the UN.
Forum: General Assembly (ECOSOC)
Delegate: Nada Al Abduljader
Issue: The question of the Role of the UN regarding the Intervention in a region or state for Humanitarian Purposes.
Defining Drugs as "a chemical or other substance that alters the function of an organism,"
Believing that all countries worldwide of drug abuse and should find a cure to solve such problems caused in a society from drugs,
Keeping in mind that all countries around the world practically have drug problems and they have the right to be able to cooperate with other countries to solve these problems and create a better self-sufficient society,
Fully alarmed that drug problems are growing in all nations,
àCNN Reported that the percentage of drug addicts are growing rapidly
Welcoming the idea of showing countries the harms of drugs and how bad they can be and to tolerate the amount of drugs being used around the world,
Expecting all countries to pay attention to all problems that may occur because of drugs and try to solve them in a way that would not harm any other country and would keep countries society peaceful and harmless,
1- Supports the UN international cooperation in drug control programs;2. Draws the attention to:
(One) the importance of drug awareness in all countries, rich or poor.
(Two) the rapid rising the number of drug addicts/dealers are.
3-Regrets the misuse of drugs around the world;
4- Recommends that all countries should aware their people about the harm drugs can cause through:
(One) Articles in magazines, newspapers, handouts, etc.
(Two) TV shows.
(Three) Forming a drug awareness month/week.
5- Sustains the role of the UN regarding the intervention in a state/region due Humanitarian Purposes;
6- Urges all countries in creating a powerful law that will strongly punishes/penalty exporting and business of drugs, which will eventually:
(One) increase the numbers of drug dealers
(Two) increase the numbers of drug addicts
(Three) increase the numbers of drug planting
7- Further urges that all nations makes a change in curriculums that are taught in schools, where there would be topics that encourages drug awareness, and that’s by:One) Educating teenagers on the effect of drugs acting on:- the bodies health
- addicts social lives
- economical balance
Two) Applying drug awareness in school curriculums in several subjects like:
- General Science, that would
1. Teach the students about the effects of drugs on the body.
- Psychology and Social Studies, where students will learn:
2. the effects of drugs on the mind
3. the effects of drugs on social life.
- Advisories, Homerooms, and life skills electives, where students will be:
1. learning general information about drugs and its effects
2. hold activities that would help with the awareness of drugs, like:
3. going and visiting drugs institutes, where drug addicts would talk to them and conscious them about this serious issue.
Three) making suitable places for teenagers to spend their spare hours in, so there won’t be a chance for the youth to think or go on drugs, like:
- sports clubs, which would help with:
1. activating the body
2. health of the youths
3. carry drug dealers/addicts away from thinking about drugs
Four) planting in our youth’s souls valuable morals and humanitarian values like:
- religious lessons, that will:
??show them what is right and what is wrong, and what is good or bad so that out youth would know that drugs is something wrong and bad8- Fully believing that International cooperation and the UN intervention is the only way to solve the problems that roots from the drug issue;
9- Further resolves that the United Nations would consider this resolution and intervene for drug issues in countries all around the world, since it is a severe case that is destroying all nations.
Opening speech (CACMUN)
Bienvenidos mis hermanos.
From the laughs of innocent children, from the sounds of singing birds to the words of romance, from the high peaks to the low lands in the east, to the land of nature, Bolivia is a rich land. Bolivia is proud of being the main supplier of tin worldwide. It is also proud of its Indian Heritage.
Honorable Chair, respectful delegates, hola. It is a great privilege for Bolivia to be here today. Bolivia would like to great all present countries to this meeting, and would like to emphasize its support to all nations.
Bolivia, like many Latin American nations, is facing the obstacles of deep-seated poverty, social crises, and the crimes associated with the production of drugs. Bolivia asks all economically capable countries to try their best in making the world a place where no person could or would suffer from want, where the sounds of children echo with happiness.