Student: Tareq al Rubei
Event: CACMUN 2000
Links to other sites on the Web: Back to the 2000-2001 Team page
Tareq Al Rubei
Bosnia and Herzegovina is a complex state consisting of two entities, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska. The Dayton Agreement, signed 14 December 1995, included a new constitution in force. The republic was officially called "Bosnia and Herzegovnia" with recognized borders. The capital is Sarajevo Bosnia gained its independence from Yugoslavia in 1992. The country’s political state is classified as emerging democracy. There are two first-order administrative divisions - the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska. Brcko in northeastern Bosnia, however, is a self-governing administrative unit under the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina; it is not part of either the Federation or Republika Srpska. The constitution originally was written in 1974. Between the years 1989 and 1991 the constitution was subsequently revised.
The Executive authority consists of President of the Federation of BiH, Government of Federation BiH, and Vice-president of the Federation BiH. The three members of the presidency (one Bosniak, one Croat, one Serb) are elected by popular vote for a four-year term. The member with the most votes becomes the chairman unless he or she was the serving chairman at the time of the election. The three-member presidency rotates every 8 months. The Legislative authority consists of the House of Representatives and the House of People. People are elected in both houses for a two-year serving period in the parliament. The aspect that is special about the parliament is that all three ethnic groups are represented equally. In 1992 the primary organizations included the Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Muslim Bosniak Organization, Party of Democratic Action, Serbian Democratic party, Socialist Alliance, and the Socialist Democratic party. The Judicial authority consists of Constitutional Court, Supreme Court, Human Rights Court, Federal Prosecution office, Federal Public Attorney’s Office, and the Federal Violation Council. The Cantons, or the districts, of the Federation of BiH are ten. People can vote at16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age if not.
Bosnia and Herzegovina is considered one of the poorest countries in Europe. After Bosnia’s independence its economy became largely based on agriculture, with tobacco and fruit as the major products. The war, however, has devastated much of the country's fertile farmland and kept farmers from producing crops. Much of the republic's industry is located in regions occupied by Serbs, and it was estimated that 80% of the industrial plants were destroyed. The Major primary commodities are wood, coal, and minerals. The Manufactural products are textiles, clothing, footwear, chemical, electric, machinery, Iron, steel, and aluminum. Bosnia uses electricity, coal, and coke for energy. Major industries: mining, vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco, wooden furniture, tank and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil refining (most heavily damaged or shut down)
The monetary unit of finance is a convertible mark 1KM=1DEM. The GDP is 3.4$ billion. Bosnia’s imports are 1.5$billion and the exports are 1.5$ billion. The new dinar was the standard unit of exchange in Bosnia and Herzegovina when the republic was part of Yugoslavia. The Bosnian government had plans to introduce its own currency in mid-1992, but these plans have been delayed. Today various currencies are circulated in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Croatian kuna is in use in Croat-held areas, the new dinar is the standard in Serb regions, and a variety of foreign currencies are used in Muslim-dominated areas
Bosnia and Herzegovina’s resources are large tracts of arable lands, timber, valuable deposits of minerals such as salts, manganese, silver, lead, copper, iron ore, chromium, and coal. The Major primary commodities are wood, coal, and minerals. The wildlife is rich in the mountain of the Dinaric Alps bordering Croatia. The hare, lynx, weasel, otter, deer, fox, wildcat, wolf, grey boar, roe, and wild sheep make up Bosnia and Herzegovina’s wildlife.
Water in Bosnia is very scarce. This is a very crucial problem for Bosnia. Another problem that the Bosnians face is the poor quality of air due to the copious amount of metallurgical plants. Bosnia and Herzegovina is a land that is prone to earthquakes.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (44 00N, 18 00 E) is located in Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea. Bosnia borders Croatia (North-Northwest), Montenegro, (Southeast) and Serbia (East). The total area of Bosnia and Herzegovina is 51,129 sq km. Land Area is 51,129 sq km, while water Area is 20 sq km. Bosnia and Herzogovina’s terrain is mostly mountains and valleys. The climate is hot summers and cold winters. Areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters, mild, rainy winters along the coast. The country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (about 49% of the territory).
Bosnia’s military branches are the Federation Army or VF (composed of both Croatian and Bosniak elements), Army of the Serb Republic (composed of Bosnian Serb elements). Within both of these forces air and air defense are subordinate commands. The age for entering the army is 19 years. It is estimated that there are 886,464 Bosnians who are fit for service from the ages of 15-49. After the 92 war Bosnia has been largely dependent on foreign powers particulary NATO which was a crucial power in the conflict.
The cultural factor may be the most important section of this whole briefing book. This is because conflicts in the former Yugoslav area are all due to ethnic problems. Throughout history, Bosnia had tolerated Eastern Orthodoxy, Catholicism, Protestantism, Judaism and a host of other religions and ideologies. The ethnic groups are Serbs(31%), Bosniak(44%), Croat(17%), Yugoslav(5.5%), other (2.5%). The Religions are 40% Muslim, 31% Orthodox, 15% Roman Catholic, 4% Protestant, other 10%. Bosnian people are incredibly friendly toward visitors, but when conversation turns to politics, your best strategy is to listen. People are eager to talk about the war but are generally convinced that their side is right. Bosnia's best-known author is Ivo Andric, the Nobel prize-winning author of Bridge over the Drina, the first of a trilogy of historical novels.
Views on World Problems:-
Bosnia is particularly concerned about the environment. Bosnia suffers from poor and polluted air. The causes of the air pollution are metallurgical plants, lack of sites of disposing urban wastes, widespread casualties, water shortages, and the destruction of the infrastructure because of the civil war. Another issue is the Bosnian dispute with Serbia over the Serbian populated areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosnia is considered by some to be a minor transit point for marijuana and opiate (Illicit Drugs) trafficking routes to Western Europe. Bosnia is a member in the Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). Bosnia is always in favor of UN or NATO intervention, this justifies UN’s actions in Kosovo. Bosnia always urges the world to prosecute war criminals.
Bosnia is a land with three ethnic groups. Historically, each ethnic group had his say in power over the years. First, Croatian kings ruled Bosnia, which gave the Croats the upper hand. Then power shifted to the Muslims, when Bosnia was conquered by the Muslim Turks and made a Turkish province. As the World war ended Bosnia became ruled by the Yugoslav constitution, giving the Serbs the edge in controlling the country.
Bosnia and Herzegovina declared sovereignty October 15, 1991. A referendum for independence was passed Feb. 29,1992. The EU and US recognized the republic in April. Clashes then started as the ethnic Serbs opposed Bosnia’s referendum. Fierce three-way fighting continued between Bosnian Serbs, Croats, and Muslims. Serb forces massacred a large number of Muslims (ethnic cleansing). Sarajevo was surrounded and besieged by Bosnian Serb Forces. In 1994, both Muslims and Croats signed an accord to create a Muslim-Croat confederation in Bosnia. However, Bosnian Serbs controlled 70% of the land.
In 1995, the fighting power shifted to the Muslim-Croat alliance as a result of NATO’s massive air strikes on Bosnian Serb’s targets. This forced the Bosnian Serbs to start peace talks and lift the siege on Sarajevo. New talks produced an agreement to create autonomous regions within Bosnia, with the Serb region (Republic Srpska) constituting of 49% of the country.
Leaders of Bosnia, Croatia, and Serbia then signed a peace agreement initiated in Dayton, Ohio, Nov. 21, 1995, in Paris, Dec.14. Some 60,000 NATO troops moved in to police the accord. Elections were held in 1996, for a three-person rotating presidency, for seats in federal parliament, and for regional offices. Around 34,000 NATO troops remain stationed as peacekeepers in Bosnia-Hercegovina, and a large international civilian presence is working to reintegrate and rebuild the country. Progress since peace has been substantial, but inter-ethnic fighting in neighbouring Kosovo keeps the tension high and the war on people's minds.
Delegation: Bosnia and Herzegovina
Committee: The General Assembly
Delegate: Tareq Al Rubei
ISSUE 1: The Question of the Role of the UN Regarding Intervention in a State or Region for Humanitarian Purposes.
Bosnia strongly supports Humanitarian Intervention being defined as "military operation whose primary purpose is the relief of human suffering. This distinguishes such efforts from peace keeping, whose basic goal is monitoring political and military accords; and from large-scale, warfare, in which relief of human suffering is a goal secondary to strategic, economic and political concerns". Bosnia deeply regrets the UN’s hesitation and indecisiveness in dealing with past humanitarian mishaps such as the one in the former Yugoslavia. Bosnia is guided by the UN Charter particularly Article 1 and 34, the Declaration, the Geneva Convention, the UN Convention for the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide, and the 1951 Convention on Refugees which all help in understanding the meaning of necessary intervention. Bosnia calls upon all nations to immediately intervene in a state or region in the cases of: ethnic cleansing in situations such as Bosnia and Kosovo, human Massacres, unjust dictatorial regimes that practice: promotion of ethnic hatred, discriminatory acts against one particular side (ethnic group) in a conflict, armed conflicts or war, after effects of natural disasters, famine, and invasion of a country.
ISSUE 2: The Question of Developing an International Legal Code to Deal with Criminal Activity on the Internet (WWW) such as hacking, pornography, viruses, etc.
Bosnia is in favor of the development of international legal code to deal with Criminal activity on the World Wide Web. The legal code would limit actions such as hacking, pornography, viruses, and many other offending forms. Bosnia opposes pornography by all means. The 40% majority of Muslims in Bosnia do not tolerate pornography. Bosnia has suffered from the lack of legal codes dealing with the World Wide Web. Parties in the former Yugoslavia have used the World Wide Web as a mean of provoking ethnic hatred amongst the people. Bosnia suggests an international Court System, which could be the arbiter when dealing with criminal activities on the World Wide Web.
ISSUE3: The Question of the Admittance of Palestine into the UN as a full voting member.
Bosnia fully supports the admittance of Palestine in the UN as a full voting member. The vote would allow the Palestinians to be heard in the United Nations. This is extremely important, because in a conflict, both sides need to be heard and both sides should have the right to vote. If not, it then creates a one-sided representation of the conflict in hand. Bosnia calls Israel to abide with the clauses of resolution 242, regarding Israel’s withdrawal from Palestinian land; causing Palestine to declare an independent state, thus, having an assured vote in the United Nations. Five years ago, many said that Yugoslavia held the vote for Bosnia, neglecting the actual will of Bosnia. The people of Palestine, parallel to the people of Bosnia five years ago, should be represented in the United Nations.
Delegation: Bosnia and Herzegovina
Committee: The General Assembly
Delegate: Tareq Al Rubei
ISSUE #1: The Question of the role of the UN regarding intervention in a state or a region for humanitarian purposes
Defining Humanitarian intervention as a "military operation whose primary purpose is the relief of human suffering. This distinguishes such efforts from peace keeping, whose basic goal is monitoring political and military accords; and from large-scale, warfare, in which relief of human suffering is a goal secondary to strategic, economic and political concerns.",
Noting with deep regret the UN’s hesitation and indecisiveness in dealing with past humanitarian mishaps such as the one in the former Yugoslavia,
Having Studied the UN Charter particularly Article 1 and 34, the Declaration, the Geneva Convention, the UN Convention for the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide, and the 1951 Convention on Refugees which all help in understanding the meaning of necessary intervention,
Believing that in the case of emergencies and natural disasters, the UN would intervene if it were called upon by the nation suffering,
Fully Believing that human lives are much more important than political policies which would prevent the UN from intervening in the cases of ethnic cleansing and human bloodbaths,
1. Supports the UN for learning from its past mistakes; intervening successfully in:
a) Kosovo and Serbia,
b) East Timor and Indonesia,
2. Calls Upon the UN to immediately intervene in a state or region in the cases of:
a) ethnic cleansing in situations such as Bosnia and Kosovo,
b) human Massacres,
c) unjust dictatorial regimes that practice:
i. promotion of ethnic hatred,
ii. discriminatory acts against one particular side (ethnic group) in a conflict,
d) armed conflicts or war,
e) after effects of natural disasters,
f) famine resulting from civil disorder,
g) invasion of a country,
3. Further Recommends that the UN should intervene in manners such as:
a) inforcing UN military troops to restore peace in war areas,
i. if the national forces fail to restore order,
ii. if the national forces act as a bias towards a particular side in a conflict,
b) offering financial and medical aid to nations suffering from natural disasters aftermaths,
4. Reminds that the human life should be the priority in dealing with UN interventions,
5. Confirms that the UN is a capable international mediating body, which is always willing to intervene in any state or region under the conditions of clause two,
6. Condemns the UN’s past experiences in carrying out needed humanitarian intervention in states or regions such as Rwanda, Somalia, and Bosnia as a result of hesitation and indecisiveness fearing the UN infringement on sovereignty,
7. Further Proclaims that the sovereignty of a nation is not more important than the life of the people in the nation,
Good Morning Everyone,
Bosnia is here today to enforce the role of the UN regarding intervention in regions of conflict for humanitarian purposes. Of all countries, Bosnia may well be the one country that would tell you the true effects of mingling with this vital issue. Five years ago, thousands of Bosnia’s men, women, and children were brutally slaughtered in the so-called process of ethnic cleansing as a result of the UN’s hesitation and indecisiveness in dealing with the conflict in our Bosnia. However, Bosnia applauds the UN for learning from its past mishaps; intervening successfully in Kosovo and East Timor. The UN should prioritize the human life over every other intruding issue when dealing with intervention such as the sovereignty of nations.
After all these hardships, Bosnia has started a new page of freedom and prosperity. The people of Bosnia are practicing their rights in a democratic society and they are strongly willing to rebuild their beloved country politically, socially, and economically. We encourage foreign investments to seek business opportunities in our country.