Event: CACMUN 2000
Student: Rakan al Bahar
Links to other sites on the Web: Back to the 2000-2001 Team page
Hungary (in Hungarian, Magyarorszg), republic, in central Europe, bordered on the north by Slovakia; on the north-east by Ukraine; on the east by Romania; on the south by Serbia (part of the federation of Serbia and Montenegro), Croatia, and Slovenia; and on the west by Austria. The total area of Hungary is 93,030 sq km (35,919 sq mi). Hungary, in a way, is somewhat oval in shape, and it has an extreme length from east to west 528km and a maximum width from north to south of about 267km. Itís capital, which is the largest city, is called Budapest. The countryís population is about 10,225,000. Thatís the population including Budapest and the 19 counties.
If you visit Hungary, youíll notice many Great Plains and empty fields. Hungary is predominantly flat. The River Danube, which forms part of the Slovakian-Hungarian border from near Bratislava to near Esztergom, turns abruptly south, dividing Hungary into two general regions. A low, rolling plain, known as the Great Hungarian Plain, or the Great Alf?ld covers most of the region east of the Danube extending east to Romania, and south to Serbia. Highlands along the northern border of the country extend eastward from the gorge of the Danube at Esztergom and include the Bükk and Mtra mountains. In the north are the Bakony Mountains, which overlook Lake Balaton, the largest freshwater lake in central Europe.
This undersized country is one of the great survivors of history: states and empires emerged, expanded or disintegrated and disappeared around it. That shows how much the country and its people have gone through throughout the years. Hungary and the Hungarian nation survived the wreckage of the Tartars and Turks, Habsburgs and Russians in the Carpathian Basin; survived the fact that it belonged among the losers of both world wars. That is an example of one of the battles Hungary faced.
Hungarians achieved a major achievement. In 1956, a revolution against Stalinism dictatorship emerged. The uprising was defeated by Soviet troops. János Kádár, who acquired power with their assistance, promised democratic socialism; in the meantime, retaliation and executions started. Then, in 1965, the new system became consolidated, and cautious economic improvements were launched. Living standards were rising and the iron curtain became penetrable, meaning that a person could go through borders. Having that to have happened, a Hungarian transition period began in the late 1980s.
There was no use of communism by now, so the next move was quite smart and benefited the country at the same time. Just at the beginning of 1990, the Communist party willingly gave up its autocracy. A multi-party parliamentary democracy came into being in the country. The Soviet army left Hungary. Then, finally, Hungary became a full member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
The climate there is very dry, especially in the summer, when it becomes quite warm, and very cold in the winter. Average temperatures range from -1.1į C (30į F) in January to 21.1į C (70į F) in July. Its most valuable and important resource there is its rich black soil of its farmlands, and it is said to be highly fertile.
The country has some deposits of bauxite, coal, oil, natural gas, manganese, uranium, lignite, and iron ore. Reserves of most minerals are small, however, the iron ore and hard coal are of low quality.
Something like 18 percent of Hungary is forested mostly with oak, lime, beech, and other deciduous trees in the Transdanubian lands and mountains. Hare, Fox, deer, and boar are plentiful. Duck, heron, crane, and stork are native to the country, and the Great Hungarian Plain, which is mostly steppe, is a safe place for many migrating species.
The ancient Magyars had a growing pagan culture, which utilized Eastern strains in its folktales, folk art, and folk music. Later on, from the 15th into the 20th century Hungary has often been considered the protecting fortress of Western civilization, because, unlike the cultures beyond its eastern limits, it has absorbed many Western influences. Furthermore, there are ethnic groups besides Hungarians, and they count as a minority, however, they do get a long. As for Religion Roman Catholic is the majority, but there are other minorities.
Its Religion is traditionally Roman Catholic, but it contains a large Protestant minority. Meanwhile, the Jewish community is estimated to be something like 100,000. The language they practice there is Magyar, a Finno-Ugric language written in Latin characters and influenced by borrowings from the Turkish, Slavic, German, Latin, and French languages, is the official Hungarian language, universally spoken in Hungary.
However, Schooling is compulsory for children in Hungary between the ages of 6 and 14, but the majority of children extend their education to 16. The educational system consists of general, or primary, schools, which include the first eight grades; secondary grammar schools for academic work; technical schools; and institutions of higher learning. Of the almost 91 institutions of higher learning in Hungary, the most significant are the universities of Budapest (1635), Pécs (1367), Szeged (1872), and Debrecen (1912). In a way most colleges specialize in teacher training, technical subjects, agriculture, or in other vocations.
In the field of art, only a few Hungarian artists are internationally renowned. Hungarian painting reached the crest of its development during the Romantic period in the 19th century. Well-known painters included Mihy Munkcsy, Viktor Maddasz, P Szinyei Merse, and Mihy Zichy.
As for music, the introduction of Christianity into Hungary in the 10th century brought with it the use of sacred music from Western Europe. The music consisted of Gregorian chants and, after the reformation, of Protestant chorales. In the 19th century Hungary produced its first important native-born composer, Ferenc Erkel, who composed the Hungarian national anthem and the first Hungarian opera.
Despite war, depression, revolution, foreign occupation, and periods of near chaos, Hungary's economy has advanced in the twentieth century from a near-feudal state to a middle-level stage of industrial development. The economic system has experienced spectacular changes since 1968, evolving from a Soviet-type "command" economy, in which government planners in Budapest dictated much of the country's economic actions, into a combined social ownership of the means of production with a stock exchange, central planning with aspects of a free market, and government involvement with a measure of enterprise autonomy and some private enterprise. Before World War II, the economy of Hungary was based largely on agriculture, and what little industry the country had was almost completely destroyed during the war. After the Communists took power in 1948, the Hungarian government has publicized a series of long-range economic development plans, in which the emphasis was on industrialization.
The estimated yearly outputs (in tonnes) of the major agricultural products in the mid-1990s were maize (4.7 million), wheat (4.8 million), sugar beet (3.4 million), barley (1.6 million), potatoes (946,000), sunflower seed (667,000), and rye (193,000). Livestock included about 910,000 cattle, 4.3 million pigs, 947,000 sheep, and 33.9 million chickens. The annual output of major livestock products amounted to about 1.9 billion liters of milk (412 million gallons), 349,000 tonnes of meat, 2.1 billion eggs, and 4,981 tonnes of wool. The vineyards of the Tokaj district are internationally famous; the total annual grape amount produced is 614,000 tonnes. Agriculture contributed 16 per cent of GDP in 1985, but this had declined to about 7 per cent by 1995.
For manufacturing, it is known that Hungary is limited on resources and that they depend on raw materials, but they still have some manufacturing. Leading manufactures are crude steel, rolled steel, aluminum, cement, and leather footwear. Furthermore, the tourism industry is an important and well-developed part of the economy. For example, Budapest is a popular destination with visitors and enjoys a reputation as one of Europeís most stylish cities. In 1995 about 39 million visitors generated revenue of about US$1,724 million. After all, Hungary isnít such a bad place to visit.
In Hungary, the monetary unit they use is the forint of 100 fillér. However, the National Bank of Hungary regulates all the banking activities. Of course, Hungaryís imports and exports are little, but the assortment is great. The principal exports of Hungary are machinery and transport equipment, agricultural products, chemicals, apparel, textiles, iron and steel, and wine. The leading imports include machinery and transport equipment, crude petroleum, chemicals, and metal ores.
Government and Politics
Hungaryís constitution, introduced in 1949 and afterward amended, was thoroughly revised in 1989. The revisions marked Hungaryís transformation from a Communist-dominated peopleís republic to an independent democratic state. The head of state of Hungary is the president, elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term. The National Assembly also selects the prime minister and his Cabinet, the Council of Ministers. The prime minister is the head of government in functional terms. As For Politics, Monopolized by Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party (HSWP), the communist party. Other parties reappeared in liberalized conditions of late 1980s, including Independent Smallholders' Party and Social Democratic Party. Opposition Roundtable engaged in talks with HSWP to reform political system. Besides, whatís listed above, Hungary has a great amount of unions and organizations that try to improve the standard of living in the nation.
Moreover, Hungary is a member of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the Council of Europe (CE), the Partnership for Peace (PFP), the Central European Initiative (CEI), and the Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA). Hungary also has diplomatic relations with most countries. It has allied with Soviet Union in international affairs. Has had relations with United States throughout postwar period; since late 1970s, these relations have warmed considerably and in late 1980s they have blossomed.
As for defense, The 1947 Peace Treaty restricted Hungary to an army of 65,000 personnel and an air force of 5,000. However, its forces now consist of an army of 31,600 and an air force of 17,500. All males between the ages of 18 and 55 were required to serve for 18 months, but this was reduced to 9 months in 1997. Moreover, its national security consists of armed forces, ground forces, air forces, paramilitary, and the equipment used was primarily Soviet.
Outlook on the World
Hungary is an exposed crossroad in Europe. Meaning that they have been invaded and overrun repeatedly. As of conflicts, Hungary has had conflicts with Turkey due to past wars and hostilities. In addition, it had conflicts with other countries such as Romania, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Austria, Poland, and Italy. Moreover, the concerns were over the captivation of their land, which was dismembered from Hungary after World War I. Furthermore, Hungary is not a member of the European Council (EC), however, itís trying to join it. As for trade, its partners are mainly Russia, Austria, Germany, Italy, and other neighboring countries.
Committee: General Assembly
Delegate: Rakan Al-Bahar
Issue 1- The Question of the Role of the UN Regarding Intervention in a State or a Region for Humanitarian Purposes.
Honorable delegates, Hungary has been joyful and optimist about the forging of a new global partnership for a new era of human history. However, its membership in the UN is kind of a partnership, but not in a way that authorizes the UN to have the power of intervening with Hungaryís current affairs. Although, Hungary does not suffer from humanitarian problems, it still hopes to have the back-up help of the UN, only when asked for its help. Hungary believes the UN should be more lenient regarding the intervention issue, even after conferences with United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. Yet, Hungarians know that they need the UN to intervene due to fear of one thing; an economic crisis. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is good help, but itís not enough. Moreover, Hungary wishes the United Nations played a firmer role in the international protection of human rights.
Issue 2- The Question of Developing an International Legal Code to Deal With
Criminal Activity on the Internet (WWW) such as hacking, pornography, viruses, etc.
Honorable delegates, Hungary, being a country neighboring one of those areas where such dreadful crimes have occurred, believes in the development of an international legal code. However, that is due to the increase of crime rate in and out of the capital city, Budapest. Itís commonly known that the exposition of pornography leads to mischievous acts in a country that are close related to rape, kidnapping, and prostitution. Hungary firmly insists going against criminal activity on the Internet such as hacking and viruses, in panic for its emerging computer and Internet companies.
Issue 3- The Question of the Admittance of Palestine into the United Nations as a Full Voting Member.
Honorable delegates, due to the universal values embedded in Hungarians (respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, including minority rights, democracy, the rule of law and social justice), it supports the admittance of Palestine into the United Nations as a full voting member. Hungary suffered for many long years, and is aware of what Palestine is facing in the present moment. However, it doesnít want to bring back itís heartbreaking history, but it supports the peace process, and stands neutral as possible. The belief of equalization and peace among all countries remains near a Hungarianís heart and mind, and for that itís in agreement that Palestine has its full voting membership. Furthermore, it hopes that in this fresh millennium the UN would adjust the equality among nations, better than ever before.
Delegate: Rakan Al-Bahar
Forum: General assembly
Question of: Developing an International Legal Code to Deal With Criminal Activity on the Internet (WWW) such as hacking, pornography, viruses, etc.
Defining hacking, as the event resulting from a computer fanatic who attempts to gain illegal and unauthorized access to systems in any part of the world;
Defining viruses as the "self-replicating code planted illegally in a computer program";
Noting that criminal activity on the Internet could be a vital exterminator of the technological and developmental world;
Aware of the consequences that result in the not taking a further act in solving the problem;
Deeply concerned in the freedom of surfing on the Internet, and what positive or negative affects it carries out. Meaning is it good or bad, and what ages is it suitable for,
Recognizing the promotion of the Internetís useful resources;
Bearing in mind that as the use of the revolutionary Internet increases, more and more solutions (technological advance) and crimes will come into view;
Noting with deep concern the loss of major banks have whom have been encountering problems with some clientsí accounts, for example NBH encountered one last year.
Noting with regret in the outburst of viruses created and sent daily;
Expressing its appreciation to Internet crime fighters, who protect and serve in different ways:
A- Anti-virus software,
B- Huge Internet companies who make sure everythingís safe on the Internet,
C- Web surfers who donít wonder into harmful and unhelpful sites,
Evidence: Employing anti-virus companies to do the job (Norton anti-virus);
Deeply distressed that pornography brings up unwanted costs, such as:
A- Destruction of innocent minds and thoughts,
B- Corruptions in behavior, especially children,
C- An inclination in the rate of prostitution, rape, and murder,
D- Country will no longer be a safe place to visit;
1. Declares that the Criminal Activity on the Internet will soon reach its peak, if Internet usage is not managed responsibly, according to statistics.
2. Emphasizes the mounting of fear hackers put on businesses;
3. Trusts all Internet service providers (ISPís) to take a cautious step toward hacking and viruses;
4. Urge Internet firms to help by means of:
A- Advertising against criminal activities,
B- Setting laws for violators,
C- Allow the UN to intervene;
5. Requests all countries to join and approve of the UNCAI, in order to initiate its role;
6. Further Requests all countries willing to donate their thoughts, ideas, funds, and trust to establish "The Internet Government Court":
A- Which will receive annual reports from the UNCAI,
B- Twelve chosen members from the UNCAI will judge the arising case;
7. Recommends all countries that have not yet faced the problem to be prepared, or take a further step by joining the UNCAI;
8. Expresses its hope that no more criminal activities will take place if everyone cooperates and realizes how this is such an important issue;
9. Resolves the establishment of the United Nations Criminal Activities on the Internet Organization (UNCAI). It will function by:
A- Placing stations in all countries that approve and are members of the UNCAI,
- Observing Internet activities and various transactions.
B- Permit the interference of the UNCAI in any member country by taking actions, necessary and in support of Internet security.
C- Have the UNCAI write its own legal code.
10. Further Resolves that the UNCAI will intervene in any member country during times of crisis under the conditions of part B of the ninth operative clause of this resolution.
Honorable chair, fellow delegates, and most distinguished guests, as we say in Hungary "J? napot", meaning good morning.
Hungary is honored to participate in this worldwide event. From the creator of mankind, to an automatic conflict: Could you imagine connecting a few wires together, then connecting it to modem, and after that youíll be connected to another world. A world in where you think youíre protected and invisible, but behind those monitors everyone knows you. Today, in our real world, we lack privacy, and in addition to that there is no privacy in the world of technological advance and automatics.
One point that Hungary would like to bring up is hacking on the Internet. Hacking has been a threat to all people surfing the Internet or the banks and firms that have computers broken into. Hungary wishes that all countries cooperated, in implementing an active solution to this growing problem.
I, as ambassador of Hungary, achieved many things in our trip to CACMUN. Although we had fun in a couple of days, I grasped the basics of how the United Nations functions, which I had never comprehended. First of all, in lobbying and merging, I managed to lobby my resolution, and get it debated. However, I spoke in the General assembly many times on each resolution submitted. On the first resolution, submitted by the U.S on U.N intervention, I spoke for it pointing out the good points of the resolution, and for the first time I proposed an amendment. The amendment failed, but I still voted for the resolution.
As for the second resolution debated, Iím proud to say that I was the one who submitted it, along with New Zealand. I strongly supported it, and made it as clear as possible, but unfortunately, the delegate of Turkey got up, and just started pointing out inefficient arguments and faultless mistakes in the resolution, so it failed at the end.
In the third resolution submitted by Israel, Hungary got up once and gave a neutral comment, because of its insignificant role in interfering with this issue. In conclusion to all this, I believe that I saved Hungaryís best interests, and everything I did was within character for Hungary. To me, this trip was very beneficial, because I started to perceive the importance of politics among nations; I also proved to myself that one could prove a point, and fortunately in our stay there I made a couple of friends which I hope I can keep in-touch with in the future.