Country: United Kingdom
Event: CACMUN 2000
Student: Mustafa Malaki
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The United Kingdom of Great Brtiain and Northern Island is an unwritten constitutional, parliamentary monarchy and an island nation headed by a King or Queen (currently, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II). Formed by England, Scotland, Wasles, and Northern Ireland, the United Kingdom is head of the Commonwealth of Nations. Also, it is responsible for all external and internal affairs of the four isles. However, Commonwealth nations act independently and have internal governments. The government is based on an unwritten constitution that has changed throughout centuries.
The monarchy is hereditary and considered as the head of the Commonwealth of Nations and heads of state of 16 Commonwealth countries. It is also in charge of appointing the Prime Minister, government, judges, officers of military forces, and other political figures. The Queen has the full right to declare war or make peace, recognize foreign countries, and to end treaties. The monarch should be consulted on all aspects of the government, but is has to show impartiality. The Queen meets frequently with the Prime Minister, chairs Privy Council meetings, reviews cabinet decisions, and signs state papers. However practically, the queen has no power.
The executive branch of the government is comprised of the Cabinet of ministers headed by the Prime Minister. Tony Blair became the prime minister after winning party elections along with the Labor Party in 1997, thus putting an end to the conservative rule over the British government. Now, he heads the House of Commons. Alongside the prime minister, the Cabinet holds supreme government authority. This body decides and implements policy and coordinates government departments. It is composed of 15 to 20 members who are chosen and approved by the monarch and prime minister.
The legislature is another branch in the government of United Kingdom. This branch is dedicated to the parliament and parliamentary issues. The British Parliament is one of the oldest assemblies in the world. It is made up of the monarch, House of Lords (religious representatives), and the House of Commons, and the approbation of all three is requires for any legislation to become a law. Northern Ireland has its own parliament.
Political parties are always present in political scenes of United Kingdom. The Conservative Party, Labor Party, and the Liberal Democratic Party are the most active in recent years. The Conservative party was not as successful as the Labor. As evident, the United Kingdom faced many political and economic problems while the Conservatives were in power, such as the Northern Ireland conflict and the economic recession. Sinn Fein, led by Gerry Adams and Martin McGuinness, is a party representing Northern Ireland and has been asking for secession from the United Kingdom. Currently, the conflict is still going on as British and Irish officials are trying to come up with a deal that would satisfy both sides.
In Northern Ireland, the United Kingdom has allowed that island to act almost autonomously, except for its foreign policy, defense, currency, tariffs, and communications. The Irish parliament is to hold independent elections, but must be based on United Kingdom’s parliamentary constituencies. The Welsh and Scottish parliaments were both formed in May 1999. These parliaments have powers over agriculture, fishery, economic development, education, environments, food, health, law, police, fire service, local governments, sport and the arts, transport, training, tourism, research and statistics, and social work. However, the British parliament retains power over abortion, broadcasting policy, civil service, constitution, goods and services, defense, foreign policy, most relations with Europe, protection of borders, social security, and the stability of United Kingdom’s fiscal, economic, and monetary system. Both Wales and Scotland still have members in the British Parliament.
Although there are notable differences between the soils of different parts of the United Kingdom, almost three quarters of United Kingdom’s land is suitable for agriculture, which is particularly a significant figure compared to other nations with larger areas. Forty percent of all farming takes place at the eastern and south-central parts of England, as well as the east side of Scotland. Grass covers up most land and is used for livestock grazing. On the other hand, forests only occupy 10% of the land.
Few mineral resources exist in the United Kingdom, with zinc, tin, iron ore, copper, gold, and silver all produced in small quantities. Minerals such as limestone, slate, laic, kaolin, chalk, sandstone, salt, and gypsum. On the other hand, United Kingdom enjoys the richest energy resources of the European Union (EU), thanks to the large deposits of coal that has been mined for more than 300 years. Oil and natural gas that have been dicovered recently also exist in considerable amounts in the British sector of the North Sea.
Although limited, these resources have been acting efficiently during Britain’s devleopment as the world’s first industrial nation.
The United Kingdom has trade relations with most EU countries, as well as United States and Canada. Importing oil from the Persian Gulf and OPEC nations also being considered. Overall, United Kingdom is making large profits out of these trade deals.
The United Kingdom is a self-sufficient country in some fields, while dependent in others. As for oil, the discovery took place in 1975, so the amount of oil isn’t enough. Therefore, the United Kingdom buys crude oil from OPEC nations to satisfy its needs. Many other minerals like copper and iron are imported. In farming and cattle, the United Kingdom has a large number of cattle and farming land.
The population of the Unite Kingdom comprises descendants from many people that occupied the islands sometime before 1066. Celts, Romans, Angles, Saxons, Scandinavians, and Normans were different people who came across the islands and decided to settle. Therefore, the population of the United Kingdom doesn’t contain a large majority of native British people. Other ethnic groups include Chinese; Jews; and central, eastern, and southern Europe. During the last 50 years, many immigrants from the Caribbean, south, and Southeast Asia.
Of the 58,784,000 people living in the United Kingdom, 94% are whites. Blacks, mostly Afro-Caribbean, only consist 1.6% of that figure, while 1.5% are Indians, 1% Pakistani, and 0.3% each Bangladeshi and Chinese. Of this population, 50% of all minority ethnic groups was born in the United Kingdom. Because most of these minorities have resided in the United Kingdom either for education or work, they live in the urbanized and industrialized areas of England, especially the South-
East and the Midlands.
In the United Kingdom, freedom of religion is absolutely guaranteed. Between the 17th and early 20th century, Various laws were passed regarding this right. All parts of the United Kingdom had and have disregarded religion while dealing with political issues, except Northern Ireland. In this island, religion was to differentiate between the descendants of the original Irish inhabitants and the descendants of the Scottish and English settlers both politically and culturally. The majority of the latter group, the Protestants, support remaining part of the United Kingdom; while the other group, the Roman Catholics, are advocates of a united Ireland.
Although the United Kingdom is represented by most of the world’s religions, it is theoretically a Christian nation. The Church of England and the Church of Scotland (Presbyterian) are the most important established churches nationwide. About 47% of the population belong to the Anglican communion, represented by the Church of England, the Church in Wales, the Scottish Episcopal Church, and the Church of Ireland. About 9% of the population are Roman Catholic, 4 % belongs to the Presbyterian Churches, and 1% are Methodists. Out of most European countries, the United Kingdom is one of the most if not most countries with a high Muslim percentage, varying between 3 and 4%. Hindu, Sikh, Jains, Zoroastrians, and Bahai communities also live in the United Kingdom in lesser numbers; however, the Jewish community is the second largest amongst all other European countries. The Jewish number 300,000 persons. Muslims and evangelical (Protestant) Christianity are rapidly growing in the country, the first mainly due to the people coming from south Asia.
An annual 20 million visitors travel to the United Kingdom. Only the rich cultural heritage and traditions can explain this huge number of visitors that spend their vacations in England and other parts of the kingdom. Tourism in the United Kingdom has flourished in the past two decades, with theatres, museums, art galleries, and historical buildings all contributing to the beauty of the nation.
The United Kingdom ranks fifth in between the world’s nuclear power possessing countries. However, it intends to destroy all air-delivered nuclear weapons. Its strategic nuclear deterrent is based, as submarine-launched intercontinental ballistic missiles, on the Royal Navy Trident submarines, and as free-fall nuclear weapons on Royal Air Force (RAF) bombers, although free-fall bombs are to be taken out of service. The defense also includes the British Army.
The Defense Council, headed by the Secretary of State for Defense and including the Chief of Staff for each of the three services, the Chief Scientific Advisor for Defense, and the Permanent Under-Secretary of State for Defense, exercises powers of command and administrative control. After the Cold War, however, the United Kingdom decided to reduce the armed forces significantly in size.
The British Army is controlled by the Defense Council through an army board consisted of both civilian and military members. In April 1997, there were 108,810 men and women in the army. This figure is insignificant if compared with that of the US. The Territorial Army is a national reserve force that is called out in any case of emergency. The Ulster Defense Regiment, a Northern Irish army, contributes 6,200 personnel to the regular army.
The British Navy, also known as the Royal Navy, is controlled by the Admiralty Board under the Secretary of State for Defense. After reducing the fleet strength in 1996, the operational strength included 3 Trident (strategic) submarines, 12 nuclear submarines, 2 aircraft carriers, and about 35 destroyers and frigates. The naval personnel had been reduced to 45,146, compared with 63,500 before 1993 and 50,500 in mid-1995.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is actually an amalgam of the Royal Flying Corps and its naval wing the Royal Naval Air Service. It is administered by the Air Force Board, headed by the Secretary of State for Defense. In April 1997, the RAF personnel numbered 57, 867, including 4,895 women.
The United Kingdom is totally independent in the field of defense. Despite, few imports from the United States, the United Kingdom possesses the required technology and personnel to produce weapons, including nuclear ones.
The United Kingdom is a substantial member of several military organizations. First and for most, it makes up the bulk of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). It contributed to maintaining peace and security in Yugoslavia, in alliance with its fellow NATO countries. The United Kingdom also volunteered in the UN peacekeeping missions, such as the Gulf War and the Falklands War in 1982. Currently, its forces are trying to secure peace in Sierra Leone and Northern Ireland.
The United Kingdom is located in Western Europe, northwest of France. The islands include England, Wales, Scotland, and the northern one-sixth of the island of Ireland (Northern Ireland) between the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea. It lies between the geographic coordinates of 54 00 North, and 2 00 West. The only bordering country is Ireland, with which it shares 360 km. It is also bordered by the English Channel.
The United Kingdom has an area of 244,820 square kilometers, of which 3,230 square kilometers is water. It is slightly smaller than the American state of Oregon. Its topography consists mostly of rugged hills and low mountains. Vast green plains are the most abundant in the United Kingdom. The climate is temperate and moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the North Atlantic Current, and more than one half of the days is overcast. During summer, the temperature is humid and usually rainy. In winter, the temperature falls to about 0 degrees Celsius in London.
View on world problems:
The United Kingdom’s foreign policy is based upon maintenance of peace and security in all regions of the world. When conflicts emerge, the United Kingdom tends to persuade both sides into resolving it through peaceful negotiations. The United Kingdom and United States of America usually share the same policy towards different world problems. The United Kingdom plays an essential role in today’s political world.
The United Kingdom is currently engaged in several international conflicts, including the conflict with Northern Ireland, disputes with Argentina over the Falkland Islands, and the Rockall continental shelf dispute Ireland, Denmark, and Iceland. None of these, except the one involving Northern Ireland, have evolved into crucial issues that might have required military face-off. However, negotiations are taking place regarding each issue The United Kingdom does not intend to destabilize relations with any of these countries furthermore and seeks to resolve these disputes by peaceful means.
The United Kingdom is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council that enjoys the right of veto. During its membership in this council, the United Kingdom has never abused the right of veto and has voted for decisions that would resolve conflicts in a peaceful manner. The United Kingdom condemns those members that seek to violate the main goal of the Security Council: peace and international security. The United Kingdom is also a member of the European Union (EU) and is a very significant actor on the European stage. Over the past few years, the United Kingdom has been at odds with some EU policies, for it refused to join the "Euro" nations reasoning that the currency will lose value and cause economic losses to those European countries. In fact, the Euro is currently losing value everyday. The other conflict was regarding the import of British beef into other European countries. Although countries like France and Germany didn’t import British beef for a period of time, claiming that it had been affected by the "mad cow" disease, the EU finally lifted the embargo and export to other European nations was allowed. The United Kingdom has friendly relations with all Commonwealth countries which include: Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, the Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Botswana, Brunei, Cameroon, Canada, Cyprus, Dominica, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guyana, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Kiribati, Lesotho, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Mauritius, Namibia, Nauru, New Zealand, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, the Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, the Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Currently, the United Kingdom forces are trying to retain peace in Sierra Leone.
Foreign relations with the United States of America are very important and strategic for the British government. Being on good terms with the strongest political, economic, and military country bears the best benefit of the United Kingdom. Likewise, the American government does not deny the United Kingdom’s remarkable efforts in maintaining world peace in different regions of the world. In fact, relations with the United States are very strong and at their peaks right now, ranging from political to social relations. The United Kingdom, since the beginning of World War II has had strong relations with the United States, and hopes to preserve those relations through mutual cooperation and support for each other. The United States and United Kingdom always have similar views on world issues, excluding internal affairs that neither interferes with. This includes their policies towards Iraq, Sierra Leone, the peace process in the Middle East, the situation in East Timor, and other global matters that pertain to the international community.
The United Kingdom is also a member of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the G-8, the Western European Union (WEU), and NATO.
The United Kingdom is one of the world’s leading commercial and industrialized nations. Ranking fifth in the world, it had a Gross National Product (GNP) of US $1,095 billion, equivalent to US $18,700 per capita. The major industries include transport, communications, steel, petroleum, coal, gas, and electricity. In 1997, the Labor government continued the low-inflation policy. However, unemployment level was about 1.65 million by April 1997. In 1996, the annual budget deficit equaled 4.5 percent of the GDP.
The United Kingdom is currently the fifth-largest trading nation and exports more per capita than the United States and Japan. It trades goods with most European countries, importing foodstuffs, wood and paper products, machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, textile yarn and fabrics, other manufactured goods, and automatic data-processing equipment. Exports include machinery, transport equipment, basic manufactured goods, petroleum, chemicals, iron and steel products, precision instruments, and aerospace and electronics goods and equipment. The imports in 1995 totaled US $265.7 billion, while the exports US $242.7 billion. This clearly indicates that the United Kingdom is not dully self-sufficient and is still dependent on other nations.
The United Kingdom is a member in the World Bank as well as the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Its major trading partners are the EU members, for it makes up more than 50% of all trade deals, while trade with Asia and Oceania is about 15%, and with North America 13%. To name individual countries, the main trading partners of the United Kingdom are Germany, France, the United States, and the Benelux countries.
The British currency is Sterling Pound which is currently one of the most valuable currencies in the market.
The kingdom of Great Britain was officially formed by the Act of Union that was implemented in 1707, when England and Scotland were unified. England had already annexed Wales before the act. After the death of Elizabeth I, the same monarch ruled the country, and single parliament was formed. Followed came a century of conflicts that included the Spanish war of Succession. Later in the 18th century, George I became the King and faced some conflicts such as rebellions against the government. At the same time, England had entered an era of population growth, urbanization, and industrialization. Then, the country entered into the War of Independence with the Americans, who took control of the land and put an end to English occupation of America. The 19th century was quite peaceful, with the economic cycle of the country revolving rapidly and successfully. The British Empire was considered as the strongest country and force in the 19th century and beginning of the 20th. World War I was the next major event in British history, as the United Kingdom had sided with Germanys considered as a powerful ally for the Germans against the French. However, World War II had a different combination; the British had formed an alliance with the Soviet Union and United States to stop Hitler’s progress. However meanwhile, the United Kingdom gradually lost its colonization of Southeast Asian countries. Later in the 50s and 60s, African and Caribbean countries began their quest for independence, and soon the British withdrew from all occupied territories. Now, 16 of those colonies are members of the Commonwealth of Nations. Conflicts such as the Northern Ireland conflict and inflation were introduced into the government which were dealt with shortly after their emergence. What deserves attention is the fact that the United Kingdom had never experienced occupation or colonization and did not actually have an independence day. The United Kingdom experienced several changes in the last 30 years. In Northern Ireland, civil right movements took place as Roman Catholics minority asked for social equality. These movements resulted in violent clashes between the minority and the Protestants, as well as the suspension of the autonomous Northern Irish parliament by the British government in 1972. Acts of terrorism by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) asked for the unification of Northern Ireland and the Irish Republic, while the Protestant majority was in favor of remaining part of the United Kingdom. The British government decided to send troops to stabilize the region, but failed. Meanwhile, the country faced economic difficulties under the Labor government until 1979 when the conservatives came into power headed by Margaret Thatcher. The conservatives didn’t succeed to overcome the difficulties; however, people voted for the party to stay in power because of its favorable foreign policy, especially that towards the Falkland Islands. John Major later became the leader of the party.
In 1994, the IRA and British government signed a cease-fire, which temporarily put an end to the frequent terrorist actions in England and Northern Ireland. In 1997, the Labor party headed by Tony Blair was elected as the new government. Tony Blair met Gerry Adams, the leader of Sinn Fein, and an agreement was reached in April 1998. This agreement was reached on radical new arrangements for an Ulster assembly, a council of ministers linking Northern Ireland and the Irish Republic, and limited cross-border bodies to facilitate joint decision-making. A British-Irish council linking devolved assemblies in the United Kingdom and the London and Dublin governments was also proposed. A poll organized in Northern Ireland had a 70% "Yes" vote to the agreement. However, talks are still going on over the decommissioning of the British paramilitary weapons.
Issue #1: Sierra Leone and the role of UN peacemaking and peacekeeping
In 1997, a military coup by several junior officers led by Major Koroma overthrew the democratic government of Sierra Leone. The Koroma regime was not recognized by any country, and a British-sponsored Security Council resolution placed an arms and oil embargo on the country. The Nigerian government took the initiative to restore the deposed government in 1998, and soon succeeded to take control of Freetown. Former president Kabbah returned to office in March 1998. However, a state of emergency was declared, and 13000 UN peacekeeping soldiers and security advisors were sent to Sierra Leone. In January 1999, after the execution of 24 army officers, the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) invaded Freetown asking for the release of their former leader Sankoh who was in custody. Despite a UN-brokered peace deal in July 1999 to end the civil war, the RUF did not cease its terrorist actions against the UN forces. In May 2000, 500 UN soldiers and their weapons were seized and captured, including 13 armored personnel carriers. United States and United Kingdom officials pledged the rebels to free the soldiers, but they reached nowhere.
The United Kingdom’s first move towards the conflict was to suspend Sierra Leone’s membership in the Commonwealth of Nations. The British government severely condemned the rebel attacks and sponsored an SC resolution to place embargoes on the nation. Furthermore, it voted in favor of sending UN forces into Sierra Leone to retain peace. The United Kingdom also decided to send British troops to the region in order to take part in the UN peacekeeping mission. Currently, the British forces, which number 700 soldiers, are training Sierra Leone’s national troops for military confrontation with the rebels. Furthermore, the United Kingdom condemns the RUF and West Side Boys for the late capturing of 11 British soldiers in August 2000 and 6 soldiers less than a month ago. However, they were rescued in a violent clash on September 10th, 2000. The British government has no intention to pull its troops out of Sierra Leone before bringing stability to its former colony. The British government stresses on the fact that "this kind of thruggery, of rejection of law and order in Sierra Leone will not be tolerated by the international community," as the British UN ambassador Jeremy Greenstock phrases it.
Issue #2: Southern Lebanon and the role of the UN in regional stability
From 1978 to May 2000, Lebanon’s southern territory had been occupied by the Israeli forces. In May 2000, Israel ended this 24-year-old invasion by withdrawing from Southern Lebanon. This action was reflected by a huge protest by Israeli citizens living in Israel. In order for the withdrawal to take place and to deter any further terrorist act by any of the two sides, the United Nations sent peacekeeping forces into the area.
The United Kingdom and the international community as a whole were very impressed to hear the wise Israeli decision. After two decades of fighting and violence between the Lebanese Islamic group, Hizballah, and the Israeli forces, an agreement was reached. The United Kingdom appreciates the way in which the conflict was resolved. It also contributed to send its forces as UN forces to the area to maintain security. The United Kingdom, however, condemns the terrorist acts of Hizballah and its supporters, as well as the Israeli stubbornness to resolve the conflict at its birth. The United Kingdom through proposed resolutions in the Security Council and talks with both Palestinian and Israeli officials, asks both sides to sign a peace agreement and not to fight at the expense of civilians lives.
Issue #3: Ethiopian and Eritrean war and the humanitarian crisis
In 1998, territorial disputes between Ethiopia and Eritrea lead to one of the worst African wars in history. Addis Ababa claimed a barren area of about 390 square kilometers that had been officially part of Eritrea after the latter’s independence in 1993. Eritrea, on the other hand, refuted these claims and insisted that that territory is an integral part of Eritrea as it was when Eritrea was admitted to the United Nations in 1993. War slightly calmed down until February 1999, when the Ethiopians reclaimed the territory and carried out severe military attacks on Eritrea. Now, more than a million Eritrean refugees have fled their country to Sudan.
The United Kingdom’s policy towards the issue has been clear and obvious since the beginning of the conflict. The British government blames Ethiopia for the devastating results that the war has produced. Condemning Ethiopia for violating the national sovereignty and integrity of an independent Eritrean nation, the United Kingdom has requested Ethiopian and Eritrean officials to negotiate in order to reach an agreement. Although Ethiopia has attempted the violation, there’s no way that peace could be achieved without both sides having bilateral talks. The United Kingdom is ready to take any measures under the rule of the United Nations if necessary, and expresses its interest in facilitating and taking part in the talks. The United Kingdom’s main concern highlights those Eritrean refugees who have been forced to evacuate the country and seek asylum in bordering nations. The United Kingdom regrets the fact that those two countries, which are considered as two of the poorest in the world, are spending large amounts of money on arms instead of using it to for humanitarian purposes. The United Kingdom shows readiness to send humanitarian relief to the Eritrean refugees.
Issue: Sierra Leone and the role of UN peacemaking and peacekeeping
Forum: Security Council
Delegation: United Kingdom
Security Council Clauses
1. Urges all parties engaged in the conflict to facilitate the movement and implementation of the provisions of the Lome peace agreement through substantial cooperation with the personnel of the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL), the Military Observer Group (ECOMOG), and Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) in order to restore national unity and form a democratic government having representatives from all different groups and regions in Sierra Leone;
2. Further Resolves to form the United Nations Mission for the Promotion of Democracy in Sierra Leone (UNMPDSI) that will:
a. be composed of UN personnel specialized in the implementation of democracy in different regions of the world and that will terminate after a specific period decided upon by the representative of the mission and the Sierra Leonian authorities;
provide the involved authorities with the necessary procedures for the formation of the democratic government composed of a president, an elected body of representatives by the people, a written constitution, and a elections council;
One. monitor and revise the first presidential elections of the country, as well as cooperating fully with the elections council to maintain fairness in the elections’
Two. Send monthly reports to the United Nations secretary general and Security Council regarding the most recent developments, accomplishments, and difficulties that the mission may have faced;
3. Further requests the governments of West African nations not to provide other Sierra Leonian rebel groups with bases form which they might launch their attacks, and to report any action taken by these rebel groups to the United Nations in order for military procedures to be carried out.
Issue: Southern Lebanon and the role of the UN in regional stability
Forum: Security Council
Delegation: United Kingdom
1. Strongly urges the Israeli forces to stop launching attacks on Southern Lebanon, endangering the lives of Lebanese civilians, violating the Lebanese fly boundaries, and to free two Lebanese civilians who were arrested several months ago, therefore complying with all requirements of UN resolutions 425 and 426 of 1978, and not to cross over the withdrawal line set after the withdrawal of the Israeli forces out of Lebanon in July 2000;
2. Strongly urges the government of Lebanon to free the three captured Israeli forces by the Lebanese group of Hizballah, cease launching attacks on Israeli grounds, and to comply with the cease-fire signed in July 2000;
3. Strongly requests the governments of Israel and Lebanon to cooperate with the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) in the accomplishment of the following goals:
One. confirming the immediate and permanent withdrawal of the Israeli forces;
Two. restoring international peace and security in Southern Lebanon;
Three. assisting the government of Lebanon in ensuring the return of its effective authority in Southern Lebanon;
Four. ensuring the compliance of both sides with the withdrawal line and the cease-fire signed in July 2000.
Issue: Ethiopian and Eritrean was and the humanitarian crisis
Forum: Security Council
Delegation: United Kingdom
1. Strongly urges the governments of Ethiopia and Eritrea to cease the recent hostilities in compliance with the Agreement on Cessation of Hostilities signed in Algiers, Algeria on June 18th, 2000, and take the necessary measures of disarmament of their forces;
2. Asks the governments of Ethiopia and Eritrea to provide security and immunity for the United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) personnel including the military observers and forces, and to provide them with all facilities needed to the accomplishment of their tasks;
3. Urges the International Red Cross (IRC) and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) to provide refugees of both countries with:
One. ensure the safe return of refugees to their origins
Two. ensure the rehabilitation of refugees
Three. create educational workshops for youths rather than allowing them to fight.
Opening Speech: United Kingdom
Honorable President and delegates,
Today, we are all here to convene once again to discuss the major conflicts that separate us from each other. We are here to resolve these conflicts and accomplish more than we did before. Today is the day we should sacrifice our own interest for the well being of the world as a whole, perhaps for the well being of everyone. We, as the United Kingdom, declare our readiness and will to cooperate with others and put an end to these conflicts. We shall look seek solutions to our conflicts rather than condemn or denounce each other. We are here under the name of the United Nations, and shall work hand to hand to achieve the goals aforementioned in the charter of this worldwide organization.
The United Kingdom has entered a new era of foreign policy. We shall no longer be called "the land where the sun never sets." The era of British colonization is over. The era of brutalities and torture is over. The United Kingdom successfully stepped into the new world of independence and democracy. Now, it tries to further strengthen its relations with all countries, including the ones it used to colonize one day.
The United Kingdom sees it very important to highlight the issue of southern Lebanon. Although we are not directly engaged in the conflict, we try our best in the resolution of this conflict through our effective decisions in the Security Council. Unfortunately, neither Israel nor Southern Lebanon seems to comply fully with the UN resolutions. On one hand, Israel forces keep attacking Lebanese civilians. On the other side of the border, the Lebanese resistance groups launch attacks on Israel. For how long shall we stand still while those two fight? For how long shall we see innocent people giving up their lives? In spite of the Israeli withdrawal, we can still feel the tension and violence occupying the air in that area. We, as in the international community, should do all we can to terminate this conflict permanently, and the only way to do so is through peaceful means, not military action.
CACMUN Performance Paragraphs
Mustafa Malaki (UK-SC)Representing the United Kingdom in the Security Council of the 33rd session of CACMUN, I, Mustafa Malaki, personally believed that I had achieved my preset goals. I succeeded in portraying a good image of my country, and refrained from using my veto power whenever the decisions did not directly relate to my country.
On the issue about Sierra Leone, I proposed a clause that raised much controversy and argument in the session (by the way, I like proposing this kind of clauses). This clause basically asked as United Nations committee to assist the government of Sierra Leone with promotion of democracy and elections. However, some countries (Russia and China) considered it a violation of the national sovereignty. However, during my speech I clarified that this would only happen with the consent of Sierra Leonian government. They made this amendment to my clause, and it passed with majority of votes. I also proposed a clause about the humanitarian situation in Sierra Leone which passed with clear majority.
I also succeeded in failing several clauses that went against my policy, one of which asked the NATO to be under the command of UN. However, I voted against as well as the US, while others abstained. I made two speeches against two of the proposed clauses, one that I mentioned right now, and the other that passed despite me abstaining. On the resolution as a whole, I abstained as it was passed.
As for the second issue, again, I and another delegate merged our clauses into one which was discussed for an hour. The clause suggested establishing a demilitarized zone in Southern Lebanon. However, the delegate of the US disagreed and the Israeli delegate was invited to make a speech. We tried to convince the United States that the clause would not take effective action for certain, and that he should at least abstain. Despite our efforts, the United States delegate seemed not to comprehend his true policy and voted against the clause. However, it passed with a majority of votes, but under extreme pressure he had to say that the presence of this clause would have not motivated him to veto the whole resolution. Therefore, we considered this a success.
Later the same day, another clause was proposed asking Israel to pay war reparations to Lebanon. However, I took the floor and made a 2-minute speech on the clause as a whole, focusing on the fact that it was somehow biased and did not consider the damage to Israel as a result of Lebanese guerilla attacks. The United States totally disagreed. However, the clause passed despite us two voting against, and I was going to veto the whole resolution if the clause would’ve been passed. However, in order to "look good" in front of the world, I chose not to veto the whole resolution and left that to the United States. That way, neither would the resolution pass, nor would I ruin my country’s reputation. I believe I acted quite diplomatically on this issue. The resolution failed as a result of US veto, while I abstained.
On the last issue, I proposed one clause (the way they allowed us to propose clauses was to have your name written on a list. However, I was really angry since I was the first one that morning to send a note to the chair to be on the speakers’ list, but they seemed to ignore or not notice it. Therefore, I was placed 10th on the list and didn’t get to speak more than once on this issue) which aimed at providing IRC and UNHCR officials with security and immunity as well as means of transportation by the governments of Ethiopia and Eritrea. It passed with unanimous vote Anyway, I made two speeches against two clauses. One of the clauses asked IMF to provide other agencies with more money to help refugees, but since the UK, US, and France were significant members of the IMF, I persuaded them (of course, through individual notes) to vote against because it would have made us pay more (which we don’t like in reality). It actually failed with a majority of votes despite two amendments that were made. Another clause asked the UN to start returning refugees to their nations of origin. At first sight, I thought I supported that. However, I connected what I knew about the situation and derived that I was in fact against that. Basically, what I thought was that most refugees are currently staying in Sudan. Their not returning to their countries would mean that they would be a burden on Sudan economically. On the other hand, the US sanctions were destroying Sudan’s economy. With these two factors in mind, I derived that they would apply more pressure on the Sudan government to give up and perhaps surrender because of its poor financial status.
On another clause that asked UN to send in more peacekeeping forces into the region, I succeeded in persuading France, through notes, to vote for since the peacekeeping forces did not include neither UK nor French forces, and that we would not have been affected if this clause had passed. This clause indeed passed as well as the resolution as a whole.
All in all, I liked the way I altered some nations’ decisions through my speeches and individual notes. The latter was more effective and productive, since I discussed secret things with my allies that the world as a whole should’ve not become aware of. Basically, I am satisfied with my performance.