Event: CACMUN 2000
Student: Nouf Al FraihLinks to other sites on the Web: Back to the 2000-2001 Team page
Zimbabwe Country Profile
Until the independence in 1980, Zimbabwe was effectively ruled by the white population, through a parliament elected by a voting population limited to whites and only a small number of blacks. After the independence a new constitution was drawn up that declared Zimbabwe a majority-rile republic. The 1980 constitution guarantees the fundamental rights and freedom of the individual, regardless of the race, ethnic group, place of origin, creed, or gender. Constitutional amendments approved in 1987 and 1990 provide for direct election of the president, whom has the "power" of the country, abolish reserved seats in the legislature for the whites, and established a unicameral legislature. There is universal suffrage, and the voting age is 18.
Zimbabwe possesses rich agriculture that allows for the production of sugar, fruit, Maize (corn), tobacco, and cattle. In 1996 an estimated 8 percent of the country was cultivated. Forests cover 23 percent of the country, although the logging industry is small and wood in Zimbabwe is used mostly for fuel. Zimbabwe is also rich in minerals. Gold has been mined since ancient times, and the country has deposits of chrome, asbestos, and copper, which are found along the Great Dyke.
More than two-thirds of the population of Zimbabwe speak Shona as their first language, while about one out of five speak Ndebele. Both Shona and Ndebele are Bantu languages; from the time of their great southward migration, Bantu-speaking tribes have populated what is now Zimbabwe for more than 10 centuries. Those who speak Ndebele are concentrated in a circle around Bulawayo, with Shona-speaking peoples beyond them on all sides--the Kalanga to the southwest, the Karanga to the east around Nyanda (formerly Fort Victoria), the Zezuru to the northeast, and the Rozwi and Tonga to the north. Generations of intermarriage have to a degree blurred the linguistic division between the Shona and Ndebele peoples.
Among the whites in Zimbabwe at independence were the descendants of the country's first European immigrants. Only about one-quarter of the adult white population, however, were born in Zimbabwe. After World War II the white population grew several fold because of heavy immigration, and some two-thirds of the present white population have their origins in Europe, the great majority from Britain. The rest have come largely from South Africa. Of the whites living in rural areas, about one-quarter are Afrikaners.
There are several thousand Asians, forming a community that is predominantly concerned with trade. There are also Zimbabweans of mixed race, called Coloreds, who are mainly skilled and semiskilled workers. However, theses races don’t go along well.
English is the official language of government; teaching in schools is also conducted in English, except for the instruction of the youngest children in black schools.
Military service is voluntary but provision for conscription was established in 1987. Zimbabwe's armed forces consist of the army and the air force, which totaled 39,000 personnel in 1997. With the end of the mid-1990's of the Mozambican civil war - in which Zimbabwe's armed forces played an active role- the government began to reduce the size of the armed forces.
Paramilitary forces number 38,000, of whom 15,000 are in the police force, 3,000 in a police Support Unit and 20,000 in the National Militia.
Zimbabwe has a unique geographical spot. Zimbabwe covers an area of 390 759-sq. km. It is situated between the latitudes 15'33'' south and 22'24'' south, with a maximum length of 835 km and a width of 725km. A high plateau dominates the country with a ridge forming a central backbone. This is the divide forming the watershed, with water courses running northwest to the Zambezi and south east to the Limpopo and Save rivers. The granite bedrock rises in the east to form the Eastern Highlands. The northern end of the ridge is the most fertile area of the country and forms a rugged escarpment towards the Zambezi Valley. The Kariba Dam has created a huge lake along the Zambian border, with the famous Victoria Falls lying beyond the western and of the dam.
Zambia borders the country to the north, Mozambique to the east, Botswana to the west and South Africa to the south.
Views on World Problems:
Even though Zimbabwe plays a small role in the world, it is a major influence on the other African Countries. Zimbabwe proved throughout the years that it is peace-seeking country. Aiding Mozambique and The Congo Republic militarily proved that. Ever since it's relations with these two countries couldn't have been better.
In 1980, directly after the independence, Zimbabwe was admitted to the United Nations and re-entered the Commonwealth. Since then Zimbabwe has become a leading role in the Organization of African Unity (OAU), and is a key member of the Common Market of Eastern and Southern Africa, (COMESA), formally the Preferential Trade Area.
Zimbabwe also embarked upon an Economic Structural Adjustment program (ESAP) which has allowed the economy to be influenced by free market forces to a greater extent that it has in the past, reversing the distortions of the first decade of independence.
Zimbabwe's economy is well balanced between market agriculture, mining, manufacturing, and tourism, with a considerable subsistence-farming sector. Before the arrival of European settlers in the late 19th century, the peoples of the region practiced mixed farming (raising both crops and livestock), with cattle ranching predominating in the drier south and west. Gold mining and trade supplemented agriculture.
Zimbabwe's foreign trade is structurally healthy, in that it typically exports more than it imports and usually only spends a small amount more than it takes in. The country's main customers for exports are South Africa, the United Kingdom, Japan, Germany, and Botswana. South Africa is by far the primary source for imports; other than large suppliers are the United Kingdom, Japan, Germany, and the United States. Zimbabwe's most important imports include petroleum products, machinery, motor, vehicles, and foodstuffs. Chief exports include tobacco and other agricultural products as well as gold and mineral.
The remains of early humans, dating back 500,000 years, have been discovered in present-day Zimbabwe. The land's earliest settlers, the Khoisan, date back to 200 B.C. After a period of Bantu domination, the Shona people ruled, followed by the Nguni and Zulu peoples. By the mid-19th century the descendents of the Nguni and Zulu, the Ndebele, had established a powerful warrior kingdom.
The first British explorers, colonists, and missionaries arrived in the 1850s, and that led to the establishment of the territory Rhodesia, named after Cecil Rhodes of the British South Africa Company.
In 1923, European settlers voted to become the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia. After a brief federation with Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland (now Malawi) in the post–World War II period, Southern Rhodesia (also known as Rhodesia) chose to remain a colony when its two partners voted for independence in 1963.
On Nov. 11, 1965, the conservative white-minority government of Rhodesia declared its independence from Britain. On March 3, 1978, Smith, Muzorewa, Sithole, and Chief Jeremiah Chirau signed an agreement to transfer power to the black majority by Dec. 31, 1978. They constituted themselves an Executive Council, with chairmanship rotating but with Smith retaining the title of prime minister. Blacks were named to each cabinet ministry, serving as co-ministers with the whites already holding these posts. African nations and rebel leaders immediately denounced the action, but Western governments were more reserved, although none granted recognition to the new regime.
The white minority finally consented to hold multiracial elections in 1980, and Robert Mugabe won a landslide victory. The country achieved independence on April 17, 1980, under the name Zimbabwe. Parliamentary elections in April 1995 gave Mugabe's party a stunning victory with 63 of the 65 contested seats, and in 1996 Mugabe won another six-year term as president.
Zimbabwe has been hit especially hard by AIDS, reducing the average life expectancy in Zimbabwe to 39 years, down from 65 years prior to the AIDS epidemic.
Zimbabwe has sent troops to assist Laurent Kabila in Congo's civil war and has indicated that it will also support the Angola government in its war against the UNITA rebels
In Feb. 2000 President Mugabe's government lost an election on a constitutional reformation that would have allowed the seizure of this land without compensation. Despite the defeat, the government supported the seizure of the land anyway, and veterans of Zimbabwe's war for independence in the 1970s began squatting on the land and attacking the whites in an effort to reclaim land taken under British colonization. Mugabe's support for the squatters has lead to foreign sanctions against Zimbabwe, and the president's critics say the reclamation of the land is meant to deflect from the country's economic crisis.
Zimbabwe's Policy Statements
Issue#1: The Question of the role of the UN regarding the intervention in a region or state for humanitarian Purposes.
Zimbabwe strongly agrees with the role of the United Nations regarding the intervention in a region or state for humanitarian purposes. The United Nations should prioritize humanitarian issues over anything else. What is meant by "humanitarian" is everything that helps improve the situation a society is living. It should form an organization that takes care of all the humanitarian issues. Due to the numerous humanitarian problems, this organization should split into small committees. Racism, Natural disaster aftermath's, rehabilitation programs for drug addicts, terrorism, and AIDS are a few major humanitarian issue that the United Nation should give major attention to, especially in the developing countries where the humanitarian problems are never-ending. Zimbabwe encourages the United Nations to take all the steps necessary to improve the humanitarian circumstances worldwide.
Issue#2: The question of developing an international legal code to deal with criminal activity on the Internet.
Zimbabwe agrees in developing an international legal code to deal with criminal activity on the Internet. However, it is not of it's major concerns at the moment. Zimbabwe believes that they should have all the facilities needed like enough computers, computer trainers, and a reasonable number of people who are able to use computers and the internet before they think about dealing with the criminal activities on the internet. The United Nations and rich countries should help increase technology financially in the developing countries like Zimbabwe. That would help both the developing and the developed countries. Countries like Zimbabwe will have technology and the Internet would provide them with information, knowledge, education, and leisure. Countries like the United Kingdom and the US, however, will be able to increase its on-line sellings, for more countries would have the Internet and would have known how to use it properly. Later on, comes the time to think about developing an international legal code to deal with criminal activity on the Internet.
Issue#3: The question of the admittance of Palestine into the United Nations as a full voting member.
Zimbabwe believes that Palestine should be admitted into the United Nations as a full voting member. It is believed that every country should have the right to vote. Zimbabwe is very concerned with this issue due its friendship with Palestine.
Committee: The Economic and Social Council
Delegate: Nouf Al- Fraih
Issue#1: The Question of the role of the UN regarding the intervention in a region or state for humanitarian Purposes.
Defining "humanitarian Purposes" as a result achieved from the health and happiness of others.
Deeply concerned about the fact AIDS is spreading widely, more and more each day.
Viewing with appreciation to the UNHCR, UNICEF, and all the other committees for all they have done.
Recalling that 5.3 million people suffer from AIDS 1998, and the number had increased now, according to the United Nations High Commissioner of Human Rights.
Emphasizing the fact that AIDS is one of the deadliest diseases that still doesn't have a cure, and is spreading like the speed of light each day!
1.Supports the role of the United Nations intervening in a state or region for humanitarian purposes.
2.Emphasizes the importance of cooperating in the field of humanitarian issues, and expresses it’s hope that all governments to consider and make use of all the possibilities offered by the United Nations.
3.Further Proclaims the importance of cooperating in the field of humanitarian issues whether by information sharing or helping nations in need like all the poor African countries for instance.
4. Resolves that The World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS combine to form one powerful organization in which will do the following:
a) Provide a supportive environment that meets with their social life, culture and religion.
b) Implement and support legal support services that will educate people affected by HIV/AIDS about their rights provide free legal services to enforce those rights.
c) Provide HIV prevention and care information and safe and effective medication at an affordable price.
d) Promote the wide and ongoing distribution of creative education, training and media programs that will be designed to change wrong or dangerous attitudes associated with HIV/AIDS to understand and accept it.
e) Promoting discussion about AIDS in their newsletters and other publications, as well as through other media.
f) Educate people about AIDS. Education is a powerful tool and respect for human rights within the context of HIV/AIDS should be a key subject within a school’s curriculum.
5. Declares that The World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS will protect human rights in all regions. It has been studied that when human rights were being protected fewer people become infected with HIV/AIDS, and that those living with HIV/AIDS and their families can cope better with it. Undercover specialists will be hired in specific regions every once in a while to check if all human rights are being protected.
6. Further Resolves that The World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS would hire no more than 35 experts to study HIV/AIDS programs and the people living with the disease. These experts will share knowledge and experience concerning HIV-related human rights issues. They will discuss the current situation, identify obstacles and needs, and to propose solutions that will make the situation better. The studies they do will all be saved for further reference. These experts will swear that they will ensure privacy and confidentiality and ethics in research involving human subjects. With that, there could be a better relationship with the doctor and the patient, and the expert will be told everything without doubts or lies. That may help the experts advance in their research and find a cure for AIDS.
6. Calls Upon the IMF for financial support. *
7. Encourages the United Nations to provide a generous compensation of 5% to help.*
·Notes that the money won’t go to the country directly, but to the organization, who will be in charge of distributing it evenly to those in need.
Fellow delegates, secretary general, good evening.
A journey through Zimbabwe is a voyage of discovery through one of Africa's paradises. From the deepest darkest jungle, to the wide sky-open lands, Zimbabwe is blessed with beauty. The elephants cool themselves in the water, while the lions sit lazily under the trees admiring the never-ending savanna land.
However, this is not why Zimbabwe's here today. Zimbabwe would like to take this opportunity to highlight the issue of the UN intervening in a region or area for humanitarian purposes. It is believed that it should be prioritized over anything else. Needless to say, Zimbabwe suffers from a deadly disease that's name is too fearful to mention…
There comes a time when you hear a certain call, when the world must come together as one. By lending a helping hand in joyful giving, showing care, faith and love, you can make nations stop existing and start living. If not for us, then for what’s remaining for us, our pride, our future, our children!
Zimbabwe played an active role in the General Assembly even though most of the issue’s didn’t concern Zimbabwe. To begin with, Zimbabwe was the first one to give a right of reply in the opening speeches, and continued giving rights of reply all through the opening speeches.
In issue#1, the issue of the role of the United Nations intervening in a region or area for humanitarian purposes, Zimbabwe was really active. It was called upon a few times for points of information, and to talk for/ against amendments.
In issue#2, The question of developing an international legal code to deal with criminal activity on the Internet. Zimbabwe sent an amendment, however time for open debate elapsed before getting to it. Nevertheless, Zimbabwe spoke against the resolution attacking the fact that only rich and developed countries will and can benefit from it. It was a good resolution, but what has to be done was what was done, I had to go against it. The resolution failed.
As for issue # 3, The question of the admittance of Palestine into the United Nations as a full voting member, Zimbabwe talked against an amendment in the first resolution on this issue. As for the second resolution on this issue, Zimbabwe reminded the honorable delegates of the United States and Israel that they were stepping out of character by writing a resolution that will stop the war. Also, Zimbabwe reminded Israel on the hundred thousand promises it made, but doesn’t put into action, which meant that they were either lying then or now. Zimbabwe also made a point to all the countries present,
"How can you vote for a resolution that wants peace from the person who is holding a war? How can you trust a country that made so many promises, but no action at all, except for the violence and killing?"
Zimbabwe also replied to the previous speakers note that Palestinians are throwing rocks at the Israeli troops by reminding all the countries that Palestine has no other way to defend themselves against Israel’s military troops, that in fact went against Palestine’s National Sovereignty. The speech might not have been well delivered, but Zimbabwe made its points clear enough for the countries to understand. To everyone’s surprise, everyone, even the submitters of the resolutions themselves, voted against the resolution!