Country: Sri Lanka

Event: KFSAC 2000

Students: Nouf Al Fraih,

Hessa Al Othmann,

Nada Al Abduljader,

and Sara Al Dukair







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The Sri Lankan National Anthem






Sri Lanka



Country Profile






Sri Lanka



Political Structure:

Occupied by the Portuguese in the 16th century and the Dutch in the 17th century, the island was ceded to the British in 1802. As Ceylon it became independent in 1948; its name was changed in 1972. Tensions between the Sinhalese majority and Tamil separatists erupted in violence in the mid-1980s.

The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka got its independence from Great Britain on September 7, 1978. The new constitution guarantees fundamental rights of thought. The Head of State of the Republic of Sri Lanka is the President. The President is also the Head of the Executive, the Head of the Government, and the Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces. Which means that the president has all the "power". The President is elected by the people and holds office for a period of six years. If the President is unable to perform his duties due to illness or absence from the country, the Prime Minister will be appointed to exercise, perform and discharge the powers, duties and functions of the President. It is important that the newly elected President takes oaths by the 4th of February.


Natural Resources:

The natural resources of Sri Lanka are chiefly agricultural, but most of the land is not easily cultivated. The mineral deposits of the country are limited. About 29 percent of Sri Lanka's land area is under cultivation. Tea covers only 12 percent of the cultivated acreage but accounts for about one-fourth of the country's export earnings. Tea, rubber, and coconuts together made up nearly 35 percent of Sri Lanka's export earnings in the early 1990s.

Rice is the basic food of the people and the island's principal crop, and is a really heavy use of water. More acreage is devoted to the cultivation of rice than to any other crop; the annual output in the early 1990s was 2.3 million metric tons. Vegetables are grown in small amounts and are mostly cultivated for private consumption. Considerable quantities of sugar, wheat, and rice are imported.

Animal husbandry is of comparatively little importance to the economy of Sri Lanka. In the late 1980s the island contained about 1.6 million cattle, 896,000 buffaloes, 503,000 goats, and 9 million chickens. Pigs and sheep are also raised.


Culture:

Most of Sri Lanka’s population is Sinhalese, where they make 74% of Sri Lanka’s population. Next come Tamils 18%, Moor 7%, Burgher, Malay, and Vedda 1%. Sri Lanka main religion is Buddhism, where Buddhist are 69%, Hindu 15%, Christian 8%, and Muslim 8%. Sri Lanka’s official and national language is Sinhala, where 74% of the population speaks it, then, Tamil is spoken by few. English is commonly used in government and is spoken by about 10% of the population. Arabic is also spoken among Muslims.

The tragedy of Sri Lanka stems from its ethnic intolerance and militant readings of religious philosophy. The Sinhalese are predominantly Buddhist, the Tamils mainly Hindus, and there are sizeable Muslim and Christian Burgher (descendants of Dutch colonists) minorities. The Sinhalese speak Sinhalese, the Tamils and most Muslims speak Tamil and the Burghers often speak English. The Muslims are scattered all over the island and are thought to be descendants of early Arab or Indian traders. They have largely steered clear of the civil conflict, though there have been clashes between Muslims and Tamils in the east. The Tamils in the hill country are recent low caste arrivals brought in by the British to work on the plantations. They share little in common with the Tamils of the north who have been in Sri Lanka for over 1000 years. There is a cultural conflict between the Tamils and the Sinhalese that is due to different beliefs and religions. The Tamils think that the Sinhalese are violating their rights, and the Sinhalese feels that the Tamils are Terrorists and uncivilized people. The hill country Tamils have generally managed to avoid being drawn into the current ethnic conflict. Rice and curry dominate meal times and usually include small side dishes of vegetables, meat and fish. Indian curries such as vegetarian thali, delicately flavored biriyani and kool, a boiled, fried and dried-in-the-sun vegetable combo, are also available. Hoppers are a unique Sri Lankan snack, similar to a pancake, served with egg or honey and yogurt. Coastal towns have excellent fish and most travelers are happy to live on the delicious local tuna. There are plenty of tropical fruits to choose from, the tea is terrific and the beer acceptable.


Defense:

1977 - 1986During the nine-year period 1977 to 1986, Sri Lanka's military expenses increased by 800%.

1995Nine years later, in 1995, Sri Lanka's military expenses was estimated at Rs. 24 billion ($444 million). The actual amount spent during the year was Rs. 34 billion. This was more than a five fold increase on the figure for 1986 and forty times the figure for 1977.

1996

In the following year, 1996, the budget allocation for military expenses was increased to a then unique Rs. 38 billion ($707.7 million). However, the actual expenses was Rs.46 billion - a 35% increase on 1995 only.

1997

Sri Lanka's "budgeted" military expenses for 1997 saw an increase to Rs.44 billion ($758.6 million) from the budgeted amount of Rs.34 billion for 1996. This amounted to 6% of GDP and 22% of total government spending.

1998

The budget allocation for military expenditure for 1998 was initially Rs.44 billion. Rs.8 billion later increased this. Reuters reported on 13 August 1998:

A month later on 24 September 1998, the Sri Lanka government announced an increase not of 8 billion rupees, but of 12.2 billion rupees summing up to a 28% increase on the original allocation for 1998.

1999

On 5 November 1998, Sri Lanka announced yet another ' unprecedented' allocation for military expenditure in 1999 to 47 billion rupees, up from the originally estimated 44 billion rupees in 1998 (later extended to 56.2 billion rupees). In contrast, the allocation for health for 1999 at 12.46 billion rupees compared to an actual expenditure of 15.0 billion rupees in 1997 and an estimate of 11.09 billion rupees for 1998. A Budget deficit of 7% was forecast globally.

2000

On 5 October 1999, the Budget Estimates tabled by the Sri Lanka Finance Minister estimated a 11.5 percent increase on defense over that for 1999. The government estimated that defense spending will reach 52.43 billion rupees (728 million dollars), compared to the estimated 47 billion rupees in 1999 and 44 billion rupees in 1998. However, in the past, defense spending has overshot original budget estimates by 20% to 25%. The repetitive defense expense for the calendar year 2000 would total 41.5 billion rupees while 10.9 billion rupees has been earmarked for capital expense. The Appropriation Bill presented in the Sri Lanka Parliament showed that the Government's total expenditure next year will be 291 billion rupees.

Structural Dependency on Foreign Aid

The comparison of Sri Lanka's military expenditure with the foreign aid received by Sri Lanka during the same 20-year period is instructive.

1977 to 1987

During the period 1977 to 1986, the aid commitment to Sri Lanka averaged around $500 million, which was a five-fold increase compared to the average for 1960-77. In 1987, the aid committed was US$593 million

1995 -1997

In April 1995, the Paris Aid Consortium pledged $850 million as aid to Sri Lanka - a 43% percent increase on the aid committed for 1987. Again, in November 1996, the Paris Aid Consortium pledged $860 million as aid to Sri Lanka for 1997.

1998

The Paris Aid Consortium, at it's meeting held on 27 May 1998, pledged 780 million dollars of aid to Sri Lanka. The World Bank made what has now become almost a ritualistic statement about the ongoing conflict. The Bank expressed "deep concern that the prospects for a quick end to the war were not more encouraging", "deplored the growing tragic impact of the war on the entire nation" and called upon " all Sri Lanka's political leaders to rise above partisan politics and unite in the cause of peace and prosperity".


Sri Lanka economy driven by military expenditure (expenses)

The quis sometimes asked as to how long Sri Lanka can afford to continue to allocate approximately Rs.50 billion a year for 'military expenses'.

However, views such as these tend to ignore that which President Kumaratunga's government may well see as the economic advantages of a continuing war. For instance, M.M. Jayawardene of the Kotalawala Defense Academy speaking at the same conference, was quick to point out that high defense expenditure has had a positive effect on the economy and was not just a drain on the government's bank.

The reasoning is significant. Sri Lanka may see the enrollment of rough youth in the Sri Lanka armed forces as an answer to the problem of rural (rough) unemployment and as a way of reducing the movement of the rural population to urban (village, city) areas, in search of jobs which are difficult to find. It may take the view that even if those who join up eventually die at the frontline, their grants would 'have brought prosperity in the villages'.

But, what is the duration of the 'short term' during which 'defense spending' will have this so-called 'sound positive impact'? How long will it take before deficit budgets; inflation and army desertions take their toll? How long will it take before foreign 'aid donors' insist on further devaluation? How longs before cuts in social welfare measures begin to bite and increase the need to resort to further repression to quell discontent? As other countries have learnt (and as foreign aid donors know only too well) militarisation is no remedy. Economic development will not come without peace - and "peace will not come without justice."


Geography:

Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon) is a small island in the Indian Ocean of 65,000 square kilometers. Sri Lanka has a population of 18.5 million, a tropical climate, lush green forests and rich history. Sri Lanka is a small Indian Ocean country. Many of the major shipping routes through the Indian Ocean lie very close to Sri Lanka.


Views in World Problems:

Sri Lanka, despite its small size, is active in the world. Sri Lanka inherits a culture and a lifestyle friendly to the environment. Since independence, Sri Lanka has been implementing national strategies and plans to achieve supportable economic growth with equity and social development. These programs for economic and human resources development enabled Sri Lanka to achieve a comparatively high quality of life at low individually income levels.

Problems associated with economic activities such as land degradation and deforestation, air and water pollution, health hazards and climatic changes emerged and, recognizing these, the Government passed a National Environment Act in 1982. To strengthen the institutional capacity to implement laws and regulations a regulating body called the Central Environment Authority was established. A separate Ministry for environment was also established. Thus, in the 1980s, the Government began to pay more attention to the environment. Sri Lanka is also part of many other organizations such as The World Health Organization, United Nations International Symposium of Trade Efficiency, The United Nations Economics and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, The World Bank and others. Sri Lanka also developed good relations with all countries especially the U.S, U.K, India, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Canada and France.


Economy:

Sri Lanka's economy is predominantly based on agriculture. Most of the people are subsistence farmers, who make a living by growing rice on their small plots. A large export trade in tea, rubber, and coconuts is the dominant commercial activity; most businesses engaged in producing these goods that were nationalized in the middle and late 1970s.

Attempts to privatize the economy began in the 1990s. The government also controlled banking and insurance, as well as mining and the manufacture of such basic goods as fertilizers, textiles, cement, and petroleum. Sri Lanka’s most dynamic industries are now processing, textiles, food and beverages, telecommunication, insurance and banking.

In 1996 plantation crops made up only 20% of the exports, while textiles accounted 63%. The GDP grew at an annual average rate of 5.5% throughout the 90’s, until drought and a deteriorating security situation lowered the growth to 3.8% in 1996. Thee economy rebounded in 1997 with the growth of 6.4% but slowed down once again in 1999 to 3.7%. The continuing cloud over the economy is the fighting between the Sinhalese and the minority Tamils.


History,

Sri Lanka’s Historical and Cultural Heritage covers more than 2,000 years. Known as Lanka--the "resplendent land"--in the ancient Indian epic Ramayana, the island has numerous other references that testify to the island's natural beauty and wealth. Islamic folklore maintains that Adam and Eve were offered refuge on the island as solace for their expulsion from the Garden of Eden. Asian poets, noting the geographical location of the island and lauding its beauty, called it the "pearl upon the brow of India." A troubled nation in the 1980s, torn apart by communal violence, Sri Lanka has more recently been called India's "fallen tear."

In the years since independence, Sri Lanka has experienced severe and rural communal clashes between its Buddhist Sinhalese majority-- approximately 74%of the population--and the country's largest minority group, the Sri Lankan Tamils, who are Hindus and comprise nearly 13% of the population. The communal violence that attracted the harsh investigations of the international media in the late 1980s can best be understood in the context of the island's complex historical development--its ancient and complex relationship to India's civilization and its more than four centuries under colonial rule by European powers.

The Sinhalese claim to have been the earliest colonizers of Sri Lanka, first settling in the dry north-central regions as early as 500 B.C. During the governmental riots, Sinhalese mobs retaliated against isolated and vulnerable Tamil communities. By the mid-1980s, the Tamil militant underground had grown in strength and posed a serious security threat to the government, and its combatants struggled for a Tamil nation--"Tamil Eelam"--by an increasing recourse to terrorism. The fundamental, unresolved problems facing society were surfacing with a previously unseen force. Foreign countries welcomed the Tamils after the observation of severe violence between the terrorist acts of the Sinhales and the Tamil people.

Buddhism was introduced to Sri Lanka in the third century B.C. from India, where it had been established by Siddartha Gautama three centuries earlier (see Buddhism , ch. 2). The powerful Indian ruler, Asoka, nurtured the new comprehensive philosophical system based on religion in the third century B.C. Asoka's conversion to Buddhism marks one of the turning points in religious history because at that time, Buddhism was elevated from a minor party to an official religion enjoying all the advantages of royal business. Asoka's empire, which extended over most of India, supported one of the most vigorous missionary plans in history.

By the middle of the ninth century, the Pandyans had risen to a position of ascendancy in southern India, invaded northern Sri Lanka, and sacked Anuradhapura. The Pandyans demanded an indemnity as a price for their withdrawal. Shortly after the Pandyan departure, however, the Sinhalese invaded Pandya in support of a rival prince, and the Indian city of Madurai was sacked in the process.

In the tenth century, the Sinhalese again sent an invading army to India, this time to aid the Pandyan king against the Cholas. The Pandyan king was defeated and fled to Sri Lanka, carrying with him the royal insignia.

It was during this brief period that it became mandatory for the Sinhalese king to be a Buddhist.

By the late fifteenth century, Portugal, which had already established its dominance as a maritime power in the Atlantic, was exploring new waters, and found Sri Lanka. At the onset of the European period in Sri Lanka in the sixteenth century, there were three native centeof political power: the two Sinhalese kingdoms of Kotte and Kandy and the Tamil kingdom at Jaffna. Kotte was the principal seat of Sinhalese power, and it claimed a largely imaginary over-lordship not only over Kandy but also over the entire island. None of the three kingdoms, however, had the strength to assert itself over the other two and reunify the island.

After taking political control of the Sri Lankan island, in the seventeenth century, the Dutch proceeded to monopolize trade. This monopoly was at first limited to cinnamon and elephants, but later extended to other goods. Control was legal in the Dutch East India Company, a joint-stock corporation, which had been established for the purpose of carrying out trade with the islands of Indonesia but was later called upon to exercise sovereign responsibilities in many parts of Asia, and with little success to supplant the Roman Catholicism with Protestantism.

The Dutch, like the Portuguese before them, tried to entice their fellow countrymen to settle in Sri Lanka, but attempts to lure members of the upper class, especially women, were not very successful. Lower-ranking military enlists, however, responded to the incentive of free land, and their marriages to local women added another group to the island's already small but established population of Eurasians--the Portuguese Burghers. The Dutch Burghers formed a separate and privileged ethnic group on the island in the twentieth century.

In 1592 the English attacked the Portuguese and replaced the Dutch. In 1766 the Dutch had forced the Kandyans to sign a treaty, which the Kandyans later considered so harsh that they immediately began searching for foreign assistance in expelling their foes. They approached the British in 1762, 1782, and 1795. The first Kandyan missions failed, but in 1795, British agenta offered a draft treaty that would extend military aid in return for control of the seacoast and a total control of the cinnamon trade. The Kandyan king unsuccessfully sought better terms, and the British managed to oust the Dutch without significant help in 1796.

INDEPENDENCE

The British negotiated the island's dominion status with the leader of the State Council, D.S. Senanayake, during World War II. Senanayake was also minister of agriculture and vice chairman of the Board of Ministers. The negotiations ended with the Ceylon Independence Act of 1947, which formalized the transfer of power. Senanayake was the founder and leader of the United National Party (UNP), a partnership of many disparate groups formed during the Donoughmore period, including the Ceylon National Congress, the Sinhala Maha Sabha, and
the Muslim League. The UNP easily won the 1947 elections, challenged only by a collection of small, primarily leftist parties. On February 4, 1948, when the new constitution went into effect (making Sri Lanka a dominion), the UNP embarked on a ten-year period of rule.

The largest political party in independent Sri Lanka, the United National Party (UNP), emerged as an umbrella party from the colonial era. It was similar in some respects to the Indian National Congress. Like its Indian counterpart, the UNP represented a union of a number of groups espousing different personalities and ideologies. Known later as the "uncle-nephew party" because of the kinship ties among the party's top leadership, the UNP served as the standard-bearer of conservative forces. In late 1947, when the party won the country's first general election, the UNP attempted to establish an anticommunist, intercommunal parliamentary form of government.

Some of the first actions taken by the new SLFP government reflected a disturbing insensitivity to minority oncerns. Shortly after its victory, the new government presented parliament with the Official Language Act, which declared Sinhala the one official language. The act was passed and immediately caused a reaction among Tamils, who perceived their language, culture, and economic position to be under attack.

In June 1981, local elections were held in the north to elect members of the newly established district development councils. TULF had decided to participate and work in the councils.

TULF decided to strike the 1982 presidential elections, partly in reaction to the harsh Prevention of Terrorism Act and partly in response to pressures exerted by Tamil extremists.













Policy Statements




Social Commission

Issue#1: Globalization and interdependence:

Sri Lanka believes that the United Nations should encourage globalization and interdependence. Making everything on worldwide basis is what is meant by globalization. No country can be singled out by itself from the world community. Meaning that it can’t do everything by itself but depends on other countries in some things. Globalization and interdependence helps international trade, by that it raises a country’s economy.

However, it has a disadvantage. Only elite people can participate in globalization and interdependence. Even first-world countries, like the United States, have people that can’t afford technical devices that lead to globalization. Globalization creates new laws, new business practices, new ways to eat and drink, and new hopes and dreams. Unfortunately it is still early to say that developing countries can benefit from globalization, due to financial difficulties, and lack of education and training.


Issue#2: Measures to improve the care and safety of refugees, returnees, and displaced people.

Sri Lanka believes that the Unites Nations should intervene to ensure the safety of refugees, returnees and displaced people, with a UN resolution or the Host County’s permission. Sri Lanka supports the idea of aiding and supporting the refugees financially and emotionally. The government of Sri Lanka already established refugee camps in all affected areas.

Sri Lanka also has some displaced people. Due to Sri Lanka’s civil war between the Tamils and the Sanhale’s, many Tamils have been displaced. They went from the north to the south, and some out of the country. Sri Lanka is grateful for all countries like the US, UK, India, Germany, France, Italy, Canada, and Belgium that opened their doors wide open for the displaced Tamils. Sri Lanka is taking all actions possible and hopes that it could, one day, return the help to those who supported and still do, support Sri Lanka today.


Issue#3: Return and restitution of cultural property to the countries of origin.

Sri Lanka believes that The United Nations should take action to return and restitute cultural property to the countries of origin. The people who did the cultural arts did it for their country, and the country has the right to own those properties and be proud of them. Until today, years after the independence, some of Sri Lanka’s properties are still laying in British museums. Sri Lanka believes that those properties should be in Sri Lanky museums. After all it is their culture, and those were done by Sri Lankians who were proud of their culture. Sri Lanka is proud of those works and wants them back so they could teach their children about those cultural arts. Sri Lanka believes that those properties could be a good influence and inspiration to Sri Lanka’s next generation.


Issue#4: Strengthening of international cooperation to study, migrate, and minimize the consequences of natural disasters.

Sri Lanka believes that The United Nations should do something to strengthen the international cooperation to study, migrate, and minimize the consequences of natural disasters. Sri Lanka used to have some natural disasters years ago. However, due to the environmental and global change, Sri Lanka no longer fears these natural hazards since they are no longer seen. Even though, Sri Lanka realizes the suffer of other nations from natural hazards, and hopes that the United Nations takes all immediate and necessary actions possible to help those countries to minimize their consequences.




Environment Commission

Issue#1: The management of water resources on a national and international level.

Sri Lanka believes that the management of water resources on a national and international level is very important issues. Known the Sri Lanka has many coastal areas and high sea levels so water is something important. Because of the large amounts of rain and rivers Sri Lanka has a load of water which is then wasted. Unwanted water is thrown directly into the sea, which then leads to a larger problem, which is an electricity problem.

No contaminated materials are found in the water, so water hasn’t been a problem to Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka also has a separate ministry of water management. Therefore, water resources are important all around the world because many professions depend on water supply.


Issue#2: Prohibition of the dumping of radioactive and toxic wastes.

Sri Lanka strongly agrees about this issue. Sri Lanka is Pakistan’s and India’s neighbor and both countries have nuclear powers, which creates nuclear wastes. By dumping their wastes it will reach Sri Lanka, and because Sri Lanka’s economy is mostly depending on the agriculture, that may lead to diereses and birth defects to its population.

Between Sri Lanka and India there is a 32-mile space, which allow the some of the wastes to move away from Sri Lanka’s water. Happily Sri Lanka doesn’t have hurricanes or floods, which pushes the wastes towards it. This issue should be taken very serious because it may cause many dangerous aspects.


Issue#3: Protection of the global climate for present and future generations of mankind.

Sri Lanka believes that it’s very important to protect the global climate. Global warming will effect the weather and that will not help to grow the crops. That will lead to desertification of the land and that will affect their economy greatly because their main income comes from growing crops. Water supply will also be decreased and everything that has to do with climate and water will be affected.

Deforestation is increased in Sri Lanka which means the population has grown and many trees are being cut down to build houses. Trees have sea erosion and nothing is done to stop the global climate. Therefore, Sri Lanka thinks rich countries should take into consideration of giving contributions to Sri Lanka.


Issue#4: Control of the research, development and production of genetically modified foods.

Sri Lanka is in no need to produce genetically modified foods. Many foods eaten in the country are already grown in the country itself and are found in needed amounts. Growing GM’s will take a lot of time and effort and will also cause some workers to leave work. However, Sri Lanka doesn’t take into consideration the growing of genetically modified foods.







Disarmament

Issue #1: Measures to improve the effective implementation of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction.

Sri Lanka isn't with or against this issue, as Sri Lanka doesn't have any chemical weapons. However, neighbor India has a massive threat on Sri Lanka's people, and Sri Lanka has no choice but to follow what India says. BUT Sri Lanka is with development and this issue is prohibiting development, and it is not helping the world at all. It is important to be developing, but in control, but stopping development will take no one no where.

Sri Lanka would also like to point out that the countries that surround it are a nuclear threat. They hold Sri Lanka captive between their claws because of their massive power, and Sri Lanka supports this issue because it needs all the support it can get to keep safe from Indo and Pakistan.


Issue #2:The risk of Nuclear proliferation in the Middle East and in Central and South Asia.

Sri Lanka is with this issue as it's neighboring countries would not like Sri Lanka to go with this issue, as they are the ones with the weapons that Sri Lanka fears. However, Sri Lanka will vote for a good resolution that appears on this issue as it has no business to vote for a bad resolution and put it's fellow Arabians in unwanted trouble. It nuclear power is controlled in the Middle East, Sri Lanka believes that the whole East will be controlled in the next generations and meetings to come, or at least be a hot issue as this is. Right now, this is the main issue for all the rich and developed countries and the Middle East; however, this is not an issue for countries such as Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka is not a hateful country to the Arabians; it is neutral because it has a lot of migrants and workers in the Arabian Gulf and Arabian countries. Because of that restrain, Sri Lanka finds itself being held back by painless chains to abstain from voting.


Issue #3: International cooperation in the peaceful use of outer space.

Sri Lanka doesn't think that this resolution is substantial enough to be debated as only the United States, the Russian Federation, and other strong developing countries have the capability to even go outer space. Sri Lanka refuses this issue and abstains from voting for it because it has nothing to do with it, nor does it let Sri Lanka go in any better position.

However, Sri Lanka feels that safe stashing into outer space should be acceptable if and only if it's on long-term peace intentions.


Issue #4: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security.

Sri Lanka supports this issue solely. It is a very helpful, perhaps the most helpful in the 4 issues that will be discussed, as Sri Lanka needs most security away from India's powerful force and applauds for such a good topic in the UN's board. Sri Lanka also supports this issue to escape India and Pakistan's threats. Sri Lanka feels that this issue will help it and every poor country that is being threatened by a bigger country. It also helps make the communication between the countries around the world easier where a call for help would be heard easier and faster than without the passing of this issue. Sri Lanka believes that its rising sun will need help keeping up high and the only way is to improve global telecommunications and international security. It's inevitable for Sri Lanka to support this issue.







Human Rights Committee

Issue#1:Promotion and Prevention of the rights of children and youth.

Sri Lanka believes that the rights of children very important. The United Nations should intervene in a state or region with either a UN resolution or with the host country’s permission. Sri Lanka needs all the help possible for its children, as Sri Lanka has no ways of help for them. It is reaching out its hand for help from able countries to aid Sri Lanka’s children. Sri Lanka’s abused economy disabled it from helping the children. Its rising sun became beyond midnight so Sri Lanka’s children are now suffering greatly. Sri Lanka’s financial status makes Sri Lanka’s face red because its children will stand open handed to the world, begging for help. Therefore, Sri Lanka needs to build its today for the uncertain tomorrow.


Issue #2: Implementation of the convection of elimination of all forms of discrimination against woman.

Sri Lanka’s point of view on this issue is uncertain. The government protects and promotes the woman’s rights. However, not all people agree with the government. Due to the traditional ethnic groups that dominate Sri Lanka, not all woman’s rights are being reserved nor respected. For example, the Tamils, a dominant traditional ethnic group that makes up a considerable percentage of Sri Lanka’s respectful population, does not approve that women have the right to be part of the active community. There are also other ethnic groups that oppose different forms of rights of their woman, such as education and social appearance. Therefore, Sri Lanka hopes that the UN would consider the uncertainty of many third world countries, which need all possible help to change its current traditional position.


Issue#3: The Human rights and welfare of Indigenous People.

Sri Lanka and all poor countries should support this issue, because most of their people live primitively in the current world, the people are asking "why?" "Why are they more acknowledgeable than us?". The answer is that because Sri Lanka’s inter welfare is poor! Sri Lanka encourages and applauds all financial aid from rich countries, as it recognizes lots of rich countries enjoying huge surprises and financial credits, especially that Sri Lanka is in impossible debt to a lot of countries already.


Issue # 4: The Human Rights and welfare of migrant workers.

Sri Lanka believes that the rights of migrant workers are as any other human rights. Migrant workers disserve to be treated as well as other beings. Sri Lanka being one of the most countries that migrant workers are from through out the world cannot do anything about the mistreatment of Sri Lankans migrant works. They have been humiliated, shouted on, beaten, and even sexually abused that would sometimes lead to their death. Sri Lanka can’t question the host countries that the migrant workers work in, because the money that is earned by migrant workers has helped Sri Lanka’s economy greatly. If Sri Lanka opens it mouth and criticize on what is happening, all the migrant workers would be kicked out of their jobs in host countries, returning back to Sri Lanka starving to death, because there isn’t any money business within Sri Lanka. Finally, Sri Lanka loudly announces that migrant workers are humans that kept their homes and came to work to earn some money, so they should be respected and treated as any other person in his or her own country.




Resolutions




FORUM : General Assembly – Social Commission
SUBMITTED BY : Sri Lanka
QUESTION OF : Globalization and Interdependence

Defines globalization as "making everything, especially trade, on world-wide basis,"

Emphasizes that globalization is an important and effective factor to a country’s economy,

Taking note that globalization is an important issue that should been taken more into consideration these days,

Regrets the fact that it is too early to say that developing countries can benefit from globalization due to financial difficulties,

1. Congratulates the International Monetary Fund (IMF) for its efforts in supporting developing and under-developed countries,

2. Declares that even though the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has helped many countries financially, and made them depend on it for every crisis they face, it has the following flaws:

a) Being unfair to all developing nations by giving them the loans under harsh conditions, and sometimes none at all, while giving some countries loans under easier conditions,

b) Has a 1 % interest rate that may seem trivial, but can result in massive amounts of debts,

c) It either provides too much, or too little, and does not have information with which to form a balanced judgement,

d) It has shown time and time again that they are incapable of making decisions without creating a crises, based on the following examples:

-The Asian Financial Crises in 1997,

-When Indonesia, South Korea, and Thailand’s currencies lost half their value to the US dollar in a week, despite the promised IMF bailouts in 1998,

e)When the IMF intervenes, the governments and the leaders are rescued, but not the people, based on the following example:

-The Mexican bailout in 1995 proves that, the IMF considered the Mexican bailout a success because the government repaid the loans on schedule, but the Mexican people suffered a massive decline in their standard of living as a result,

f) The IMF interferes with the international market by encouraging investors to seek out risky markets on the assumption that if their investments turn sour, they still stand a good chance of getting their money back through IMF bailouts, which will only encourage more crises,

3. Reminds the developing nations that many of them need a boost in their economy,

4. Resolves the establishment of The United Nations International Bank of Financial and Economical Support (UNIBFES), which will be:

a) Established as a new United Nations non-governmental body,

b) Independent of the International Monetary Fund (IMF)

c) Consisting of economic analysts from different nations,

d) Consisting of an Approval Council to confirm, determine, and approve all suggestions from the economic analysts, according to the following stipulations:

-The Approval Council will consist of twenty (20) member, of whom will rotate bi-annually,

- The Approval Council shall make sound judgements based on reports from the analysis and requests from nations

e)consisting of voluntary members,

5. Further Resolves that all voluntary members of the UNIBFES will contribute 2% of their annual income to the UNIBFES each year, and that the money received wil be used for international loans, as well as procedural costs,

6. Further Resolves that the UNIBFES meetings will be continuous after its establishment, in order to provide economic assistance as soon as a crisis arises,

7. Notes that the UNIBFES is not an replacement of the IMF, but it will:

a) Grant loans under easy and simple conditions with interest rate of only 0.25% placed to all countries in need, where the interest rate will be added to the UNIBFES’s budget that would go out as loans to countries in need,

b)assist a member nation, whenever called on, and makes sure that the aid reached them within 48 hours after approval from the Approval Council,

c) study a country’s economic status yearly to see early signs that indicate a crises might emerge, and help mend it before it’s too late,

d)make decisions based on facts, acts as soon as possible, and stick to their promises,

8. Calls Upon all nations to understand the situation in most countries, especially the developing countries, where financial support will better their countries in many ways possible,

9. Reminds all nations that a boost in one country’s economy will boost their economy since trade will take place with greater demands,





DELEGATION: Sri Lanka

FORUM: Disarmament

QUESTION OF: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security.

Congratulates the UN for such a faithful issue that could be truly discussed with both poor and rich countries,

Observing the sensitive need of international security where countries like Sri Lanka, Turkey, and Liberia where surrounding countries seem to pose a threat on them,

Viewing with appreciation the UN countries' excellent past resolutions on this issue that were discussed in the last GA meeting,

1. Notes that the current world needs more security to do better,

2. Trusts that this issue is serious and expresses its hope for good results,

3. Declares the formation of a new telecommunications in the context of international security central: Inter-Security Telecommunications Central (ISTC),

A) The ISTC will consist of faithful workers that will be specially trained from grade school (therefore the ISTC will have a period of at least 3-years of preparations),
B) The ISTC will reside in a country that will host and welcome all chairing members of the ISTC and will accept that the ISTC will need a lot of hard work and lots of international visitors, therefore the country should be acceptable of embassy delegates, engineers, researchers, military units, and communicative messages to pass through or be well hospitalized,
C) The ISTC will control all communications in the context of international security and pass it's decisions to the Security Council (SC) in the UN body, and will be globally active in the context of Inter-Security,

4. Confirms that the ISTC will do a good job in telecommunications and will react much faster than the other programs in the process of adverse and acknowledgement of the UN because:

A) It will be powered by the UN nations themselves,
B) It will have the most recent technology to aid in the process of telecommunications,
C) It will have excellent decisions and suggestions to the stability of international security,

5. Urges all nations to see that this central will help in international security.






FORUM: General Assembly

SUBMITTED BY: Sri Lanka

QUESTION OF: The protection and prevention of violating children’s rights

Defining children, as "any human being that is below the age of18."

Believing that the violations of children’s lives are one of the major problems in the world.

Realizing that the percentage of the amount of children abuse is increasing within poor countries.

Keeping in mind that these countries that have financial difficulties, so they were forced to violate children’s rights.

Deeply disturbed that the United Nations isn’t taking this problem seriously.

Viewing with appreciation that the some countries are helping most of these countries that are suffering from child rights violation and can’t afford paying their financial debts.

Fully believing that the rich countries will try their best to help these children by supporting the children’s countries financially.

Expecting that the countries that violate children’s rights will not continue doing so.

Desiring that the United Nations would create an organization to solving this problem of the violations of children’s rights.

1. Accepts the donations of the developed countries to help the poor countries that violate children’s rights, so that they would stop doing so.

2. Further encourages the well developed countries to vote with the idea of creating an organization that will give children their rights and fulfill their needs that can help poor countries into making their societies a better able society to live in, where children will live happily without suffering from any lack of:

- food, education, cloths, shelter, etc.

3. Strongly condemns disagreements that are within some countries that would not vote for the creation of this organization to protect child’s rights.

4. Expresses its hopes that there will not be any violations of children rights since the organization will help in doing so.

5. Have Resolved that children are human’s and any violations of their rights is considered a crime a person/country will be strongly punished on.





Committee: Environmental committee

Delegation: Sri Lanka

Question of: Prohibition of the dumping of radioactive and toxic wastes.

Believing that this issue hasn’t been seriously taken in many countries,

Fully aware that the exposure to radioactivity causes diseases such as cancer and radiation sickness,

Keeping in mind all dangerous aspects caused dumping radioactive and toxic wastes,

Taking note that only 37% of the Sri Lanka’s sea surroundings are purely clean,

Viewing with appreciation to all committees, organizations, and nations on their full cooperation regarding this issue,

Confident that poor countries don’t care if their water is polluted or not,

Further noting that the dumping of toxic, radiaactive and nuclear wastes cause great harm to the environment, ecosystem and human nature,

1-Urges all countries to:

Clean their beaches regularly, Have a governmental ministry in charge of sea and water management’s, Test sea contamination monthly,

2- Draws the attention to several concepts that may be a result of dumping radioactive and toxic wastes:

Health infections, birth affects, Crop damage, growth of crops, how their nutrients are distributed, Climate,

3-Requests that the government supports both doctors and scientists to find better and more efficient medicines to cure diseases caused by dumping radio active, toxic, and nuclear waste by:

More in depth research, To develop more advanced technology for hospitals and clinics, The extra use of natural medicines such as: Herbs, Oils, Plants,

4-Calls upon the IMF to send financial aid to clear already contaminated water;

5-Resolves that the UNWPC (United Nations Water Protection Committee) and the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) should:

Have a group of well trained scientists to: set a schedule on how to reduce this major problem, Take the contaminated water to: extract all bad materials and then use it as fertilizers, Improve water storage facilities, Have reports done on all water areas around the world, Fining factories in which effect the water.

 







Opening Speech

Honorable chair, Secretary general, good evening.

Sri Lanka’s sun is shining dim, almost pale to none. Through the devastated landscape of a "soon-to – be" defeated North, people struggle to survive, let alone make a living. As you all know, Sri Lanka suffers from a civil war, which results are nothing but tragic.

The children are left in the cold empty street with no other place to go. There’s a place of forbidden in their world of dreams. Take a minute to feel the pain inside of them and see the sorrow in their eyes. Try to understand all the problems our youth have inside. We hope you realize what we’re trying to tell you…unbelievable stories of the homeless, the hungry, unbelievable stories about the children whom lives are being destroyed and rights being discriminated. Can’t you see the many tears they cry? Can’t you hear them scream for help? Can’t you see the children’s arms spread in front of them begging for help?

My last two questions come straight from the heart: First, can you feel the pain? Second, could you feel love?




Summary Paragraphs

Disarmament Commission:

Sri Lanka was active in the disarmament commission. It had voiced out its comments and points of information over 7 times during the whole session. In the GA, Sri Lanka’s disarmament ambassador was granted only one point of information. Sri Lanka was not granted anymore opportunities to speak or voice its opinions. Because of that, Sri Lanka had been almost silent throughout the Genera Assembly meeting. Sri Lanka was with the resolution that was presented by the Russian Federation and co-signed by Sierra Leon. Sri Lanka had spoken for that resolution in the commission’s meeting. Because of the chairs enabling Sri Lanka numerous opportunities to talk, Sri Lanka only talked once in the General Assembly.

Environment Commission:

Sri Lanka was basically participating in many ways in the environment commission. It had given several speeches and points of information. In the GA, the environment delegate did not have the chance to actively participate because there was a hot competition between numerous delegates. In return Sri Lanka did not prove it presence in the GA due to not choosing Sri Lanka in saying a speech or simply asking a point of information.

Social Commission:

Sri Lanka was VERY active in the social committee. Sri Lanka wasn’t that successful in Lobbying and Merging, but it turned out to be a co-submitter and some clauses of my resolution were adapted. However, Sri Lanka was REALLY successful in the Social Committee. Sri Lanka gave many speeches some for and some against resolutions. Also, Sri Lanka actively participated in making points of information. Sri Lanka played a really active and memorable part in the Social committee since it is a small country. However, Sri Lanka made its point and opinions clear, and made sure everyone noticed that Sri Lanka "exists."

In the General Assembly, however, Sri Lanka was only granted one speech and about 3 or 4 points of information. Sri Lanka raised it’s placard every single time, it also sent a note to the chair. Even so, Sri Lanka was only granted points of information.

Human Rights Commission:

In KFSAC Model United Nations, we were the Republic of Sri Lanka. I was in the commission of Human Rights. I was very active in asking questions for all the debated resolutions. I had supportive questions and attacking questions. We debated 5 resolutions in two days. I spoke 7 times the first day, and 5 times the second, which were between points of information, and speech for/against the resolutions. I also spoke in time for open debate since I had no chance of speak previously. I was so lucky in my commission. I had delegates yield the floor to me and chairs calling on me. The funny thing that we were about six delegates in Human Rights Commission that were speaking all the time, since the rest had no idea of what’s going around, I was one of those six. I once objected on going to voting procedure because I wanted to speak against the resolution, and the chair wouldn’t let me because I spoke too much, so by my objection, I got the right to speak, and the chairs had no choice to call on me or not. Sri Lanka’s policy on the issues of human rights rose among all