Republic of Tunisia
Tunisia is a constitutional democracy headed by President Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali. Elected in 1987, President Ali has led the country for the last nine years. He saved the country from institutional and economic collapse. This leadership transition, the first in Tunisia's post-independence history, took place peacefully and according to the terms of the Constitution. It ushered the country into a new era, often referred to as the Change. And in fact, a lot did change since. President Ben Ali introduced several major reforms anchoring democracy and enlarging political participation. He initiated constitutional reforms doing away with "presidency-for-life" and establishing term limitations for the office of President. Numerous measures have been taken to promote human rights and firmly translate them into a practical reality.
Under the terms of the Tunisian constitution, the president can be elected for a maximum of three five-year terms. Cabinet members are chosen by the president and are responsible only to him. Tunisia has a 163 member unicameral parliament, whose members are elected to five-year terms. Since 1987, various steps have been taken to consecrate the new status of women as real partners with men. Women today enjoy their full rights and assume a major role in the development process and in all walks of life. This success is also reflected in women's accession to the various sectors of work, production and investment. Politics is no exception, as there are today 4 women in the Cabinet and 21 women members of Parliament. Political parties based on race, religion, region or language are strictly forbidden. The country is divided into 23 governates and has 257 municipalities.
The president's party is the Constitutional Democratic Rally Party (RCD). RCD has a majority hold on the government with 144 seats in parliament and controls all of the country's 257 municipalities. There are six other legal parties: the Movement of Democratic Socialists (MDS); the Party for Popular Unity (PUP); the Socialist Progressive Party (RSP); the Social Liberal Party (PSL); the Union of Democratic Unionist (UDU); and the Communist Party. While these parties are recognized, their small size and lack of any broad-based support do not allow them to play a significant role in the political sphere. The country's legal system is based on French civil law system and Islamic law. There is some judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court.
Although Tunisia has limited natural resources, they have a great effect in the economy. The natural resources are petroleum (crude oil), phosphates, iron ore, lead, zinc, and salt. It also has agricultural products (21% of GDP) and they are olive oil, dates, oranges, sugar, almonds, grain, and beets. Tunisia is very self-sufficient in agriculture and so doesn't only use it locally, but also export some agricultural products.
Tunisia has many trading partners that are mostly from Europe and they are E.U. (France, Italy, Germany, and Belgium), U.S., Canada, Turkey, Greece, and the Middle East.
Tunisia is a blend of different civilizations, has always had a rich cultural activity, as testified by its impressive museums and cultural institutions and by the various international festivals held throughout the year. Sustained efforts have been deployed to promote the cultural sector, and embellish it a little. The Heritage Code gives companies important tax breaks to encourage investments in restoration and protection of archaeological monuments (e.g. Cathedral of Carthage) broadcast of legal texts allows free importation of books and paper destined for cultural purposes and the exemption from customs duties of musical instruments.
Tunisia has three major libraries, all located in Tunis. The National Library has a collection of about or more than 700,000 volumes. The Musée National du Bardo, founded in 1888 in Tunis, has collections of Punic, Greek, Roman, and Islamic art. Tunis also has a state-supported public theatre, but much theatre activity takes place at the International Cultural Centre at al-Hammamat. The Carthage Festival, an international arts festival, is held annually at the site of the ancient city.
The main language in Tunisia is Arabic and then Berber. The ethnic groups that make up Tunisia are Arab 98%, European 1%, Jewish and other 1%. The special thing is that they get along togther.
The presence of the Tunisian Military is clearly visible. The military of the Republic of Tunisia comprises five branches; they are Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary forces, and the National Guard. The Republic of Tunisia spends $356 million on its military and defense system for the 2,669,934 that are included in the military manpower. Tunisia does not spend a lot on its defense system due to other important expenditures and the fact that Tunisia does not suffer any pressure, neither internally nor externally, in addition to the peaceful relations maintained with its neighbors for the past decade. Finally, Tunisia occupies a position of strategic importance in the Mediterranean, where its situation and ease of access have kept it open for any help aid received from abroad in future if any misfortune happens.
Tunisia is located in North Africa. Algeria binds it to the west, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the northeast and north. Tunisia's area is 163,610 sq. km divide into 155,360 sq km land, and 8,250 sq. km water. Its capital is Tunis with population of 674,100, and the other major cities are Safaqis (230,900), Aryanah (152,700), and Ettadhamen (149,200). The climate in Tunisia is hot and dry (Mediterranean) in the summer, while it's mild and rainy in the winter. The rainfall is irregular. Tunisian agriculture remains plagued by the country's uncertain rainfall patterns, and the size of its harvests varies as a result.
The terrain of Tunisia is arable in the north and along central coast, while the south is mostly semi-arid and desert. The highest point is Jabal ash Shanabi 1,544 m, and the lowest point is Shatt al Gharsah 17 m.
Views on world problems:
President Ben Ali's foreign policy includes among its priorities working for regional integration in the Maghreb, inter-Arab consensus-building and co-operation, and Euro-Mediterranean co-development. Under Ben Ali's leadership, Tunisia has actively contributed to the search for a just and lasting peace in the Middle East, offering an unwavering and concrete support to the Middle East peace process. Ben Ali's chairmanship of the Organization of African Unity demonstrated a strong commitment to seeking negotiated solutions to the conflicts shaking the continent and to preventing armed confrontations in Africa.
President Ben Ali invariably pleads the cause of a more just, more united, more stable and more prosperous world. In his view, globalization should be a source of universal progress and mutual development, not a factor of imbalance or domination. In 1999, he announced an initiative for the creation of a World Solidarity Fund.
Tunisia has consistently pursued a balanced policy of openness and moderation in its international relations. It has always endeavored to promote a comprehensive and peaceful settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict, which ensures a just and lasting peace in the region. Within this framework, Tunisia took part in the Madrid Conference and has fully supported the Middle East Peace Process by actively participating in its multilateral track and contributing to the realization to the Palestinian-Israeli agreements. It has advocated peaceful settlement of conflicts around the world, especially in Africa. Tunisia has participated in various humanitarian relief and peacekeeping operations around the world since the 1960's. More recently it has dispatched hundreds of peacekeepers to Cambodia, Namibia, Rwanda and Burundi.
Tunisia places particular importance on economic integration and cooperation with the countries of the Maghreb and between the two flanks of the Mediterranean. President Ben Ali has advocated a relationship of co-development and interdependence between the European Community and the southern flank of the Mediterranean. On July 17, 1995, Tunisia was the first country South of the Mediterranean to sign an agreement of association with the European Union. On July 19, 1995, eleven countries took part in a regional meeting held in the Tunisian city of Tabarka with the aim of laying the ground for the Euro-Mediterranean Conference of Barcelona (November 1995.) The ancient Tunisian city of Carthage hosted on April 21-22, 1995, a Symposium on the Teaching of Tolerance in the Mediterranean. Participants adopted a major document, known as the Carthage Charter on Tolerance in the Mediterranean."
Tunisia advocates international relations based on cooperation and mutual help. In 1999, President Ben Ali called for the creation of a World Solidarity Fund.
Relations between Tunisia and the United States date back to the eighteenth century when Tunisia signed a treaty of friendship with the young American republic. Strong ties of cooperation were developed between both countries since Tunisia's independence in 1956. The two nations maintain today close relations of friendship and cooperation. Tunisia actively supports the US initiative for the promotion of a business and trade partnership between countries of the Maghreb and the United States.
Tunisia is a member of various international and regional organizations including the United Nations, the League of Arab States, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Organization of African Unity and the Islamic Conference Organization. In all such fora, Tunisia has advocated peaceful settlement of conflicts, tolerance and dialogue.
Tunisia has a mixed economy in which both the public and private sectors participate. Services, agriculture, light industries, and the production and export of petroleum and phosphates are the largest sectors of the economy. Unemployment and underemployment are widespread, and economic development has been heavily subsidized by Western countries and international organizations. The gross national product (GNP) is growing faster than the population; the GNP per capita is among the highest in Africa but is low for the Middle East and North Africa.
Private agriculture has traditionally been the mainstay of Tunisia's economy, though the manufacturing sector has assumed a larger place in the economy in recent decades. Agriculture accounts for less than one-fifth of the gross domestic product (GDP) and employs almost one-fourth of the work force. Tunisian agriculture remains plagued by the country's uncertain rainfall patterns, and the size of its harvests varies as a result. Dry farming predominates, though an ambitious water development program begun in the 1980s has greatly increased the country's irrigated acreage.
Harvests of wheat and barley, which are the chief staples, frequently fall short of domestic demand. Wheat is grown mostly in the north and barley primarily in central Tunisia, where the rainfall is lower. Cash crops include olives, sugar beets, citrus fruits, and vegetables. Sheep are the primary livestock.
The mineral industry is dominated by the production of petroleum and phosphates. Petroleum has become a chief Tunisian export, though heavy grades of petroleum must be imported. Most phosphate is used domestically to produce chemicals and fertilizers for export.
Manufacturing industries account for approximately one-eighth of the GDP but employ nearly one-fifth of the work force. The nation's industries are concentrated in Tunis. Most manufacturing establishments employ no more than five workers, and traditional artisanship remains an important source of income for many Tunisians. Principal manufactures include processed foods, crude steel, chemicals, textiles, and leather goods.
Electricity is generated almost entirely by thermal plants using domestic fuels, though some hydroelectric power is also produced along the Majardah River. Tunisia's road and rail network is sufficiently dense that all its cities and major towns are linked up. The country has several ports along its lengthy coastline. Tourism, based on Tunisia's long beaches as well as its ancient Roman sites and later Islamic buildings, is an important industry.
Tourism, foreign aid, and remittances from Tunisians working abroad are important sources of foreign exchange and help to offset the country's unfavorable balance of trade. Petroleum and petroleum products, textiles, fertilizers, and agricultural commodities are chief among Tunisia's exports. Its chief trading partners include France, which supplies up to one-third of Tunisia's imports, Germany, Italy, and Belgium-Luxembourg.
Tunisians traded and interacted with other Mediterranean cultures since the 12th century BC. Ancient Carthage, the great city-state founded in 814 BC, so succeeded in trade and commerce that it attracted the eyes of an expanding Roman Empire. After the Romans got control of it, in the fifth and the sixth centuries AD, Roman influence was replaced by that of, first, the Vandals and later the Byzantines. In the seventh century AD, Islamic conquest reached Tunisia. The city of Kairouan became the center of religious life and the site of one of Islams' most ancient and holiest mosques. In the 19th century, Tunisia was the first Arab country to promulgate a Constitution and ban slavery, but economic problems, abuses by the Beys, and foreign interference were the source of increased instability. In 1881, France declared Tunisia a Protectorate, generating a strong anti-colonial reaction in the country.
On July 25th, 1957, Habib Bourguiba, the first President of Tunisia, declared the new nation a Republic. On June 1, 1959, the first Constitution of the Republic was adopted.
On November 7, 1987, Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, who at the time was Prime Minister and the constitutionally ordained successor, became the Republic's second President, after President Bourguiba became unable, for health reasons, to continue assuming the duties of the office. Tunisia's first succession was smooth and peaceful.
Carthage est delenda. And they really did,- destroy Carthage. It is hard to imagine that this place housed the most beautiful and the richest sea port of ancient times, lasting for centuries until the destruction by the Romans in 146 BC. Carthage was destroyed simply because this capital had a tendency of surviving anything, and as it almost changed world history in the century before, Rome could not rest until three years of destruction, ending in 17 days of conflagration, had wiped Carthage out.
Even after the destruction of Carthage, the city returned to much of its old splendour, but this was first under Roman rule, later it was after the decline of Rome. Actually Carthage survived Rome, and its era stretched over almost twice as many centuries as Rome did. Trying to discover what Carthage, is difficult. Even if the "total destruction" left some of the structures of Carthage in good shape, the need for building material removed both ancient Carthage and the younger Roman structures.
1. Ambassador: Adel Al Amar (Security Council)
1. Ambassador: Adel Al Amar (Security Council)
1. Equitable representation on and increase in the membership of the Security Council.
Tunisia believes that we are at a crossroad in the history of international relations in which the Security Council is one of the major players and this is the main reason it has to be equitable. We believe that there is no equity in the presence of the Veto power. Tunisia believes that there should be a time limit on the veto. In that it is an exceptional privilege almost contrary to the nature of things it cannot be forever; at some point an end has to be put on it and time to begin working on doing so is now. This is the civilized way of starting to put an end to something exceptional. Efficiency in the Security Council is a political and power - related problem since the Security Council was inefficient with 10 members, it was inefficient with 15 members and will continue to be inefficient no matter how many members if the political conditions predominating then would prevail again.
Elimination of the veto is a desire of the vast majority of the members of this Organization, but we are faced with a total refusal on the part of the current permanent members to allow their rights embodied in the Charter to be questioned. Tunisia believes that proposals for its immediate elimination praiseworthy though they may be do not seem to us as workable. This is something that has to be done in the long term. The P-5 will never accept their privilege coming to an end from one day to the next. Obviously this can only take place slowly and a great deal of patience will be needed. Sooner or later the P-5 will have to recognize that the privilege of the veto is not for all time and that we need to begin resolving this problem right away slowly and in a civilized manner.
Tunisia also supports an expansion of the Council based on the principle of geographical distribution in which permanent members should be included for the geographical balance within the Security Council. Regions with diverse points of view should be taken into consideration. We believe that the General Assembly should periodically ratify the services of all the members of the Security Council. Only then would we guarantee a Security Council comprised of members widely supported by the community. States that interpret the general could be reelected but they could never be permanent members as a granted right.
2. Security problems in: Central Africa (DR Congo), West Africa, Kashmir, Myanmar and former Yugoslavia.
Tunisia would like to highlight the issue of security. War is a criminal that costs us the youth of the country and so.. it's future. Ladies and gentlemen, we have to solve the issue of security in Central Africa (DR Congo), West Africa, Kashmir, Myanmar and former Yugoslavia. People are dying and we have to take action. Serious action! Peace and stability should be maintained in all these regions and the world as a whole. Tunisia is willing to actively contribute to the search for a just and lasting peace throughout the world. Tunisia is willing to participate in maintaining peace and stability by dispatching peacekeepers as it has more recently done in Cambodia Namibia Rwanda and Burundi. We hope the Council would be successful coming up with ideal solutions for these crises.. We can no longer wait..
2.Vice ambassador: Ghazi Al Sharhan.(Human Rights Commission)
3. Rakan Al Bahar (Social Commission)
Globalization and Interdependence
Tunisia supports and believes that the United Nations should encourage globalization and interdependence. With globalization, there would be more the world could offer to us. President Bin Ali invariably pled the cause of amore just, more united, more stable, more prosperous world. In his view, globalization should be a source of universal progress and mutual development, not a factor of imbalance or domination. In 1999, he announced an initiative for the creation of a world solidarity fund. Tunisia urges all nations to encourage globalization and interdependence.
Measures to improve the care and safety of refugees, returnees, and displaced people
The country of Tunisia would like to show that it is clearly with this. Tunisia is cooperative in humanitarian relief and peacekeeping operations in the world. Most recently, Tunisia dispatched hundreds of peacekeepers to Cambodia, Namibia, Rwanda, and Burundi. Moreover, Tunisia believes that refugees all around the world should be well treated and in good condition. It is in the nation's control the crises that are forcing citizens into refugee. Tunisia wishes everyone to cooperate in implementing better measures in the care and safety of refugees, returnees, and displaced people.
Return and restitution of cultural property to the countries of origin
Tunisia is totally with the restitution of cultural property to the countries of origin. It bears in mind the need to protect the cultural patrimony, preserving thereby the social, historical, and artistic components of this identity, and the restitution of cultural property to the countries of origin. Tunisia believes that the illicit trading and thieving of cultural property should come to an end. It is the countries prerogative to be proud of its outstanding achievements, so treasures taken or stolen should be returned to its native land, as a source to its people. Its source would be to inspire and educate the future generations in accomplishing something as great as their ancestors accomplished.
Strengthening of international cooperation to study, mitigate, and minimize the consequences of natural disasters
Tunisia would like to highlight the issue of humanitarian assistance during natural disasters to countries in need. We are all attacking problems relating to international crime, but we are forgetting the many millions that die annually from natural disasters. We desire and urge all nations to put their efforts together in the field of natural disasters in implementing the study, mitigate, and minimize the consequences of natural disasters.
4. Abdullah Al Asousi (Environmental Commission)
1- The management of water resources on a national and international level:
Water is the most important thing every living thing needs. God says in the Holy Qura'an what is meant that from water, God made every living thing. Almost 71% of earth is water, but only 3% of it is drinkable. Water is important for every nation, even the nations that don't have water bordering it. That's why the U.N. made the Law of the Sea in 1982. More than one-fifth of the world's population does not have access to safe drinking water, and one of the problems is because of water pollution, so about 1 billion people do not have access to safe drinking water, according to the Secretary General.
Tunisia supports any solution to water problems that will make every country get a sufficient amount of water for its citizens and for the country itself, although Tunisia is one of the countries that lie on the Mediterranean Sea and has an adequate amount of water. However, this should especially focus on Africa because many of our brother friend countries don't border water, and because they are very dry, drought countries. Tunisia also believes that water pollution should stop because it's one of the most dangerous pollutions to living things, especially human beings.
2- Prohibition of the dumping of radioactive and toxic wastes:
Nuclear power plants are a common source of energy used in many countries, especially developed ones like the US, the former Soviet Union, United Kingdom, France, Iran, and many other countries. Although the nuclear plants are cheaper than other kinds of energy sources, they have many bad effects to the environment if the slightest thing went wrong. The disaster of the Chernobyl nuclear plant in 1986 was an example for the serious effects. The radiation that was caused affected and damaged people, crops, animals, fish, birds, and other living things. It also polluted the environment, and the victims suffered from cancer. Another dangerous thing caused by nuclear power plants is the dumping of radioactive and toxic wastes. Some countries do that and dump the radioactive and toxic wastes in seas and other places, and that is so dangerous and it affects the whole place the radioactive and toxic wastes are dumped in.
Tunisia does not want the nuclear power plants to be shut down or destroyed. Tunisia understands the important and useful energy that nuclear plants make, but what it wants is to make countries and factories be very careful when using them, and that they agree with all the rules on safety procedures and plans. Also, it wants them to not dump the radioactive and toxic wastes because of the great damages they cause. They must consider that, especially because the nuclear plants don't only affect the country itself, but also its neighboring countries.
3- Protection of the global climate for present and future generations of mankind:
Tunisia perfectly understands the big problem of the global warming, especially that it effects future generations that would live with this problem although they didn't have anything to do with it. Tunisia also understands how hard it is to protect the global climate, especially that many countries' economy depend on the gases that harm the environment. Global warming does many damages and harmful effects health hazards. Also the warming of the tundra might release a tremendous amount of methane, which would make the climate cycle worse. The rising sea levels resulting from global warming pose the greatest risks to many countries. Scientists project a global warming of between 1 and 3.5 degrees C over the coming century. This may not sound like cause for concern, but the global average temperature has changed by no more than one degree C up or down for the past ten thousand years. Another damage caused by global warming is that sea levels could rise by 15-95 cm as soon as 2100 if current trends continue, causing widespread flooding of low-lying areas and islands. A one-meter rise would displace 70 million people in Bangladesh, for example, and submerge 80 per cent of the Marshall Islands. It would also threaten the Gulf and South Atlantic coasts of the United States, and the coastal zone on which Tokyo, Osaka and Nagoya sit in Japan. Salt water could intrude on rivers and coastal areas, affecting freshwater supplies and fishing. These are only some damages and harms that could be caused by global warming. Therefore, the Kyoto 1997 Convention was made. This convention led to many positive things like making industrialized countries accept legally binding targets to reduce their collective emissions of six greenhouse gases by at least 5 per cent by 2008-12. It also made the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which is the scientific advisory body to the Convention.
Tunisia would like an effective solution that will decrease the global warming than if there was no solution. Tunisia, however, wants the developed countries to decrease their releasing of gases, especially that the developed countries are responsible for 60% of the global warming, and the United States alone is 20% of it. Tunisia knows how environmental degradation knows no national boundaries. Sulphur emissions in one country cause acid rain in another downwind. That's why Tunisia wants a solution for this increasing problem.
4- Control of the research, development and production of genetically modified foods:
Tunisia is strongly against the idea of genetically modified foods in this present time. Genetic engineering involves exchanging genes between unrelated species that cannot naturally exchange genes with each other. GM can involve the exchange of genes between vastly different species - e.g. putting scorpion toxin genes into maize or fish antifreeze genes into tomatoes. We are already seeing this problem - adding human growth hormone genes to pigs certainly makes them grow - but it also gives them arthritis and makes them cross-eyed (which was entirely unpredictable). It will be obvious, for example, that the gene for human intelligence (yes - one has supposedly been identified) will not have the same effect if inserted into cabbage DNA as it had in human DNA - but what effect WOULD it have??? (It would certainly do SOMETHING but no one has the slightest idea what this would be). There have not been many studies about the genetically modified foods, and therefore there might be some harmful effects. Actually it had made some effects like environmental, social and economic consequences. It is clear that it was exposing the environment to various forms of genetic pollution. It also affects farmers, and especially the so-called "Terminator Technology" which is seeds that can be planted only once and dies in the second generation. The only aim of this technology is to force farmers to shop from companies that produce these every year, although at the moment 80% of crops planted in the developing world are from saved seeds. Genetically modified foods also affect the economies of the world, especially the developed countries and countries that there economy depends on agriculture. In India, more than 500 cotton farmers had committed suicide following the introduction of genetically modified seeds. The UK's top scientist, Dr Arpad Pustzai proved that GM potatoes (but not conventional potatoes) caused severe harm to rats. Many reports that were made show many consequences of GM food, like the report, based on investigations in India, Ethiopia and Brazil, that says there are several concerns over GM crops:
∑ They threaten to damage the livelihoods and the lives of millions of small farmers.
∑ They will put too much control over the world's food into a few hands, since 10 companies control 85% of the global agro-chemical market.
∑ They could end UK consumer choice over GM foods.
Some UK supermarkets refuse to use GM foods, while most are careful to label them so shoppers can refuse them. The report says one third of UK soya, used in almost all processed foods, comes from Brazil, the world's second largest soya producer. At the moment Brazil is free of GM crops, but "a concerted drive by all the major biotech companies" may soon change that. Many people refuse the idea of unsafe genetically modified food, and many protests have been made. In Seattle December 1999 protests were made at the meeting of the World Trade Organization. There the leaders of the Third World united to stop the WTO, multinationals and the biotech industry from forcing GM food and crops. The Third World leaders were backed by 100,000 demonstrators representing consumer, environmental, development, human rights, health and pro-democracy groups as well as farmers and unions. Another protest was in the Philippines when hundreds of Philippine rice farmers protested against the Philippine-based International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), which was celebrating its 40th anniversary. 3,000 Bangladeshis are marching in the streets of Dhaka and other cities in Bangladesh to support the Philippine movement.
Tunisia is against the idea of using genetically modified foods and crops because there is no proof that they are harmless. In fact, there are tests that show that there are some side effects. It is a technology that is neither safe, environmentally friendly, nor economically beneficial to third world countries and least developed countries. Tunisia doesn't want to stop agricultural progress in the third world, but the reality is that Western multinationals are forcing unsuitable technologies on an unwilling Third World - technologies that will keep the Third World permanently indebted to the West. The Third World is now resisting and many nations are seeking appropriate technologies - such as modern organic farming and renewable energy sources - instead. In particular, Tunisia will not accept the use of Terminator or other gene technologies that kill the capacity of our farmers to grow the food we need. We invite European citizens to stand in solidarity with Africa in resisting these gene technologies so that our diverse and natural harvests can continue and grow. We agree and accept that mutual help is needed to further improve agricultural production in our countries. We also believe that Western science can contribute to this, but it should be done on the basis of understanding and respect for what is already there. It should be building on local knowledge, rather than replacing and destroying it. And most importantly: it should address the real needs of our people, rather than serving only to swell the pockets and control of giant industrial corporations. In conclusion Tunisia is asking for strict regulation of genetically modified material.
Submitted by: Tunisia
Committee: Security Council
Question of: Equitable representation on and increase in the membership of the Security Council.
Believing in the promotion of equity in the Security Council.
Pointing out that Africa, Latin America and the Islamic World have no permanent voice that they can genuinely speak for the international community
Expecting an increase in the membership of the Security Council in order to introduce diverse points of view.
Fully alarmed by the continuous flagrant violation of equity in the Security Council.
Bearing in mind that equity in the Security Council should be achieved and promoted through the removal of the veto power today, tomorrow, or after a long time.
Realizing that this resolution will be a long-term step towards the promotion of equity in the Security Council.
1. Requests an additional membership of the Security Council in which it will consist of 16 non-permanent states that rotate every 2 years in which:
One. The seating would be divided as follow:
1. The Middle East would have 2 seats (Diverse points of views, i.e. Israel/Palestine and Iraq/Kuwait),
2. Asia 2 seats (Pakistan, India, and Indonesia are major regional powers, crises, nuclear proliferation, and economic affairs),
3. North America 1 seats (Since the US is a permanent member and so there is no need for more than a 1 seat since there are not many countries and crises),
4. South America 3 seats (Economic affairs, some crises, and regional powers),
5. Australia and Oceanic 2 seats, Europe 2 seats (Economic affairs and regional powers),
6. Africa 4 seats (Nigeria, South Africa, and Egypt are major regional powers. Also there are many diverse points of views, crises, and economic affairs),
b. Priority for membership is to countries making significant contributions to the UN's peace and security functions and to the other purposes of the Organization,
2. Urges all member states to support an increase in the membership of the Security Council since this will:
One. Introduce diverse points of view in each topic, which will result in more thoughtful and rightful decisions.
Two. Give a chance for nations to express their policies towards issues.
3. Resolves that to promote equity in the Security Council, taking into consideration the permanent 5 members and elimination of this right away slowly and in a civilized manner:
One. The permanent 5 members would have the full veto right until 2010, and vetoes should only be allowed on peacekeeping and enforcement measures.
Two. From the year 2010 - 2020, the permanent 5 members would have the veto right, but if there was a unanimous vote their veto power wouldn't affect the passing of the resolution unless there is a triple veto.
Three. From the year 2020 - 2030, the permanent 5 members veto power will be equivalent to 6 non-permanent member states' vote,
Four. The veto power should be permanently eliminated by the year 2030,
4. Encourages all of the permanent 5 members of the Security Council to vote for this resolution since it solves the question of equity slowly and in a civilized manner,
5. Further encourages all non-permanent member states to vote for this resolution since it promotes equity within the Security Council further more.
Delegate: Rakan Al-Bahar
Question: Strengthening of international cooperation to study, mitigate, and minimize the consequences of natural disasters.
Defining Natural Disasters as the natural phenomenon that is caused as a result of expected and unexpected happenings in nature.
Defining Desertification as the conversion of productive rangeland or cropland into desert like land.
Applauding the work of United Nations humanitarian organization, such as UNHCR, UNICEF, UNDP, UNDRO and other international organizations such as the Red Cross and Red Crescent.
Recognizing that moderate desertification causes a 10%-25% drop in agricultural productivity, and Bearing in Mind that severe desertification can result in a loss of 50% of agricultural productivity or more.
Deeply Concerned about the fact that desertification greatly affects a country's GDP.
Welcoming the efforts and cooperation of other nations concerning the Question of strengthening international cooperation to study, mitigate, and minimize the consequences of natural disasters.
1- Urge all nations to find solutions to this overgrowing problem,
2- Calls Upon willing and able nations to provide contributions for any necessary disaster relief,
a) Contribute financially through donations,
b) Contribute scientifically in developing better farming methods,
c) Contribute by implementing legal support services that would educate people affected by natural disasters,
3- Resolves that the countries affected by desertification take measures with cooperation from the United Nations Disaster Relief Office (UNDRO) including:
a) Prevent overgrazing on land,
b) Prevent farming on marginal land,
4- Reminds all countries that it is our duty to assist countries in need,
5- Strongly encourages the idea of the well-off countries meeting and taking turns in helping countries in need.
Forum: General Assembly (Environment Commission)
Question Of: Control of the research, development and production of genetically modified foods:
Defining genetically modified foods (GMFs) as foods that their genes have been exchanged between species, related or unrelated species;
Noting With Deep Concern that there has been no good or advanced study or experiment about the harmful affects of GMFs or genetically modified seeds and how to cure these bad affects;
Noting With Regret that GMFs might be considered a threat to human life and health;
Fully Alarmed that "Terminator Technology", which is seeds that can be planted only once and dies in the next generation, will damage the lives of millions of small farmers, will make poverty increase, and will put too much control over the world's food into a few hands, since 10 companies control 85% of the global agro-chemical market;
Deeply Regretting that in India, more than 500 cotton farmers have committed suicide following the introduction of genetically modified seeds;
Keeping In Mind that one of the UK's top scientists, Dr. Arpad Pustzai, proved that GM potatoes (but not conventional potatoes) caused severe harm to rats;
Taking Into Consideration that there were many protests against genetically modified foods, like in Seattle 1999 where 100,000 people protested, and also there were Philippine protests backed up by 3,000 Bangladeshis also;
Fully Alarmed by the inevitable gap between more economically developed countries and less economically developed countries that gene manipulation will cause, and especially to countries whose economy depends on agriculture;
Recalling resolution 3/95 that made the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (CGRFA) cover all components of agro-biodiversity of relevance to food and agriculture.
1. Calls for strict regulation of genetically modified material, since know one proved that they are safe;
2. Reminds that the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (CGRFA), which was established in 1983 by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), is the commission that is responsible for studying and researching genetically modified food and agriculture, and that it established two subsidiary bodies in 1997: the Intergovernmental Technical Working Group on Animal Genetic Resources (ITWG-AnGR) and the Intergovernmental Technical Working Group on Plant Genetic Resources (ITWG-PGR) to deal with specific matters in these areas;
3. Requests the formation of a sub-commission to the CGRFA, that will start from June 2001, and to be called the Inspection of Genetically Modified Food and Agriculture Committee (IGMFAC), and to have its headquraters with the headquarters of the CGRFA in Rome;
4. Demands that the IGMFAC memebers will be as follow:
a)- a minimum of 25 person from the 160 memeebrs of the CGRFA,
b)- the secretary of the CGRFA, who is appointed by the Director-General of FAO, will choose the positions of the members of the IGMFAC;
5. Further Recommends that if any member country reports on unlicensed genetically modified products from any company or individual, then the IGMFAC will do the folowing:
a)- ban the company or take the individual's genetically modified foods or agriculture; and
b)- send the individual or company to the International Court of Justice to be prosecuted;
6. Reinsures that the IGMFAC will not infringe upon the national sovereignty of countries since it only bans genetically modofied foods and agriculture only when member countries report on them;
7. Asks the World Health Organization and the World Trade Organization to help in every way they can, since the genetically modified foods and agriculture affects the health and safety of humans, as it GREATLY affects the economies of the world, especially countries whom there economy depend on agriculture.
Issue: The risk of nuclear proliferation in the Middle East and in Central and South Asia
Defining nuclear proliferation as the mass producing and multiplying of the number of nuclear weapons such as hydrogen and atomic bombs, which are used for mass destruction,
Reaffirming the purpose and provisions of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons(NPT), and Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) that states that nuclear proliferation should be stopped and that nuclear facilities are to be used for civilian purposes,
Recalling that the Security Council, in its statement of 31st January 1992, affirmed that proliferation of nuclear and all other weapons of mass destruction constituted a threat to international peace and security,
Alarmed by the fact that there are countries in the Middle East and Asia that proliferate nuclear weapons,
1.Emphasizes that the proliferation of nuclear weapons would seriously increase the danger of nuclear war, and may lead to the end of mankind;
2.Endorses the aims and objectives of the Middle East peace process, and the efforts in creating a region free from nuclear weapons by enforcing the rules and regulations set by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA);
3.Declares that the most effective method of deterring potential nuclear weapon states from procuring nuclear weapons is the unanimous signature and ratification of the NPT and the CTBT by nuclear weapon states;
4.Calls upon all states in the Middle East and Asia to try to resolve all tensions, focusing on nuclear disarmament and the implementation of the NPT and the CTBT;
5.Urges all nuclear weapon producing countries to halt the production of these weapons and to use the nuclear reactors for civilian purposes;
6.Affirms that all nuclear weapon producing countries must abide by the IAEA safeguards;
7.Declares accordingly to the IAEA documents on nuclear producing countries that:
a)in the Middle East Israel and Iraq are suspected for having nuclear weapons,
b)in Central Asia Iran, Pakistan, and India all possess nuclear weapons,
c)and in South Asia there are nuclear weapon tests being held in small uninhabited islands;
8.Creates the United Nations Nuclear Non-Proliferation Organization (UNNNO) which will:
a)Have scientists and inspectors researching and checking each nuclear weapon country on the production of nuclear weapons and their nuclear safety hazards with the countries permission,
b)have a meeting every four months to update on the current state of nuclear proliferation starting January 2001,
c)have its headquarters in Switzerland and have regional locations in:
i.)the Middle East in Amman, Jordan
ii.)Asia in Hong Kong,
9.Affirms that people must be better informed and educated about the nuclear weapon problem by using communication vehicles such as:
d.)Newspapers and magazines,
e.)Posters and hanging ads
f.)Finally, hold nuclear education and awareness campaigns;
10.Encourages the establishment of internationally recognized nuclear weapon-free zones which enhances global and regional peace and security, by taking actions such as:
a.)the immediate halting of the production of nuclear weapons,
b.)the inspection of nuclear facilities in the nuclear-free zone to be created under the authority of the UNNNO,
c.)the disarming of the nuclear weapons and their destruction in a manner that does not harm the surrounding environment.
I, as the honourable delegate of Tunisia in the disarmament committee, strongly believe that I was a vital part of the delegation simply because the efforts that I put in to prepare for the event were up to the standards wanted. I overcame the fear of public speaking and simultaneously decreased the anxiety level in my body to be more focused and appear much confident. At the event, my attempts at lobbying and merging were successful to the utmost perfection where I gathered fifteen co-signers that liked my resolution. At the commission, I had a lot of speeches made and points of information that changed nearly all the delegates perspectives on the debated issue, but alongside to that productivity was my aim that I fortunately reached. Finally I would just like to add the fact that I was a co-submitter for a resolution that would have certainly passed if the delegates of a fellow school did not act out of character and went against their policies