Country: The United Kingdom
Event: KFSAC 2000
Students: Mustafa Malaka, ambassador Mohammad Fakhral-Deen, security council and vice-ambassador, Hamad Sultan, human rights, Sukaina Fakhral-Deen, environmentand Maryem al Hamad, social
Links to other sites on the Web: Back to the Model UN 2000-2001 page
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Island is an unwritten constitutional, parliamentary monarchy and an island nation headed by a King or Queen (currently, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II). The United Kingdom is made up of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; and Great Britain is composed of England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland; the United Kingdom is responsible for all external and internal affairs of the four isles. The UK is also head of the Commonwealth of Nations. The Commonwealth nations act independently and have internal governments. The government is based on an unwritten constitution that has changed throughout centuries. The monarchy is hereditary and considered as the head of the Commonwealth of Nations and heads of state of 16 Commonwealth countries.
The House of Lords, (the Upper non-elected House of Parliament), comprises over 750 hereditary peers and peeresses, over 20 Lords of Appeal (non-hereditary peers), over 370 life peers, 2 archbishops and 24 bishops of the Church of England. The House of Commons consists of 651 members elected for five years by universal adult suffrage. The sovereign appoints a Prime Minister who commands a majority in the Commons.
The monarch is the head of the UK, even though the crown is seen as a symbol above and beyond the monarch. Despite this, the monarch only has minor legislative power. Legislative power is based on constitution in parliament, with the royal assent needed for a bill to become law. The monarch, on the advice of the Prime Minister, dissolves parliament. After a general election, the monarch appoints the head of the winning party as the new Prime Minister, but if no one party had a working majority, the monarch would have to seek advice on whom to ask first to try and form a government.
Political parties are always present in political scenes of United Kingdom. The Conservative Party, Labor Party, and the Liberal Democratic Party are the most active in recent years. The Conservative party was not as successful as the Labor. As evident, the United Kingdom faced many political and economic problems while the Conservatives were in power, such as the Northern Ireland conflict and the economic recession. Sinn Fein, led by Gerry Adams and Martin McGinnis, is a party representing Northern Ireland and has been asking for secession from the United Kingdom.
The United Kingdom has allowed Northern Island to act almost autonomously, except for its foreign policy, defense, currency, tariffs, and communications. The Irish parliament is to hold independent elections, but must be based on United Kingdom’s parliamentary constituencies. The Welsh and Scottish parliaments were both formed in May 1999. These parliaments have powers over agriculture, fishery, economic development, education, environments, food, health, law, police, fire service, local governments, sport and the arts, transport, training, tourism, research and statistics, and social work. However, the British parliament retains power over abortion, broadcasting policy, civil service, constitution, goods and services, defense, foreign policy, most relations with Europe, protection of borders, social security, and the stability of United Kingdom’s economic, and monetary system. Both Wales and Scotland still have members in the British Parliament.
Local government does much of the work of governing Britain. Local authorities (county councils and district councils in England and Wales, regional and district councils in Scotland) are responsible for services such as education, social services, local authority housing, and the fire brigade. There has been some loss of tasks by local government in the 1980s, with some metropolitan authorities (notably the Greater London Council) being abolished and schools being allowed to elect for ect funding for central government.
The United Kingdom is very rich in its natural resources. The United Kingdom’s most important resources are coal, petroleum, natural gas, tin, limestone, iron ore (inorganic substances), salt, clay, chalk, gypsum (plaster), lead, silica, arable (farmable) land. The climate is temperate (calm), moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the North Atlantic Current, more than one-half of the days are overcast (cloudy). Climatologists classify Britain's climate as temperate maritime, which basically means mild and damp. It's generally warmer the further south and west you go, but visitors should expect cloud and rain just about anywhere and at any time of the year. Summer lasts from June to September, with temperatures hovering around 20° C; in winter, minimum temperatures frequently drop below freezing point. Discussing the weather is a national pastime, and the climate was the main reason why 50% of British people recently surveyed said they would emigrate if they could. The terrain is mostly rugged (rough) hills and low mountains, level to rolling plains in east and southeast.
Much of England is flat or low lying, but there are several significant ranges of hills, including the Pennines, which form a backbone ridge running 248 miles (400km) from the Scottish border to the Midlands. The Cumbrian Mountains and the Lake District in the north-west of England form the country's most dramatic landscapes, but the misty lowlands of eastern England, which fuse almost imperceptibly with the North Sea, and the granite outcrops and rugged coastline of south-western England also captivate visitors. Wales has several modest mountain ranges, including the Brecon Beacons in the south and Snowdonia in the north. Large areas of Wales are either moorland or deeply cut narrow valleys. Scotland boasts the wildest and grandest terrain, with the northern two-thirds of the country comprising highlands and moorland, and the southern third fertile coastal plains and low hills. There are no natural hazards. The environment is polluted by the factories causing air pollution, and the polluting of rivers by agricultural (farming) wastes, and coastal waters polluted because of large-scale disposal of sewage at sea.
The United Kingdom is more thickly populated than most countries. It has an average of 236 people per square Kilometer. The population of the United Kingdom 58,287,000 as estimated in 1999. About nine tenths of the people live in cities and towns. About 35 percent of the urban residence live in England’s seven metropolitan areas. Greater London, the largest metropolitan area, has about 6.5 million people, which is over 10 percent of the United Kingdoms total population. About 48 million people or more than four-fifths of the British population live in England. London and England as a whole have an enormous influence over the rest of the United Kingdom because of their large populations.
Most of the British are descendants of many early people who invaded Britain. These people included the Celts, Romans, Angles, Saxons, Scandinavians, and Normans. It is however, difficult to tell which of these people are most important in the ancestry of the British. Since the late 1940’s, many immigrants from commonwealth countries have settled in the United Kingdom. Most of them came from the West Indies, Asia, and Africa. Today, most of Britain’ immigrants live in crowded parts of such industrial cities as London, Birmingham, Wolverhampton, Leicester, and Bradford. This has created housing, educational, ethnic, and other problems. In the 1960’s, the government began to restrict sharply the number of immigrants that may enter the country each year.
In the United Kingdom, freedom of religion is guaranteed. After the 17th century, people started having laws to have these rights. All parts of England ignored religion when contracting with political issues, except Northern Ireland. In this part of the UK, Religion was different between the people and the descendants of the Scottish and English colonists both culturally and politically. The majority of the Protestants supported remaining parts of the UK, while the Roman Catholics were advocates of the United Ireland.
The United Kingdom has two established (national) churches. They are the Church of England, and the Church of Scotland. The Church of England has about 27 million members, and is the countries largest religious body. The Church of Scotland has about 2 million members. More than 5.5 million Roman Catholics live in the UK. The Muslim population is estimated at around 1 million. There are also about 1 million Jews, one of the largest groups of Jews in Europe.
The United Kingdom is located in the Western part of Europe, islands including the northern one-sixth of the island of Ireland between the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea, northwest of France. The U.K comprises the island of Great Britain, the northeast part of Ireland, and over 4000 other islands. Lowland Britain occupies the south, east and center of England. Clay valleys and river basins, including those of Thames and the Trent, separate relatively low ridges of hills. In the east, low-lying Finland is largely reclaimed marshland. The area is slightly smaller in comparison to the state of Oregon.
The United Kingdom ranks fifth in between the world’s nuclear power possessing countries. However, it intends to destroy all air-delivered nuclear weapons. Its strategic nuclear deterrent is based, as submarine-launched intercontinental ballistic missiles, on the Royal Navy Trident submarines, and as free-fall nuclear weapons on Royal Air Force (RAF) bombers, although free-fall bombs are to be taken out of service. The only nuclear force of the United Kingdom is based on four new Vanguard-class SSBN’s that are armed by Trident II D-5 missiles provided by the United States. The British also possess 200 nuclear weapons in total, which is not even close to the country that precedes it in possessing nuclear weapons (China) The defense also includes the British Army.
The Defense Council, headed by the Secretary of State for Defense and including the Chief of Staff for each of the three services, the Chief Scientific Advisor for Defense, and the Permanent Under-Secretary of State for Defense, exercises powers of command and administrative control. After the Cold War, however, the United Kingdom decided to reduce the armed forces significantly in size. The military manpower availability of the United Kingdom represents approximately 26% of the whole population.
The British Army is controlled by the Defense Council through an army board consisted of both civilian and military members. In April 1997, there were 108,810 men and women in the army. This figure is insignificant if compared with that of the US. The Territorial Army is a national reserve force that is called out in any case of emergency. The Ulster Defense Regiment, a Northern Irish army, contributes 6,200 personnel to the regular army.
The British Navy, also known as the Royal Navy, is controlled by the Admiralty Board under the Secretary of State for Defense. After reducing the fleet strength in 1996, the operational strength included 3 Trident (strategic) submarines, 12 nuclear submarines, 2 aircraft carriers, and about 35 destroyers and frigates. The naval personnel had been reduced to 45,146, compared with 63,500 before 1993 and 50,500 in mid-1995.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is actually an amalgam of the Royal Flying Corps and its naval wing the Royal Naval Air Service. It is administered by the Air Force Board, headed by the Secretary of State for Defense. In April 1997, the RAF personnel numbered 57, 867, including 4,895 women.
The United Kingdom is totally independent in the field of defense. Despite, few imports from the United States, the United Kingdom possesses the required technology and personnel to produce weapons, including nuclear ones.
The United Kingdom is a substantial member of several military organizations. First and for most, it makes up the bulk of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). It contributed to maintaining peace and security in Yugoslavia, in alliance with its fellow NATO countries. The United Kingdom also volunteered in the UN peacekeeping missions, such as the Gulf War and the Falklands War in 1982. Currently, its forces are trying to secure peace in Sierra Leone and Northern Ireland.
Views on World Problems
The United Kingdom is a member of the United Nations (UN), EU/EC (European Union/European Community), WEU (Western European Union), NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization), G7 (Group 7), G8 (Group 8), OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), OSCE (Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe), and the Commonwealth of Nations.
Members of the Commonwealth of Nations, with which the UK enjoys good relations, are: Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, the Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Botswana, Brunei, Cameroon, Canada, Cyprus, Dominica, the Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guyana, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Kiribati, Lesotho, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Mauritius, Namibia, Nauru, New Zealand, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, the Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Also, the United Kingdom has stationed troops in Sierra Leone in order to reach the goal of returning peace to the region.
Its Crown Dependencies, associated with, but not part of the UK, are: Guernsey and Dependencies (Alderney and Sark), Isle of Man, and Jersey. Its Dependencies are: Anguilla, Bermuda, British Antarctic Territory, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Hong Kong, (uptill 1999), Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, St Helena and Dependencies (Ascension and Tristan da Cunha), South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands, and Turks and Caicos Islands.
On the international stage, the United Kingdom is mainly a follower of the United States of America. It has been on great terms with the United States since the end of World War II; relations, similar policies on international issues, and the same goal of playing the role of the international mediator are what keep the UK along the same wavelength as the US. The UK also seeks what is in the best interest of all world countries. It works to be a main contributor in solving world problems. The United Kingdom is on good terms with members of the Commonwealth of Nations, especially ex-colonies such as St. Kitts and Nevis. The United Kingdom is very unsure and doubtful about the European Community, (EC); due to this, the UK has not partaken in the Euro "unity" program, of which the first step was unifying the European currency and making it the Euro dollar. This is not due to any disputes or such between the UK and any other member of the EC; it is simply due to the fact that the UK wishes to push its economy a further step up. It’s also due to the UK being uncertain about the whole EC experiment since the very beginning on the grounds that the currency might very well lose its value and cause the involved European nations ecnomic losses; for the Euro is losing value daily. The shortlived embargo on cow exports from the UK also played a minor role in the UK’s decision not to partake in the Euro program, even though the embargo has been lifted.
As for its international disputes, they are as follows: Northern Ireland issue with Ireland (historic peace agreement signed on the 10th of April 1998); Gibraltar issue with Spain; Argentina claims Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas); Argentina claims South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. Also, Mauritius claims island of Diego Garcia in British Indian Ocean Territory; Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Denmark, Iceland, and Ireland (Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area). Going further, territorial claim in Antarctica (British Antarctic Territory); and Seychelles claims Chagos Archipelago in British Indian Ocean Territory.
As for illicit drugs, the United Kingdom is the gateway country for Latin American cocaine entering the European market; it is a producer and major consumer of synthetic drugs, synthetic precursor chemicals, a transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin, and a money-laundering center.
The United Kingdom is one of the world’s leading commercial and industrialized nations. Ranking fifth in the world, it had a Gross National Product (GNP) of US $1,095 billion, equivalent to US $18,700 per capita. The major industries include transport, communications, steel, petroleum, coal, gas, and electricity. In 1997, the Labor government continued the low-inflation policy. However, unemployment level was about 1.65 million by April 1997. In 1996, the annual budget deficit equaled 4.5 percent of the GDP.
The United Kingdom is currently the fifth-largest trading nation and exports more per capita than the United States and Japan. It trades goods with most European countries, importing foodstuffs, wood and paper products, machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, textile yarn and fabrics, other manufactured goods, and automatic data-processing equipment. Exports include machinery, transport equipment, basic manufactured goods, petroleum, chemicals, iron and steel products, precision instruments, and aerospace and electronics goods and equipment. The imports in 1995 totaled US $265.7 billion, while the exports US $242.7 billion. This clearly indicates that the United Kingdom is not fully self-sufficient and is still dependent on other nations. An exception is petroleum for the United Kingdom uses the North Sea to get petroleum and natural gas.
The United Kingdom is a member in the World Bank as well as the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Its major trading partners are the EU members, for it makes up more than 50% of all trade deals, while trade with Asia and Oceania is about 15%, and with North America 13%. To name individual countries, the main trading partners of the United Kingdom are Germany, France, the United States, and the Benelux countries.
The British currency is Sterling Pound which is currently one of the most valuable currencies in the market. The United Kingdom has not shown interest in joining the Euro currency due to its low value in the market. The government has yet to decide after the elections in 2001, and most likely there will be a referendum asking people about their opinions of joining or not. Denmark did the same in the year 2000.
Twenty years ago, the United Kingdom was vulnerable to becoming a third world economy because of lack of economic planning in the government. However, with the election of Ms. Thatcher as the conservative party leader, the economy was reformed and continued its ascendance. Now, the British economy is one of the strongest after the United States.
The kingdom of Great Britain was formed by the Act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland. England (including the principality of Wales, annexed in the 14th century) and Scotland had been separate kingdoms since the early Middle Ages, but since 1603 the same monarch has ruled both lands. Only in 1707, however, did London become the capital of the entire island. Great Britain from then on had a single Parliament and a single system of national administration, taxation, and weights and measures. All tariff barriers within the island were ended. England and Scotland continued, however, to have separate traditions of law and separate established churches—the Presbyterian in Scotland, the Anglican in England and Wales. For the history of the two countries before 1707, one of the chief purposes of the planners of the Act of Union had been to strengthen a land preoccupied with the War of the Spanish Succession.
Under the leadership of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, Britain and its allies had won many battles against France, then the most populous and powerful European state, Although the king could appoint whomever he wished to his government, he found it convenient to select members of Parliament, who could exercise influence there. Such was the case of Robert Walpole, who was appointed first lord of the Treasury (and came to be known as Prime Minister) in 1721 in the aftermath of the South Sea Bubble.
Between 1739 and 1763, Great Britain was generally at war. The war against Spain (see Jenkins’s Ear, War of) soon merged with the War of the Austrian Succession, which began in 1740, pitting Prussia, France, and Spain against Austria. Great Britain became Austria’s chief ally, and British armies and ships fought the French in Europe, in North America, on the high seas, and in India, where the English and French East India companies competed for influence. During World War I, a British expeditionary force was immediately sent to France and helped stem the German advance at the Marne. Fighting on the Western Front soon became mired in a bloody stalemate amid muddy trenches, barbed wire, and machine-gun emplacements. Battles to push the Germans back failed repeatedly at the cost of tens of thousands of lives.
Memories of World War I left Britons with an overwhelming desire to avoid another war, and the country played a leading role in the League of Nations and at interwar disarmament conferences such as those in Washington, D.C. in 1921 and 1922 and London in 1930 that limited naval size. Conscious that Germany might have been unfairly treated at the 1919-peace conference, the British government followed a policy of appeasement in dealing with Adolf Hitler’s Germany after 1933.
In the elections of April 1979 the Conservatives, led by Margaret Thatcher, emerged with a substantial majority of parliamentary seats and with the first woman prime minister in British or European history. She was to remain in office for the next 11 years, making hers the longest continuous prime ministership since the end of the Napoleonic Wars. Thatcher was succeeded as Conservative Party leader and Prime Minister by John Major, who continued Thatcher’s policy of maintaining close ties with the United States. British troops fought as part of the multinational coalition led by the United States in the Persian Gulf War (1991). In 1992, despite an economic recession, Major led his party to victory in the April general elections, though with a reduced majority. The U.K. is a country in that is very powerful despite its great fear of other countries. The U.K. has either been fighting wars or helps stop wars; this is because it is afraid that someday there might be a nation that can defeat the U.K. The U.K. has now been quiet for almost 50 years because of two things, The U.S. and The Soviet Union. During the cold war The U.K. did not have a great role because it knew if it started another fight it would not win. That is why during the gulf war it immediately helped Kuwait knowing that in the future Kuwait might help them out by either trading with them or selling oil or many more things. A war that is not a benefit to the U.K. is a war that you won’t see U.K. near.
IV. Policy Statements
The United Kingdom believes that the Security Council is a strong and mediating body in the United Nations. It feels that the current system or routine in the SC satisfies its goals, promoting world peace and maintaining security. The five permanent members are from different regions of the world and have diverse points of view on different world issues, thus fulfilling several different aspects of an issue. The UK thinks that equitable representation is already being implemented in the security council in accordance to articles 31 and 32 in Chapter V of the United Nations Charter: The Security Council, which explicitly state that Member Nations in the GA and not in the SC are to be invited to the SC upon request when the SC nations see it necessary. This is carried out at times when an issue or more pertaining to a GA Member Nation is/are being discussed as part of the SC agenda. Thus, the UK does not think it necessary to increase the number of SC members or to change the ways of the SC that were set and determined in the Charter of the United Nations on the 26th of June in 1945.
Delegation: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Forum: The Security Council Delegate: Mohammed Fakhral-Deen ISSUE #2: Security Problems in Central Africa (DR Congo)
The United Kingdom condemns rebel groups that are only increasing the chaos in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and decreasing the chances of attaining a peaceful end to this seemingly endless conflict. The UK is impressed by the leader of DR Congo, President Kabila, in his act of agreeing to accept UN peacekeeping forces into the region in accordance to the Lusaka agreement of 1998. The UK is also impressed by Nzanga Mobutu, son of the late dictator of the former Zaire, who wishes to establish a DR Congo different from that of his father’s in one aspect: a DR Congo of the new generation. The UK believes that this is a promise of democracy and not a return to dictatorship. Thus, the UK’s position on this issue is mostly neutral, it strongly supports the reinforcement of UN troops in the region until the conflict between the current unstable government and rebel groups resolves, and until democracy is established, (or supposedly reestablished), in the country.
Delegation: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Forum: The Security Council Delegate: Mohammed Fakhral-Deen ISSUE #3: Security Problems in West Africa
This policy statement pertains to security problems in only one country in West Africa: Sierra Leone. The United Kingdom condemns the violent actions of the rebel Revolutionary United Front, which controls key diamond-producing areas. The UK currently has 400 troops in Sierra Leone, training the government army to thwart the rebels. A UK army officer has been appointed, at the beginning of November, to serve alongside the new Kenyan commander of the United Nations peacekeeping force in Sierra Leone, (UNAMSIL). Brigadier Alastair Duncan, (who is of the Prince of Wales’ Own Regiment, and who has served in Bosnia), will serve as chief-of-staff in the force to be headed by Kenyan Lieutenant-General Daniel Ishmael Opande. Brigadier Duncan will coordinate the UN force’s headquarters in the Sierra Leonean capital, Freetown. The UK government is sending more troops to West Africa. These troops are comprised of a naval rapid reaction force, including more than 500 Royal Marine commandos.
The UK further condemns and denounces Liberian President Charles Taylor, who has been backing up the rebels since the beginning of the rebellion. The UK thinks that Taylor is in no condition to be taking sides, especially against the UN and most of the world. The UK feels that this is evident from the cross border raids that Liberia has been conducting into Guinea; these raids started about two months ago. The UK hopes that the peace talks held in Nigeria on November 7th, 2000 prove to be effective in terms of progression of the peace talks, especially since the RUF rebels have a "desire to end this conflict by disarming rapidly without fighting". Despite this, the UK still feels that troops currently present in Sierra Leone should remain there until the country has stabilized and until peace amongst the government and the rebels has been ascertained.
Delegation: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Forum: The Security Council Delegate: Mohammed Fakhral-Deen ISSUE #4: Security Problems in Kashmir
Kashmir is split between India and Pakistan, who have had two wars over Kashmir since 1947. The region was initially, (before the conflict arouse), Indian territory. That is mainly why the United Kingdom believes that Kashmir should be Indian territory. The UK also feels it necessary to bring up the point of the major suppression of the Indians on behalf of Pakistani militant Sunni groups in Kashmir. The UK regards this as discrimination of religion, (which is a violation of Article Two of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights); the UK also believes that this should not be tolerated. It has gone too far, especially in the act of killing a senior Kashmiri Shi’i politician called Agha Sayyed Mahdi (who is of Indian descent), who is also a famous religious leader and preacher. Many people have organized protests upon the news of his death, and Pakistani militant groups have admitted to the responsibility of planting the landmine that killed Agha Sayyed Mahdi when he was traveling in his bulletproof bus. The UK also believes that, due to the fact that many Hindu Kahsmiri citizens, (of Indian descent), have been forced to flee Kashmir, then voting in Kashmir would not be just and impartiality would not be maintained.
Delegation: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Forum: The Security Council Delegate: Mohammed Fakhral-Deen ISSUE #5: Security Problems in Myanmar
The United Kingdom condemns the many violations of human rights in Myanmar. It believes that, by having the highest number of child soldiers in any world country, (50,000 in both the national army and in armed ethnic groups), Myanmar is seriously violating the rights of children. The UK also feels that forced labor, a practice used against ethnic minorities, illustrates discrimination against ethnic groups and violates the rights of individuals to freedom of employment; both seriously contravene the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The UK strongly urges the International Labor Organization, (ILO), to take grave action and to seriously contemplate imposing sanctions on Myanmar if the government doesn’t do anything about the working conditions and state of affairs in the country.
The UK further insists on the involvement of the World Health Organization (WHO) in the situation in the sense that it assesses the health service in the nation in response to claims of underreported HIV infections and AIDS-related illnesses, which are increasing according to UN estimates. The last point on which the UK would like to elaborate is the immediate intervention of the United Nations International Children’s Education Fund, (UNICEF); for children in Myanmar suffer from a lack of healthcare, education, and stunted growth. The UK demands that the Myanmar government adopt international human rights’ laws in accordance to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and it further demands that the Myanmar government repeal/abolish domestic laws that impinge/intrude on basic rights.
Delegation: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Forum: The Security Council Delegate: Mohammed Fakhral-Deen ISSUE #6: Security Problems in the Former Yugoslavia
The Former Yugoslavia is mainly Serbia; now that the democracy will be reestablished in Yugoslavia, the United Kingdom believes that, at present, Yugoslavia, its government and its people are going through a tough time. The UK supports the restoration of democracy to the nation, but nonetheless, it still feels that the tension in the region is still too immense to withdraw all troops from the five sectors of Yugoslavia. The UK believes that the troops should remain for at least another three to six months just to ensure the maintenance of security in the region. Furthermore, the UK condemns the new Yugoslav president for his decision not to turn over indicted war criminals. The UK believes that former Yugoslav President Slobadan Milosevic and all other Yugoslav war criminals that were not arrested should be indicted and arrested and should stand trial in the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in the Hague, Netherlands.Human Rights Commission
As every one knows children are our future! The children and youths of all races should have the same fair rights in which they could live a crime free life. The lack of rights towards children in many countries has caused them to fear adults and making them the center of many criminal activities and criminal abuse. Youths should receive rights all around the world and should be protected.Delegation: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Forum: Human Rights Delegate: Hamed Sultan ISSUE #2: Implementation of the Convention of the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women including elimination of the trafficking in women and girls
It is the U.K’s dream to hold hands with indigenous people and be one. The U.K has long dreamed about giving the rights to those people so that there can be peace between all. Without giving everyone rights then there can be no peace in the world. It is best to give every person from anywhere the same rights.
Delegation: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Forum: Human Rights Delegate: Hamed Sultan ISSUE #3: The human rights and welfare of indigenous peoples
The U.K has had many problems with migrant workers. The crime rate of the U.K. has raised by 23 percent because of the migrant workers. None the less the U.K believes it is in every one’s best interest for all migrant workers to be protected and have the same rights as others.
Delegation: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Forum: Human Rights Delegate: Hamed Sultan ISSUE #4: The human rights and welfare of migrant workers
The U.K does not care about race, sex, color, or even age. The U.K thinks that self-determination is the only thing that holds people together and that all people should have self-determination and should be self-determined. That way more people can benefit from the society because the voice of all can be heard.
Delegation: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Forum: Disarmament ISSUE #1: Measures to improve the effective implementation of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction
The United Kingdom solely believes in the threat posed by chemical weapons on humanity. As a peace and humanity-loving nation, we are well aware of the dangers of chemical weapons on the lives of millions of people who live in places vulnerable to chemical weapon attacks. The United Kingdom condemns nations that continue its importation, exportation, and stockpiling of chemical weapons. Countries such as Iraq and North Korea should be pressured by the international community to cease their attempts at enhancing their chemical weapons technology. We also send a warning to those nations that officially or underhandedly support these nations with sufficient technology to build up their chemical weapons.
The United Kingdom has officially signed the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction. The United Kingdom has verified its positive stance towards the issue by implementing the measures mentioned in this treaty and destroying all of its chemical weapons (although it never attempted to improve the technology). The United Kingdom does not possess any chemical weapons nor does it try to attain any. We do not like the international community to isolate us as it has done to some nations that have refused to stop stockpiling their chemical weapons. We declare our full support and cooperation for the international community and the United Nations in the implementation of the requirements of this treaty.
Delegation: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Forum: Disarmament Delegate: Mustafa Malaki ISSUE #2: The risk of nuclear proliferation in the Middle East and in Central and South Asia
It is very unfortunate, truly unfortunate, for a region where three great civilizations once emerged, to be in jeopardy now. The Middle East is currently a very strategic region, both geographically and in its resources. Today, this region has lost its essence as many of its countries have decided to place themselves under the power of "nuclear threat". In the very west of the Middle East, Israel is developing its nuclear weapons and expanding its nuclear fields in coordination with its ally Turkey. Israel has, in several occasions, tested its nuclear weapons in the form of underground waves. On the very east of this region, Iran and Iraq strive to import nuclear technology from countries such as North Korea, Russia, and France, and it is truly unfortunate that these countries tend to gain economically on the expense of world peace and security. Moreover, many of these nations deny their engagements in the improvement of nuclear technology in the Middle East.
Switching to the southern region of Asia, we view how India and Pakistan compete in their race to nuclear weapons. India and Pakistan now possess nuclear missiles as well as warheads, and yet spend much more in improving their competence and efficiency, at a time where most of their people live in poverty and lack healthy life conditions. As our former colonies we deeply regret the nuclear era in which both of these nations have entered. In addition to their military capabilities, these two nations continue fighting over the region of Kashmir, and everyone fears the escalation of this war into a nuclear one in the near future.
The United Kingdom regrets the inhumane acts of those governments that seek improving their nuclear capabilities. We also denounc3e those nations that provide nuclear support whether in the form of technology or in the form of weapon exportation to these countries. We will play an active role as part of the international community to limit these countries’ access to nuclear weapons, especially that their lack of experience in dealing with these weapons might lead to unexpectable, fatal catastrophes in the region. It is extremely vital to stop feeding these nations with nuclear weapons in order to reduce the tension in the Middle East and Southern Asia. We, as a nation that has signed the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (NTBT) and the treaty for the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons, are ready and on alert to assist those nations in their task of limiting the proliferation of nuclear weapons in their countries. We also encourage nations such as Iraq to allow UN inspectors to inspect their nuclear facilities in compliance with passed SC resolutions.
Delegation: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Delegate: Mustafa Malaki ISSUE #3: International cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space
The United Kingdom believes that all nations that have signed the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space have to comply with all of its articles aforementioned in its charter. We believe that OUTER space should be totally disarmed. What is meant by outer space is the moon and other celestial bodies. We believe that outer space shall be used for peaceful purposes including scientific research, and that the moon and other celestial bodies shall be used by astronauts and not military personnel. The United Kingdom discourages any nations that wish to expand their military capabilities by using outer space as targets or bases for their weapon tests. WE are ready to cooperate fully with other states parties that have signed the treaty, as well as persuading those that haven’t signed to do so as soon as possible.
However, during the Cold War, the United States of America and the Soviet Union were both developing their weapons and therefore their anti-ballistic missiles. The United States set up its Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) which aimed at developing a defense system against incoming enemy missiles. They produced more anti-ballistic missiles, as well as placing stateliites and radars in space to detect any possible attack. The United Kingdom does not take a strong, positive stance on this program mainly because it might and has, to some extent, increased the arms race in outer space. We nor ignore the importance of such program, for the United States of America has established it to protect itself, its western European allies, Canada, and Japan against any nuclear threat from other countries. We believe that as a loyal ally to the United States that we support this program to a certain extent. However, we believe that it would create more safety and security if the United States restricted this program by limiting the number of anti-ballistic missiles as well as abiding by the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) treaty.
Delegation: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Forum: Disarmament Delegate: Mustafa Malaki ISSUE #4: Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
The United Kingdom expresses its full support and willingness to cooperate with other states in the field of information and telecommunications as long as they do not violate international security. It is impossible for a peaceful nation such as the United Kingdom to provide any aid in these fields if it endangers the security in any region. We are not willing to achieve development in these fields on the expense of international security because this represents selfishness and greediness. We believe that developments in these fields are necessary to countries that have been our former colonies, including African and Southern Asian nations. However, this does not mean that we are ready to sell arms or military miscellaneous to any of these countries as means of development in information and telecommunications.
We would like to concentrate on telecom warfare. Currently as we observe how nations race to build up their defense systems, we should expect more problems in the form of telecommunications. We believe that the internet and other forms of media should not transmit confidential information about the defense systems of any country. Unfortunately, two years ago, some Russian hackers were able to break through into the United States Pentagon and acquire confidential information about the American defense system, which is a matter of high importance. We believe that such actions should be prohibited and the United Nations should take effective measures towards the censorship of such materials as it jeopardizes the safety and security of our nations and would lead to major misunderstandings. Telecommunications should be within certain boundaries that shall not be infringed upon by any nation. The United Kingdom totally supports the improvement of telecommunications technology as long as it is done within the context on international security.
Environment CommissionDelegation: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Forum: Environment Delegate: Sukaina Fakhral-Deen ISSUE #1: The management of water resources on a national and international level
Overall, the UK has a plentiful natural supply of freshwater, but the distribution of resources does not match that of demand. In Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales and most of England, there is a substantial margin between the level of effective rainfall (which occurs in drought years) and the total licensed abstractions of water from surface waters and groundwater. The margins are even greater if total actual abstractions are considered.
Delegation: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Forum: Environment Delegate: Sukaina Fakhral-Deen ISSUE #2: Prohibition of the dumping of radioactive and toxic wastes
Greenpeace warns of radioactive peril from seabed dump site. Thousands of radioactive waste barrels are rusting away on the seabed in UK waters, environmentalists have warned. Greenpeace has released new film of the legacy of radioactive waste dumping at sea from ships - off the Channel Islands about 15 kilometres north-west of Cap de La Hague. Greenpeace said radioactivity from La Hague and Sellafield, has already been detected in sea life around the coasts of Scandinavia, Iceland and the Arctic and will continue to build up in the food chain, threatening the health of millions of people, unless the discharges stop immediately.
Delegation: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Forum: Environment Delegate: Sukaina Fakhral-Deen ISSUE #3: Protection of the global climate for present and future generations of mankind
In the UK, there are some pollution problems and that’s why it has a lot of organizations to help it with decreasing the percent of pollution. The thing that will help the UK to decrease the pollution are the organizations, because it has money and it’s a rich country. Unlike the poor countries, which are having a big problem with pollution, and several people are dying, and getting sick (e.g.; cancer), because they don’t have a lot of money.
Delegation: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Forum: Environment Delegate: Sukaina Fakhral-Deen ISSUE #4: Control of the research, development and production of genetically modified foods
Genetically modified foods is when a living thing has had its genetic arrangement altered (modified). To ‘modify’ something means to change it, and ‘genetic’ is to do with genes. Genetically modified food is made from plants or animals that have been genetically modified. The UK is an ally of the USA. It also produces GMFs. Now the UK is researching on the GMFs, to make sure that they are safe, and stay safe for a long period of time. The UK is doing this because of the protests that came from farmers.
We read a lot now a day, about troops of fraudulent preserve seekers, illegal immigrants, and economic migrants that are supposedly flooding into Britain to become benefit scroungers. But what about refugees? Those people who go to Britain to escape persecution, torture and death? What does Britain have to offer them? There are an estimated 13,000,000 refugees in today’s troubled world. Great Britain provided a home for a mere 0.05% of them in 1997. It has the second largest number of asylum applications in Europe. The refugees are mainly from Yugoslavia, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Soviet Union, Afghanistan and Turkey.
The UK might appraise however, the thought of increasing taxes on the refugees so that the population of returnees, displaced people, and refugees won’t grow rapidly in the region, because many refugees work as migrant workers in the UK. The British government is committed to protecting genuine refugees. In fact, it has an international obligation as a spectator of the 1951 United Nations convention on refugees, and the 1967 Protocol to provide a safe haven for these fleeing torture, persecution and death, regardless of their nationality.
Delegation: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Forum: Social Delegate: Maryem Al-Hamad ISSUE #2: Return and restitution of cultural property to the countries of origin
UK is naturally opposing the restoration of cultural properties to the countries of derivation since the belongings were bought evidently and originally from the other countries. Furthermore, the UK is doubtlessly more capable of presuming a suitable region for these properties so that they are prevented from being neither destroyed nor damaged. UK believes that any property they own is to be kept reasonably and fairly to them. The UK is however determined to contribute effectively to the fight against illicit trade in cultural objects. The British will be taking the important step of establishing common, minimal legal rules for the restitution and return of cultural properties between contracting countries, if the properties were illegally seized, with the objective of improving the preservation and protection of the cultural heritage in the interest of all.
Delegation: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Forum: Social Delegate: Maryem Al-Hamad ISSUE #3: Globalization and interdependence
Globalization is bringing every aspect of our world society under one, universal political system. It’s the desire to unite the planet under a one-world government, a single economic system, and a one- world religion. Through various governmental programs, international conferences, and religious meetings, they desire to unite the various governments of this globe into one single network. The British believe that to achieve globalization they must focus on the next generation of young people. By pushing global education in the schools, they believe they can instruct students to accept the basic foundations of globalization. They believe that this new form of education will enable future generations to deal effectively with population growth, environmental problems, international tensions, and terrorism. However, the British also believe that there should be special boundaries or regulations when exporting or importing products in the United Kingdom. The British believe that financial globalization provokes economic insecurity and social inequalities.
Interdependence in British politics implies that actors are interrelated or connected so that if something happens to at least one actor, on at least one occasion, in at least one place, it will affect all the actors. This means that the more the actors, the more the places, the more the occasions, the greater the interdependence. In the twentieth century recognition of the importance of interdependence in British military, security issue areas was taken a stage further with the idea of collective security. The British tended to focus primarily upon wealth economic issue areas. Interdependence increases in Britain ectly as industrialization and modernization take place. The U.K. has many ex-colonies that are easy to share interdependence with; it encourages other countries to implement interdependence because it may broaden the nation chances of improving its economy. An example was when intra-community exports, as a proportion of total exports and as a proportion of Gross Domestic products, increased markedly. It allows Britain politically and technologically interdependent so it relies on other nations for resources and commodities that enable it to develop and sustain a viable economy. British farmers could NOT produce enough food by themselves to support 12 million of Britain’s 56 million people. The British people would starve to death within months if they could not import food and raw materials; their economy would collapse if they could not sell manufactured products abroad. Today Britain uses the possession of commodities to wield effective international influence. Delegation: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Forum: Social Delegate: Maryem Al-Hamad ISSUE #4: Strengthening of international cooperation to study, mitigate, and minimize the consequences of natural disasters
A natural disaster is a perceived natural event, which has the potential to threaten life and poverty. The United Kingdom strongly supports the intervention of the White Helmet Groups that cooperated in the encouragement of reducing the consequences of natural disasters occurring. This prevention will most certainly increase the affiliation with different groups that can be composed of a variety of UK personnel. There is some evidence that the death rate from natural disasters is increasing. This is due to population growth, economic growth, and more disasters occur.
The United Kingdom is in control over the natural disasters occurring in its own region, and is willing to help other countries, only if the UK is willing to aid the other countries. Many countries these days are facing severe natural disaster problems and the UK believes that those countries should work for themselves and try to overcome those disasters. However, if they face many other problems, they can also call upon help through the United Nations. Therefore, the UK is ready to donate upon its own preference and willingness, not under the command of UN or any other humanitarian organization.
Delegation: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Committee: The Security Council
Delegate: Mohammed Fakhral-Deen
ISSUE #5: Security Problems in Myanmar
Recalls the following articles from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights:
a) Articles 2 & 7: which verify that there is to be no distinction between people on grounds of race, and that all people are subject to protection from such discrimination,
b) Article 23, paragraph 1: which states that "everyone has the right to free choice of employment, to just and favorable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment",
c) Article 26, paragraph 1: which states that "everyone has the right to education", and that "education shall be free",
Reaffirming the fact that President Aung San Suu Kyi won the elections along with her democratic party, the National League for Democracy (NLD), in 1990, but was stripped of her right to represent her country – as it should be represented – by the military regime,
Keeping in Mind that Myanmar is party to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 on the protection of war victims, the Forced Labor Convention of 1930 (No. 29), and the Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organize Convention (No. 87),
1. Condemns the many violations of human rights in Myanmar, which include:
a) violations of the rights of children, which are demonstrated by:
i) employing 50,000 child soldiers, (the highest number ever), in both:
- the national army, and
- armed ethnic groups,
ii) the lack of healthcare,
iii) the lack of education,
iv) the stunted growth of children in Myanmar,
b) discrimination against ethnic groups and violations of the rights of individuals to freedom of employment, which are demonstrated through:
i) forced labor, a practice used against ethnic minorities in Myanmar;
2. Strongly Urges the International Labor Organization (ILO) to contemplate taking measures and serious steps to imposing sanctions against Myanmar if no improvement regarding the state and welfare of workers in Myanmar is reported within a month of the passing of this resolution;
3. Reaffirms that HIV infections and AIDS-related illnesses are underreported in Myanmar, and Further Reaffirms that UN estimates demonstrate increasing numbers of people in Myanmar affected by the spreading AIDS virus;
4. Further Urges the World Health Organization (WHO) to get involved in the issue by:
a) sending WHO personnel to assess the extent of the poor state of health services in Myanmar,
b) provide provisional shelter and sufficient food to the homeless and the poor of the devastated Myanmar,
c) set up temporary medical centers to work on curing victims of the ongoing conflict and to isolate patients inflicted with contagious diseases and with fast-spreading diseases such as AIDS;
5. Strongly Recommends the immediate intervention of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) to take necessary steps in providing temporary shelter for refugees from Myanmar and encouraging the people to take refuge in neutral nations close by such as Australia, (which has the advantage of being the most culturally diverse country in the world);
6. Further Recommends that the United Nations International Children’s Education Fund (UNICEF) cooperate with the UNHCR in providing temporary education for children from Myanmar in Australia, (or other nations of refuge for displaced persons from Myanmar), or to enroll children from Myanmar in schools temporarily until the conflict in Myanmar is resolved;
7. Demands that the Myanmar government adopt international human rights’ laws in accordance to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and Further Demands that the Myanmar government abolish domestic laws that impinge on the basic rights of people;
8. Resolves that measures to impose sanctions on Myanmar will be taken by the United Nations Security Council if the government of Myanmar does not comply with operative clause number seven of this resolution;
9. Further Resolves that if the military government doesn’t step down and end its regime within a maximum of two months of the imposing of sanctions, then the UN will overthrow the government and reinstate the National League for Democracy (NLD) as the formal leader of Myanmar with its leader, President Aung San Suu Kyi.
Human Rights Commission
Delegation: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Forum: Human Rights
Delegate: Hamed Sultan
ISSUE #1: Promotion and protection of the rights of children and youth
Recalling its previous resolutions, especially resolutions 33/166 of 20 December 1978 and 43/112 of 8 December 1988, and those of the Commission on Human Rights and the Economic and Social Council related to the question of a convention on the rights of the child,
Reaffirming that children's rights require special protection Concerned that the situation of children in many parts of the world is still a problem,
Convinced that an international convention on the rights of the child, as a standard-setting accomplishment of the United Nations in the field of human rights, would make a positive contribution to protecting children's rights and ensuring their well-being,
1. Expresses its appreciation to the Commission on Human Rights for having concluded the elaboration of the draft convention on the rights of the child;
2. Adopts and opens for signature, ratification and accession the Convention on the Rights of the Child contained in the annex to the present resolution;
3. Calls upon all Member States to consider signing and ratifying or acceding to the Convention as a matter of priority and expresses the hope that it will come into force at an early date;
4. Requests the Secretary-General to provide all the facilities and assistance necessary for dissemination of information on the Convention;
5. Invites United Nations agencies and organizations, as well as intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, to intensify their efforts with a view to disseminating information on the Convention and to promoting its understanding;
6. Requests the Secretary-General to submit to the General Assembly at its forty-fifth session a report on the status of the Convention on the Rights of the Child;
7. Decides to consider the report of the Secretary-General at its forty-fifth session under an item entitled "Implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child."
Delegation: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Delegate: Mustafa Malaki
ISSUE #2: The risk of nuclear proliferation in the Middle East and in Central and South Asia
Defining nuclear proliferation as the increase, dissemination, reproduction, and use of
nuclear weapons and nuclear explosive devices,
Fully aware of the increasing nuclear proliferation in the Middle East and Central and Southern Asia, especially in Pakistan and India, and of the devastating short-term and long-term consequences of nuclear proliferation,
Further recalling General Assembly resolutions 54/57 on the question of the risk of nuclear proliferation in the Middle East, and resolution number 54/417 on the question of the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in Central Asia, both of which were adopted with a majority of votes in the 54th General Assembly,
Reaffirming the role of the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (NTBT) in the elimination of all forms of nuclear proliferation in the Middle East and Central and Southern Asia,
Noting with regret the refusal of India, Israel, and Pakistan to become parties to the nuclear NPT and NTBT, and their refusal to place their nuclear facilities under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards as required in past UN resolutions such as GA resolution 54/57,
Emphasizing on article I of the nuclear NPT which states that "each nuclear-weapon State Party to the Treaty undertakes not to transfer to any recipient whatsoever nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices or control over such weapons or explosive devices ectly, or inectly; and not in any way to assist, encourage, or induce any non-nuclear-weapon State to manufacture or otherwise acquire nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices, or control over such weapons or explosive devices",
Deeply aware of the threat posed by nuclear proliferation on the peace and security of the Middle East and Central and Southern Asia, keeping in mind the escalating conflicts between Israel and Palestine, and the deteriorating situation in Kashmir,
1. Affirms the positive roles of the IAEA, NPT, and NTBT in the promotion of nuclear non-proliferation in the Middle East and Central and Southern Asia;
2. Calls upon those nations party to the NPT and NTBT to comply with and not violate their articles under any circumstances whatsoever, and to:
One. refrain from transferring nuclear technology to other nations in the Middle East and Central and Southern Asia that in the form of weapons or weapon-producing devices;
Two. not assist or encourage nations in the Middle East and Central and Southern Asia to manufacture or acquire any nuclear weapons, fissionable materials, and other nuclear explosive devices;
3. Congratulates non-nuclear-weapons nations in the Middle East and Central and Southern Asia for their refrainment from developing their nuclear facilities for military purposes;
4. Requests all nations in the Middle East and Central and Southern Asia to use nuclear energy and technology for peaceful purposes such as the generation of electricity which can substantially affect their developing economies;
5. Urges the governments of India, Israel, and Pakistan to sign and ratify the NPT and NTBT and to place their nuclear facilities under the IAEA safeguards, and to take effective measures towards the elimination of their nuclear arsenal, as well as refraining from testing their weapons;
6. Suggests the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Middle East that would include Israel and its surrounding territories, as well as the horizontal region extending from Iran to India, and the Transcaucasian and Central Asian region to achieve the following:
One. ensure the freedom of those regions of any nuclear threat such as tests
Two. prevent the transfer of any imported nuclear weapons into the countries covered by the zones
Three. reduce the "nuclear tension" amongst countries included in the zones;
7. Calls upon the United Nations Secretary-General to authorize the establishment of the Committee for the Inspection of Nuclear Facilities (CINF) that will:
One. be composed of senior IAEA officials specialized in nuclear fields for at least 15 years
Two. inspect the nuclear facilities and weapons of nuclear-weapons-possessing nations in the Middle East and Central and Southern Asia twice every year
Three. assist the governments of the nations in the mentioned regions in the process of eliminating all forms of nuclear weapons or facilities that produce them, as well as nuclear explosive devices
Four. not violate the national sovereignty of these nations by performing its tasks if and only if an invitation is extended by the to-be-inspected country every time
Five. send a report to the Secretary-General per visit explaining their accomplishments and difficulties that they might’ve faced;
8. Further requests all nations subject to inspection by the CINFWMRCSA to provide its officials with immunity and security, facilitate their transport, and to fully cooperate with this committee as in exposing all of their facilities to the officials.
Delegation: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Delegate: Sukaina Fakhral-Deen
ISSUE #4: Control of the research, development, and production of genetically modified foods
Defining Genetically Modified Foods (GMFs), as a living thing has had its genetic arrangement altered (modified) as living things that grow and die:
Taking into Consideration that European supermarkets are beginning to empty their shelves of GMF products;
Referring to a statement made by some farmers in developing countries: "there’s no more to lose than gain from GMF crops";
Noting with regret that some farmers and food producers are concerned that food production will become more and more controlled by a few large companies, thus reducing producer and consumer choice;
Deeply concerned about powerful companies in developed countries having too much control over seeds, fertilizers, and pesticides and that would lead to protests by farmers;
Declaring that technology will transform agriculture for the better, establishing the ability to ‘design’ crops to meet current demands and needs. It will mean food can be produced that will taste better, last longer and be more nutritious. GMF crops are also being presented as a sustainable solution to the problem of food security for the world’s growing population in the 21st century;
Keeping in mind that all European states’ products containing genetically modified soya and maize ingredients and other genetically modified foods are subject to labeling;
1. Notes that scientists are capable of changing some of the genes in living things, and that they are already changing the genes of some of the things that we eat which will help it to stay fresh for a longer period of time;
2. Emphasizing that the issues revolving around the use of genetically modified foods have been debated for some time in countries around the world, including most of Europe and many Asian countries. However, the debate has intensified in the United States as consumer activists have raised concerns about the safety of GM foods;
3. Proclaims that opponents of GMFs argue that their use could pose a threat to human health and the environment, they are being rushed through without adequate time to test the technology and ensure that it is safe;
4. Further proclaims that consumers have no way of knowing which foods contain these ingredients because corporations are not yet required to label their products as including genetically engineered ingredients;
5. Congratulates the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO), for covering the following research aspects concerning GMFs:
a.) what they are,
b. when a living thing has had its genetic arrangement altered
c. when food is produced from plants or animals that have been genetically modified,
d. whether their consumption is safe or not,
e. for how long it will be safe;
6. Affirms that genetically modified foods would increase farm production and help agricultural nations;
7. Further affirms that:
a. nations that do not export large amounts of food would benefit from
genetically modified foods because growing GMFs would make it easier and
faster, thus enlarging the amount of food exported;
b. fully developed nations would benefit from the convention (agreement)
i) there would be no need for any more food donations by them,
farmers in fully developed nations would yield more sets of crops in a
ii) poorer countries would have more money to trade with because they
would be able to grow some of their own food, instead of importing it.
Delegation: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Delegate: Maryem Al-Hamad
ISSUE #2: Measures to improve the care and safety of refugees, returnees, and displaced people
Defining Refugees: People forced to leave their countries because of political danger,
Believing that all refugees, returnees, and displaced people should have the right to return to their countries and be treated equally like all citizens in their hometown,
Further Defining Refugee: citizens who escaped from their countries terrified of being tortured because of their nationality, religion, race, or social group and can’t or don’t want to return to their homes,
Noting with satisfaction that many organizations are putting much effort to help refugees, returnees and displaced people in need, by leading international actions towards their global protection,
Recognizing the societies and unions helping displaced people around the world and praise them for their guidance and support towards them,
Bearing in mind that the majority of refugees and displaced people are women and children,
1. Supports the UNHCR for its concern and care towards refugees, returnees, and displaced people;
2. Requests that all countries limit the amount of refugees in their countries so that they would go back to their home country and work there for their benefits, or work in countries where they are considered refugees but have higher tax rates placed on them;
3. Notes with concern that the effects of political instability, internal strife, human rights violations and natural disasters have led to an increase in the number of refugees and displaced persons in some countries;
4. Appeals to the United Nations, governmental and non-governmental organizations to create conditions that can help in the return of refugees to their own countries;
5. Notes with satisfaction the voluntary return of millions of refugees to their homelands and looks forward to any other programs that can assist refugees;
6. Urges all United Nations humanitarian assistance and development organizations that are concerned to help in the protection, assistance and development of displaced people;
7. Congratulates all countries which have managed to achieve peace and stability which resulted in the return of their refugees and displaced people to their homelands without having any problems.
A. Opening Speech
Mr. Secretary-General, Honorable president, esteemed delegates, Good Morning,
Greetings from the land of wide plains and grazing flock. Greetings from the land of great minds and great deeds to which writers such as Shakespeare, leaders such as Penn, and monarchs such as our esteemed Queen belong. And to remind you all, without Adam Smith, today’s economy and commerce would have never survived.
Ladies and Gentlemen, The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland would like to warmly welcome all members States to this General Assembly session of the year 2000, which marks the beginning of a new millenium which we hope we would start with peace and consent. It has come to our attention that worldwide terrorism is destroying our worlds. Terrorism is not acceptable to us, not to any human being living on this planet. In light of this, we strongly admonish and warn those nations that conduct these acts of terrorism, even if they do so by other means. Last month, we were startled and shocked about the explosion of the USS Cole in Yemen. WE do not wish to accuse any nation of being responsible for this terrorist attack in which 37 lives were destroyed, but we certainly request follow up to this dilemma. In support of our brother Americans, we demand revenge, but not in the form of bloody terrorism, but through trials. Ladies and Gentlemen, we cannot simply stand and watch as people are being killed. We demand action.
KFSAC Performance Paragraphs
AMBASSADOR/DISARMAMENT: Mustafa Malaki
The United Kingdom was the most active delegate in the Disarmament Commission of the year 2000 KFSAC MUN at AIS. I, Mustafa Malaki, acted as ambassador of the UK delegation, and participated in the discussion both in the form of speeches and points of information. I made 5 speeches and 8 points of information. None of the other delegates in the commission spoke as many times. I went against all resolutions except the one I had co-signed on. I even went against a resolution co-submitted by one of my schoolmates, something that was very rare at this year’s event. My decisions did not involve any personal bias, for I acted according to my exact policy and did not allow any other delegate to sway my stance to his or her favor. Fortunately, I was the second so-signer of a resolution, and it passed in the commission.
The next day in the General Assembly, the floor was yielded to me and I spoke in favor of our resolution, and since it was supported by 4 major powers, there was a strong chance for it to get passed. I also spoke against a resolution from the Social Commission. Every time a resolution on a different commission was getting debated, I worked very closely with my delegates, helping them make speeches and points of information. Overall, in the General Assembly, we made three speeches and several points of information, although our placard was up all the time. Out of the five big countries, the United Kingdom proved to be the best and most experienced.
ENVIRONMENTAL: Sukaina Fakhral-Deen
In KFSAC, it was the second day when I really had excessive force and I was really aggressive. We were just starting to debate a new resolution, it was about an issue that I wrote about monitoring the GMF’s, unfortunately it was against my policy because it didn’t want to control the GMF’s. Thus, I attacked it, at the beginning it wasn’t so good. But, after the break I trashed the resolution by one question only, that question was "Does the honorable delegate not realize that this resolution doesn’t mention anything about controlling the GMF’s?" His response was "no comment," because he didn’t know either.
HUMAN RIGHTS: Hamad Sultan
The United Kingdom played an important role at KFSAC-MUN. It co-submitted a resolution but unfortunatly, it was not passed by the General Assembly. The issue that The United Kingdom cared about the most was in the Human rights division was the rights of the youth, as everyone knows children are our future. This was one of the main reasons that The United Kingdom took extreme care in the decision but after a lot of hard work The United Kingdom decided that it was a well organized resolution and voted for it. The delegate of The United Kingdom in the human rights division asked three questions and spoke two speeches. In my opinion The delgate of the United Kingdom that was in the human rights division played a great role at KFSAC-MUN!
SOCIAL COMMITTEE: Maryam al Hamad
The social committee debated 6 resolutions. There were 4 topics to be debated. The topics are either on Globalization and Interdependence, measures to improve the care and safety of refugees, returnees, and displaced people, the return and restitution of cultural property to the countries of origin, and the strengthening of international cooperation to study, mitigate, and minimize the consequences of natural disasters. All those topics are important to the United Kingdom. The resolution on the measures to improve the care and safety of refugees, returnees, and displaced people was the resolution voted on to be debated at the General Assembly. The main submitters of this resolution were Austria and they themselves should be against the care and safety of refugees. The United Kingdom regretfully states that it was against this resolution because it was submitted by the wrong country, which makes the resolution useless.
SECURITY COUNCIL/VICE-AMBASSADOR: Mohammad Fakral-Deen
On the first day of the event, the UK made a right of reply to the speech made by Myanmar. The UK mainly expressed the point that it does not recognize Myanmar’s military regime as a country, and neither should any country present in the GA.
On the first resolution, submitted by the Russian Federation, (?!), concerning the security situation in West Africa, the UK had only one problem with it. The permission of West African nations, (including Liberia – whose president has been the main backer of the RUF rebels since the rebellion began-), had to be taken before the UN could intervene in the region. The UK amended this so that the permission of Liberia was not required in order for the UN to intervene. As for the permission of Sierra Leone, it would welcome peacekeepers, as the honorable delegate expressed upon invitation to the SC for the discussion of the issue. The Russian Federation, and all other countries, had no problem with the amendment (?!). The resolution did not interfere with British presence in Sierra Leone and the delegate, (of Sierra Leone), expressed full content with British presence and mentioned the fact that the UK was the active player in the region, since it "saved" Sierra Leone. (I could go on and on about this issue, for I have researched it very well, but there are four more resolutions to be analyzed). The resolution passed.
On the second resolution, concerning problems in Jammu and Kashmir, the UK felt the obligation to veto since the issue of disarmament was brought up, and one basis of the UK’s argument against was that disarmament wasn’t the issue at hand, Kashmir was the issue. The UK’s second argument revolved around the unjustness and partiality that would be present if, according to the resolution, a referendum were to be held in Kashmir, for many Hindus are being forced to flee Kashmir. (I realize that I could’ve abstained, but I have to explain, (again), why I vetoed in this report, don’t I?)
On the third resolution, concerning problems in Yugoslavia, the first clause demanded that all sanctions be lifted. The UK proposed several amendments to the resolution as a whole, but there was no time, so the UK had to pick the most significant amendment: the deletion of the first clause. When voting on the amendment, the SC President allowed Yugoslavia to vote, and the amendment failed by only one vote, (or it was a draw and it was later decided to have failed). The UK brought, to the attention of the President, the fact that, in the KFSAC MUN SC, students are attempting to portray the real UN SC as much as the possibly can, and in the real UN SC, invited delegates that are GA members and not SC members do not get to vote on issues on the SC agenda. The President took this point into consideration, and disregarded Yugoslavia’s vote, causing the UK’s amendment to pass. The UK later abstained on the resolution which was vetoed by one or two SC permanent members, (I don’t remember which ones), and the resolution failed.
As for the fourth resolution, on Myanmar, (you know the details), France vetoed it and was "out of character". Furthermore, there were only two countries opposed to it, (apart from France), and a couple of more countries abstained. All of the remaining countries voted for it, (including the UK and two other veto powers). There was only one abstention from a veto power, and France was the only veto power that decided to exercise its veto.
The final resolution, (on SC representation), was initially cosigned by the UK. The UK agreed with China and Argentina on a few basic limitations and managed to convince both delegates to cut a clause that stated that ten non-permanent member states’ votes eliminated one veto. The UK managed to convince both Argentina and China, (?!), to remove that clause from the resolution, and the UK cosigned the resolution so as to give a good image of the UK, and the resolution actually did nothing. But when the resolution was discussed in the SC, it was amended to include a clause that gave GA countries the power to pick SC members, (and possibly to alter permanent members, for it gave them the power to affect the permanent members’ vetoes in one way or another). The amendment passed, (?!). China did not oppose to it, neither did two other veto powers?! The UK could not do anything about it, if the US had really represented US POLICY, then the UK would not have had to veto the resolution. But the US abstained, most other countries were for it, and the UK had to veto.
In the crisis situation, the US and the ROK were totally NOT representing their policies. The US, under intense pressure, (peer pressure), from other countries, agreed to the full withdrawal of ALL US troops from ROK. Since there were originally many US troops in ROK, and after losing all hope, the UK attempted to have a gradual withdrawal of the recently deployed troops over a period of six months and with the assurance of the safety and security of the region, and the UK clarified its view that it did not want the original troops to be withdrawn. This point was rejected on behalf of all the SC.
Furthermore, China wanted the missiles in Cuba, (of Chinese origin), to be returned to China. The UK refused. China wanted the missiles to be returned to China and then to be handed over to the UN. The UK refused. China agreed to have the missiles given to the UN, and then to China, the UK smelled something fishy. China agreed that the UN would be in charge of transporting the missiles and observing China’s investigations on the missiles in China, (?!). The UK didn’t like this either. China agreed that, on top of the previous, it would submit a report to the UN. The UK didn’t agree. The UK suggested that the IAEA be in charge of the investigation, and that it submit a report to the UN, China wanted a report to be submitted to China and China only. The UK did not agree. Finally, at the very end, the UK managed to convince China that the OPCW would complete an investigation of the missiles, and would later submit a report to the UN SC only. And all UN SC and GA members would have access to the report, including China; (I really would retire if I were him?!)
The final point, which forced the UK to veto, was the agreement to pay Cuba in return for the drugs the US confiscated in Miami. The UK firmly believed that drug traffickers should be penalized and that confiscated drugs should not be compensated by money to drug traffickers. The UK reaffirmed its belief that Cuba should NOT be paid for trafficking drugs. The US should have vetoed, (but, again, she also should retire?!) The UK was left with no choice, no detour, no way out, it was trapped in a corner, the VETO CORNER!
Throughout the crisis situation, the UK was left alone, abandoned by supposed allies and rivals, the US and France, respectively. The UK was dumbfounded when the ROK demanded the withdrawal of the US! After the final speech I made, many delegates, SC and GA, came up to me and supported my point of view. As a last point, this year, it shouldn’t have been called Kuwait Foreign School Association Council Model United Nations, it should have been called Huggies’ Nursery United Pampers!