Event: Pearl-MUN 2001
Student: Ghazi Al SharhanLinks to other sites on the Web: Back to the Model UN 2000-2001 page
The Chinese Government has always been secondary to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). Its role is to implement party policies. The principal organs of state power are the National People's Congress (NPC), the President, and the State Council. Members of the State Council include Premier Zhu Rongji, a variable number of vice premiers (now four), five state councilors (protocol equal of vice premiers but with narrower portfolios), and 29 ministers and heads of State Council commissions.
Under the Chinese Constitution, the NPC is the highest organ of state power in China. It meets annually for about 2 weeks to review and approve major new policy directions, laws, the budget, and major personnel changes. The State Council presents these initiatives to the NPC for consideration after previous approval by the Communist Party's Central Committee. Although the NPC generally approves State Council policy and personnel recommendations, various NPC committees hold active debate in closed sessions, and changes may be made to serve alternate views.
When the NPC is not in session, its permanent organ, the Standing Committee, exercises state power.
As a result of the vast area that China possesses, it has a wide range of climates, elevations, and types of soil. Therefore it is expected form China to have countless types of environments.
Because of its geologic diversity, China possesses an extremely wide array of mineral resources. The only minerals in which the country appears to be deficient are vanadium, chrome, and cobalt. Mineral deposits are distributed widely throughout the country.
China is particularly well equipped with energy resources. Coal reserves of up to 11 trillion metric tons are claimed. Petroleum reserves are estimated at more than 147 billion barrels, the majority of which has been discovered offshore. China now claims to be second only to Saudi Arabia in oil reserves.
Among metallic mineral ores, iron-ore reserves are estimated to be more than 40 billion metric tons. The largest deposits are mostly of low quality. Reserves of aluminum ores are estimated at more than 1 billion metric tons. Tin reserves are perhaps as much as 2 million metric tons. China's production of refined tin amounts to about one-quarter of the world's output. China holds the world's largest reserves of both antimony and tungsten.
China also holds abundant reserves of magnesite, molybdenum, mercury, and manganese. Reserves of lead, zinc, and copper, however, are modest. Uranium has been discovered in several localities, principally in Manchuria and the northwest. Other resources occurring in considerable quantities are phosphate rock, salt, talc, mica, quartz, silica, and fluorspar.
The Ethnic Groups in China live peacefully and have no concrete problems with each other, so they are capable to live and interact with one another without any noticeable difficulty. There are several main Ethnic Groups in China. The largest ethnic group is the Han Chinese, who constitute about 91.9% of the total population. The remaining 8.1% are Zhuang (16 million), Manchu (10 million), Hui (9 million), Miao (8 million), Uygur (7 million), Yi (7 million), Mongolian (5 million), Tibetan (5 million), Buyi (3 million), Korean (2 million), and other ethnic minorities.
In the past decade China's growing military capability has attracted a great deal of attention, but details about the current and likely near-future state of China's military power have been in short supply. While it is true that China is modernizing its forces and increasing defense spending, the prospective improvements in overall military capability need to be set against the very low-technology starting point of China's armed forces.
China's power-projection capability is limited. China has acquired some advanced weapons systems, including Sovremmeny destroyers, SU-27 aircraft, and Kilo-class diesel submarines from Russia. However, the mainstay of the air force continues to be the 1960s-vintage F-7, and naval forces still consist primarily of 1960s-era technology.
In 1955, Mao Zedong's Chinese Communist Party decided to proceed with a nuclear weapons program. This program was developed with Soviet assistance until 1960. After its first nuclear test in October 1964, Beijing deployed a modest but effective ballistic missile force, including land and sea-based intermediate-range and intercontinental ballistic missiles.
China became a major international arms exporter during the 1980s. Beijing joined the Middle East arms control talks, which began in July 1991 to establish global guidelines for conventional arms transfers, but announced in September 1992 that it would no longer participate because of the U.S. decision to sell F-16A/B aircraft to Taiwan.
According to the "Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists" and the "SIPRI Yearbook 1999", the size of the Chinese nuclear arsenal is about 400 warheads. The Bulletin estimates that 20 nuclear-armed missiles are deployed in the intercontinental role, and another 230 nuclear weapons on deployed (or can be deployed) on aircraft, missiles, and submarines with regional capabilities. The 150 remaining nuclear warheads are believed to be reserved for "tactical" uses (short-range missiles, low yield aircraft-dropped bombs, and possibly artillery shells or demolition munitions).
Nuclear weapons in China are under the control of the Central Military Commission, which is headed by the President. Other members of the commission are generals from the People's Liberation Army (PLA).
China maintains one of the largest militaries in the world, based on its inventory of major weapon systems. However, the bulk of China's holdings are old in both physical age and technology. Many weapon systems that came into service in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s remain in the inventory today, and all of those systems use 1950s-era technology originally imported from the Soviet Union. While China is modernizing its conventional forces, the new systems are entering at a low rate compared with the overall size of the older forces. As a result over the next decade, as the oldest weapon systems are fully retired, the size of China's conventional forces will shrink dramatically.
The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is moving toward an overall reduction and reorganization of personnel and equipment with the goal of creating a more modern and mobile army. In the year 2000, the total estimapersonnel strength of the Chinese military is 2.5 million, which seems to be a large number, but is very small when compared to the countryís 1.2 billion people.
In conclusion, China's military modernization plan has highlighted the inability of the indigenous arms industry in China to produce the advanced technology weapon systems that the military wants. The recent return to dependence on foreign assistance (specifically, aircraft and naval vessels from Russia, and technical assistance from Israel) runs contrary to the Chinese governmentís desire to fully control its own military destiny.
China may eventually change its policies and invest more financial resources in military modernization; but for the foreseeable future, China's potential for military action in Taiwan and other areas will remain limited. China may take a more active military role in its region, but the overall balance of power in East Asia will remain unchanged.
China has an area of about 9,596,960 sq. km, which is slightly larger in area than the U.S. The greater part of the country is mountainous. Its principal ranges are the Tien Shan, the Kunlun chain, and the Trans-Himalaya. In the southwest is Tibet, which China annexed in 1950. The Gobi Desert lies to the north. China particularly consists of three great river systems: the Yellow River (Huang Ho), 2,109 miles (5,464 km) long; the Chang Jiang (Yangtze Kiang), the third-longest river in the world at 2,432 miles (6,300 km); and the Zhujiang (Si Kiang), 848 miles (2,197 km) long. It also possesses the highest mountain in the world, which is, of course, Mt. Everest.
In the past five decades, especially in the last twenty years of reform and opening to the outside world, China has made great achievement in the development of national economy.
The quality of national economic development has improved. The gross domestic product reached US$988.6 billion in 1999 with an annual growth rate of 7.1%; there have been structural adjustments in the economy, and economic performance improved noticeably.
The living standards of both urban and rural residents continue to improve. The per capita disposable income of urban residents rose by 9.3% in 1999 over the previous year in real terms after adjusting for price decreases, reaching US$705.3. The per capita net income of rural dwellers increased by 3.8% in real terms, and the population below the poverty line has decreased dramatically.
During the two decades of reform and opening to the outside world, China has actively participated in multilateral and bilateral activities, and strengthened multilateral and bilateral economic and trade cooperation, playing a positive, stabilizing and constructive role in the process of economic globalization and becoming an important force behind the development of the world economy.
The Chinese government is clear that many new changes have taken place in the international and domestic situations at present and China's economic develop is faced with more complex internal and external environments.
China has always the impact of opening up on China's industries and market with a positive attitude. Even under the circumstances of the Asian financial crisis, China does not slow down the pace of opening up. China's success in withstanding the financial crises and the unexpected fast speed of the crisis-inflicted countries to recover once again demonstrated the impossibility of any country in today's open world to develop itself by closing the door. China continues to adhere to the basic state policy of opening to outside world, and constantly perfect the opening up pattern of multiple dimensions, levels and sectors, improve the investment environment to create more support for foreign investor.
At present, China is enjoying political stability and social security. Its national economy keeps growing and the currency value of Renminbi remains steady. Besides, it commands a sufficient foreign exchange reserve. All these factors have ensured a relatively low comprehensive cost of investment. Therefore, China is still very attractive to international capital and widely regarded as promising by the international investors.
Views on World Problems:
The current international situation is undergoing deep changes. There is an evident increase of factors of instability and uncertainty and the world is far from tranquil. Authority, domination, and power politics continue to exist and even made further inroads in international politics, economy, and security. "Neo-interventionism" characterized by "new gunboat policy" and new economic colonialism seriously violates the sovereignty, independence, and development interests of many medium and small countries and threatens world peace and international security. At the same time, local conflicts due to ethnic, religious, and territorial factors crop up from time to time. Such transnational issues as international crimes, worsening of the environment, etc. are still far from being resolved, and the common challenges facing the international community are still many. But overall, the general trend of the international situation moving towards relaxation hasnít changed and progress in discrimination is an unavoidable trend of the times and any attempt aimed at setting up a single pole in the world is doomed to failure.
At the turn of the century, the most important issue facing countries of the world is defending world peace and promoting common development. Only when the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, the purposes and recognized rules of international laws are strictly adhered to, can world peace be widely maintained and common development materialized and a peaceful, just, successful, and stable new world be brought into the 21st century.
In Beijing, on October 1, 1949, Mao Zedong proclaimed the founding of the People's Republic of China. The new government assumed control of a people exhausted by two generations of war and social conflict, and an economy ravaged by high inflation and disrupted transportation links. A new political and economic order modeled on the Soviet example was quickly installed.
In the early 1950s, China undertook a massive economic and social reconstruction. The new leaders gained popular support by controlling inflation, restoring the economy, and rebuilding many war-damaged industrial plants. The CCP's authority reached into almost every aspect of Chinese life. Party control was assured by large, politically loyal security and military forces, and ranks of party members in labor, women's, and other mass organizations.
In 1958, Mao broke with the Soviet model and announced a new economic program, the "Great Leap Forward," aimed at rapidly raising industrial and agricultural production. Giant cooperatives (communes) were formed, and "backyard factories" dotted the Chinese landscape. The results were disastrous. Normal market mechanisms were disrupted, agricultural production fell behind, and China's people exhausted themselves producing what turned out to be cheap, poor-quality goods. Within a year, starvation appeared even in productive agricultural areas. From 1960 to 1961, the combination of poor planning, during the Great Leap Forward, and bad weather resulted in famine.
The already strained Sino-Soviet relationship deteriorated sharply in 1959, when the Soviets started to restrict the flow of scientific and technological information to China. The dispute expanded, and the Soviets withdrew all of their personnel from China in August 1960. In 1960, the Soviets and the Chinese began to have disputes openly in international forums.
Mao's death in September 1976 removed a great figure from Chinese politics and set off a struggle for succession. Former Minister of Pubic Security Hua Guofeng was quickly confirmed as Party Chairman and Premier. A month after Mao's death, Hua, backed by the PLA, arrested Jiang Qing and other members of the "Gang of Four." After extensive deliberations, the Chinese Communist Party leadership reinstated Deng Xiaoping to all of his previous posts at the 11th Party Congress in August 1977. Deng then led the effort to place government control in the hands of veteran party officials opposed to the radical excesses of the previous two decades.
The new, realistic leadership emphasized economic development and renounced mass political movements. At the pivotal December 1978 Third Plenum (of the 11th Party Congress Central Committee), the leadership adopted economic reform policies aimed at expanding rural income and incentives, encouraging experiments in enterprise freedom, reducing central planning, and establishing direct foreign investment in China. The plenum also decided to accelerate the pace of legal reform, culminating in the passage of several new legal codes by the National People's Congress in June 1979.
After 1979, the Chinese leadership moved toward more logical positions in almost all fields. Although open attacks on party authority were not permitted, the party encouraged artists, writers, and journalists to adopt more critical approaches.
Reform policies brought great improvements in the standard of living, especially for urban workers and for farmers who took advantage of opportunities to vary crops and establish village industries. Literature and the arts met success, and Chinese intellectuals established extensive links with scholars in other countries.
At the same time, however, political dissent as well as social problems such as inflation, urban migration, and prostitution emerged. Although students and intellectuals urged greater reforms, some party elders increasingly questioned the pace and the ultimate goals of the reform program. In December 1986, student demonstrators, taking advantage of the loosening political atmosphere, staged protests against the slow pace of reform, confirming party elders' fear that the current reform program was leading to social instability.
Martial law was declared on May 20, 1989. Late on June 3 and early on the morning of June 4, military units were brought into Beijing. They used armed force to clear demonstrators from the streets. There are no official estimates of deaths in Beijing, but most observers believe that casualties numbered in the hundreds.
Following the resurgence of conservatives in the aftermath of June 4, economic reform slowed until given new impetus by Deng Xiaoping's dramatic visit to southern China in early 1992. Deng's renewed push for a market-oriented economy received official sanction at the 14th Party Congress later in the year as a number of younger, reform-minded leaders began their rise to top positions.
Deng's health deteriorated in the years prior to his death in 1997. During that time, President Jiang Zemin and other members of his generation gradually assumed control of the day-to-day functions of government. This "third generation" leadership governs collectively with President Jiang at the center.
In March 1998, Jiang was re-elected President during the 9th National People's Congress.
China Policy Statements
Issue #1: The Issue of the Prevention of the Deployment and Development of the Anti-Ballistic Missile Defense System
China has a very strait-forward policy about this issue. China is simply FOR this issue. It wants to prevent the ABM Defense System. It isnít going to change its position, even if the US was willing to share it for free!
It knows for sure that the US will keep the best copy of the defense system to itself, and it also knows that IF the US gave a copy of the ABM Defense System to China, it will CERTAINLY keep the operating rights to itself or, secretly, manufacture a long-distance controller or an on-line controller, in which the US can shut off the defense system at any time without the knowledge of China or any other country that adopted this Defense System. The reason why China thinks that way is because of the fragile U.S.-China relations, already rocked by a collision between a U.S. spy plane and a Chinese jet fighter, U.S. arms sales to Taiwan, and Bushís pledges to help Taiwan defend itself. Therefore, China doesnít trust the U.S. in this obscure plan, and it votes FOR this issue.
Issue #2: Measures to Increase the Security and Stability of the Gulf Region
China believes that the only way that could lead to increasing the security and the stability in the Gulf Region, is by the termination of the US flights over the Iraqi lands. Thatís because this is considered a violation of the National Sovereignty of Iraq. It is also the reason behind Iraqsí defensive attacks that are acted against the US planes. China believes that Iraq has the FULL right of firing defensive missiles against the harassing US planes.
Issue #3: The Issue of the Spratly Islands
China believes that the Spratly Islands belong to it. Chinaís claim is based upon historical data indicating "prior occupation". The Chinese view is not a statement of disputed claim, but a statement of fact. It traces the historical influence in this region back to 214 B.C. Recent archeological investigations and historical records indicate that Chinese fishermen have utilized these islands and the seas around them since the Han Dynasty (around 100 B.C.). The Chinese military encountered the islands as early as 43 A.D. Since that time there have been numerous references to these islands by the Chinese whose voyages of trade and exploration passed through the South China Sea. In more recent times, there is firm evidence that Chinese fisherman established residence on some of the larger islands prior to the mid-1800s. In the late 1800s and again in 1933 they planted coconut trees on several of the islands. Additionally, plantings of bananas, pineapples, and pumpkins were done in 1933.
Security Council Resolution Clauses
Issue #1: The Issue of the Prevention of the Deployment and Development of the Anti-Ballistic Missile Defense System
1. Has Resolved that the U.S. will destroy all the work and effort, that it has adapted and experienced, that relates in any way to ABM Defense Systems, including, but not limited to:
2. Further Resolved that ABM Defense Systems will be prohibited in all parts of the world, and that the U.S. will immediately stop any development and/or deployment of any ABM Defense System(s), and:
One. For Security Reasons, an international UN inspection team will be established that will take care of searching the U.S. for any activity or research that relates in any way to an ABM Defense System,
Two. If the inspection team finds or discovers any activity or research that relates in any way to an ABM Defense System in the U.S., then a case will be filed against the U.S. and this case will be discussed in the UN Security Council, and a punishment will be decided by all Security Council Countries, except the U.S. itself, and the punishment can be in any form, including sanctions.
Issue #2: Measures to Increase the Security and Stability of the Gulf Region
1. Fully Believes that the economic sanctions on Iran should be lifted and that it should have a second chance, and if it appeared to be that Iran is miss using this chance, then a first warning will be issued, before issuing a second warning on which, if issued, trade sanctions will be imposed on Iran;
2. Demands that all U.S. military troops and equipment should be withdrawn from the Gulf Area and the seas around it.
Issue #3: The Issue of the Spratly Islands
1. Declares that the Spartly Islands are to be owned, controlled by, and under the full sovereignty of China, and that no other country shall claim that they, or parts of them, belong to it.
2. Has Resolved that the U.S. does not have the rights to help the province of Taiwan, at any time and under any circumstances, claim the ownership of the Spartly Islands.
China Opening Speech
Honorable Chair, Respectful delegates, and helpful admin staff,
China is proud to be here in this session of the Security Council. China, as a permanent member, would like to welcome all non-permanent countries here in this session. It hopes that all nations here today would cooperate and make this session a serious and productive session. China also hopes that all nations here today, whether permanent or non-permanent, would use this gathering to achieve one substantial goal, and it is to promote peace and stability in the world.
China would like to use this chance to highlight two specific issues that really concern it. The first issue is the issue of the dispute over the Spartly Islands. China believes that the Spartly Islands are widely known, from pre-historic times, to be owned occupied, and controlled by Chinese people. Therefore, China sees that there is absolutely no reason for hearing these obscure disputes and claims by some countries that donít even have any historical evidence to support their false claims. The second issue is the issue of the ABM Defense System. China fully believes that this kind of systems would have an offensive effect on the security and the stability of world nations. Thatís because, China believes, that the development and/or deployment of such system(s) would lead to a wild arms race, and who will be the first country that will profit and benefit from this arms race? You couldnít miss it, the United States of America! So, The U.S. is actually doing this whole plan to fool the world! This is reality, honorable delegates, welcome to the world of politics! Or should I say, the world of deception?!
In conclusion, China hopes that this session would be an effective and a productive session.