EVENT: Pearl-MUN 2001
STUDENT: Saja Fakhral-Deen
Fijiís long name is Republic of the Fiji Islands, while its short name is Fiji. Fijiís government type is democratic republic with a two-chamber parliament, this was established when a new organization went into effect in July 1990.
Fiji got its independence on the 10th of October 1970, after it had been under the British hands for at least a century. Fiji happily celebrates its independence day every year.
Fiji has a two governmental parliament, consisting of an elected house of representatives (consists of seventy members) and a nominated senate (consists of 34 members).
Fijiís legal system is based on the British system, because of it being under the control of the British for so long.
In Fiji there is a presidential council that advises the president on matters of national importance and a great council of chiefs, which consists of the highest position of members of the traditional chiefly system.
Fijiís judicial branch consists of a supreme court (established by the 1990 constitution), the judges are appointed by the president. The courts also include the minor official court of appeals.
Fijiís natural resources are the following: timber, fish, offshore, oil potential, hydropower. Its most important mineral is gold, the production of gold in 1995 amounted to 3,775 kilograms. Large copper deposits have been found on Viti Levu.
Fijiís agriculture consists of sugar cane production; it totaled 4 million tons in 1995. Production of copra (dried coconut meat that yields coconut oil) and coconuts in 1995 was 13,000 tons and 21,000 tons. Rice output was 17,000 tons.
The Monasavu hydroelectric project was completed in 1984. Its output was 509 million kilowatt hours in 1994. The main challenges to the environment in Fiji are loss of forests, soil erosion, and pollution. Since the 1970s, commercial interests have eliminated 30% of Fijiís forests. Pesticides and chemicals used in the sugar and fish processing pollute the land and water supply.6%of Fijiís 6.9 cubic centimeters of water are used for farming purposes, and 20% for industrial activity. Its cities produce 100,000 tons of solid waste per year.
Fijiís main exports are food and live animals, although exports of sawn timber and other wood products were valued at $37.5 million in 1995. While itís basic manufacturers are the chief imports. As for agricultural exports, sugar accounted 90%.
Fijiís main trading partner is Australia (45%), New Zealand (15%), Japan (7%), the United Kingdom, the United States (5%), and Singapore (4%).
Fijiís population, last estimated in July 2000 was about 823,494, while in1998, it was estimated to be about 803,000. It is projected to be 878,000 in the year 2005. The population density is estimated at 44 persons per square kilometer. Suva, the capital, had a population of 166,000 in 1995.
There has been a steady flow of people from rural to urban areas. There was a substantial increase in emigration by Indians in the immediate after math of the military take over of may 1987are Indo-Fijians (if Indian origin).
The native Fijian population is mostly Melanesians, intermingled with Polynesians, in 1990the population was estimated to be 46% of Indian origin, 49% native Fijian, and 5% other pacific races or European.
Fijian dialects belong to the Malayo-Polynesian language group. The Bau dialect is used throughout the islands, except in Rotuma, where Rotuman is spoken.
There are many different religions in Fiji, they are the following: 53% of Fijiís population are Christians, 9% Roman catholic, 38% Hindu, 8% Muslims, and 5% of other religions.
General welfare programs include poverty relief, maintenance of homes for the aged, free medical and legal aid to the needy, childcare and social casework. The government has promoted the rights of ethnic Fijians over those ethnic groups.
The main health problem is influenza. The infant mortality rate was 27 per 1,000 live births in 1994. Average life expectance is 72 years.
In 1986, housing stock totaled 126,100units of which 30% were made of corrugated iron or tin, 30% were concrete, and 26% were wood.
In 1992, there were 145,630 pupils in primary schools and 66,890 secondary school pupils. The university of the south pacific had over 3,600 students in 1993. The illiteracy rate averages 8%.
Suva, the capital, had 45,000 telephones in 1995. The Fiji broad casting commission offers programs in Fijian, English, and Hindustani over radio Fiji. There is one television broadcast service.
Fijiís armed forces in 1995 consisted of 3,600 men, of whom 3,300 were in the army and 290 in the navy.
Fijiís military branch is the Republic of Fiji Military Forces (RMPF; includes ground and naval forces). Nobody under the age of 18 is allowed to enter the forces, and has to pay no less than $24 million.
Military manpower is available for males ages 15-49: 223,496 (2000 est.). the men that are fit for military services are males age 15-49: 123,051 (2000 est.). the men that are reaching military age annually are males: 9,426 (2000 est.).
Fiji is located in Oceania; it is an island group in the South Pacific Ocean. The area of Fiji is 18,270 sq km. (land: 18,270 sq km _ water:0 sq km). It is slightly smaller than New Jersey. Its geographic coordination is 18,00 s _ 175,00 e. itís coastline is 1,129 m long. Fiji includes 332 islands of which approximately 110 are inhabited; the island of Rotuma is geographically separate from the others and has an area of 44 sq km. Rotuma lies about 570 km northeast. Itís capital city, Suva, is located on the island of Viti Levu.
Fijiís climate consists of temperatures, at sea level, ranging from 16 to
32?c. Annual rainfall averages 312 cm in Suva. At sea level there are well-defined wet and dry season, with an annual average of 178 cm of rain.
Some 65% of the land area is forested output of logs totaled 598,200 cubic centimeters in 1995.
Fijiís larger islands are volcanic, with rugged peaks. Coral reefs surround the islands. Viti Levuís highest point, Mount Victoria (tomanivi), is 1,323 meters above sea level. Itís main river, The Rewa, is navigable by small boars for 113 kilometers.
Views of world problems:
Fiji maintains full diplomatic relations with the United States, and has an embassy in Washington D.C., and is represented by Ambassador Napolioni Masirewa. Various arrangements affecting both countries on a range of trade, political and economic issues are in place between the two countries. The U.S. has provided development, technical, and financial assistance to Fiji, in a wide range of areas covering agriculture, fishing, education, health, aviation, and disaster preparedness programs. The departure of the U.S. AID from the South Pacific in 1995 significantly reduced aid efforts between the two countries.
Fiji maintains an independent, but generally pro-western, foreign policy. Traditionally, it had close relations with Australia and New Zealand; itís major trading partners, although after both the 1987 and 2000 coups these relations cooled.
On October 13, 1970, Fiji became the 127th member of the United Nations, and participates actively in the organization, represented by Amraiya Naidu. Fijiís contributions to UN peacekeeping are unique for a nation of its size. Itís maintains nearly 1,000 soldiers overseas in UN peacekeeping nations, mainly in the Middle East.
Fijiís economy is mostly based on agriculture and tourism, and is heavily independent on foreign trade. In 1995, agriculture accounted for 21% of gross domestic product (GDP); services, 61%; and industry, 81%.
Fijiís industry is based primarily on the processing of agricultural products, mainly sugar cane and coconut, and on the other mining and processing of minerals.
In 1995, Fiji had a labor of 285,000 persons. Many more Fijian farmers. The unemployment rate was about 5.4% in 1995. In Fiji children under the age of twelve are not permitted to work, except in cases where they work on family farms and businesses.
In 1995, there were 318, 495 tourist arrivals with 33% from East Asia (mainly Japan), 26% from Australia, and 16% from New Zealand. Including thousands of Americans following the start of regularly scheduled, non-stop, air service from Los Angeles.
In 1990, a constitution favored native Melanesians control of Fiji, but lead to heavy Indian emigration; the population loss resulted in serious economic difficulties.
The exports rate reached $393 million in 1998, while the imports reached $612 million in the same year.
Fijiís currency is the Fijian dollar, (1 Fijian dollar=100 cents). Fiji is in debt $213 million.
The Fiji islands were discovered by Abel Tasman, a Dutchman, in 1643 and were not revisited until Captain James Cook called in 1774. The first European settlement was made early in the 1800ís. Missionaries soon followed and eventually succeeded in spread in Christianity, and ending Cannibalism, and converging Cakobau, the islands most powerful chief. In 1874, after a period of chaos, Great Britain annexed the islands at the request of the native chiefs. About the same time, diseased brought by the Europeans greatly reduced the native population, leading to the importation of Indian labor.
Fiji became independent in 1970 and remained affiliated with Britain through membership in the British Commonwealth. The new nation was troubled by strife between Fijians and Indians. In 1987, following elections in which a largely Indian party won control of the government, Fijian military officers seized power. Fiji was declared a republic and left the commonwealth. A new constitution ensuring control of the government by indigenous Fijians was adopted in 1990.
1) Crime prevention and criminal justice:
there are many different kinds of crimes, there is shop lifting, murder, harassment, robbery, trafficking of illegal equipment, etcÖ these crimes make a country very dangerous to live in, you canít walk around without being scared, you have to be extra cautious.
The crime rate in Fiji has gone up 2% since 1995, since then Fiji has taken drastic measures. For example, Fiji has agreed to draft new laws to control use and possession and trafficking of handguns. And it has also agreed that persons violating the law, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned. Fiji thinks that there should be special punishments for certain crimes, and that they should use these punishments on the people who commit these crimes.
2) Improving the financial situation of the UN:
The United Nations has a lot of members, of which Fiji is one of, those countries that are members are the countries that care about peace in he world. Fiji became the 127th member of the United Nations on October 13th, 1970. Ever since then, it has participated actively in the organization.
Fiji strongly supports the recommendation of the Committee on Contributions that, in future assessment scales, a minimum assessment of 0.001 per cent should be applied. The recommendation was in line with statements made by Fiji on several occasions. The reduction of the scale's floor rate was essential to all developing countries with small economies, like Fiji. Fiji thinks that the UN doesnít have enough money to complete their tasks, and that it should probably increase how much they give members, especially poor members.
3) Taking effective measures to eliminate racism, discrimination, and xenophobia:
Racism, discrimination, and xenophobia are all related somehow. They all have hatred, and fear of different people, strangers, of simply foreigners. There is a lot of racism, discrimination, and xenophobia in Fiji due to the fact that almost 44% of Fijiís population are Indians, and they are not wanted or liked by Fijians. Not all of them, but the majority. Indianís are different, and people are always afraid of whatís different.
Fiji is trying its best to decrease the number of people that are racists or suffer from xenophobia. But unfortunately, they are not succeeding. For example, if a person in Fiji is against racism, he is convicted of torture, and is sentenced to jail. Fijians are taking the Indiansí rights from them, and without a reason. Fiji really wants to solve this problem. In attempt to solve this problem Fiji group wants UN role against racism. Movement of Democracy in Fiji (MDF) says the country would have to answer to the United Nations for alleged "state sponsored" racism. The group, which led to the dismissal of Fijiís first Indo-Fijian prime minister, as he plans to raise the issue during the UNís 58th session of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD). Fiji thinks that there should be special programs for people that are racists, or people that discriminate others, or people who suffer from xenophobia, that way, they will teach them to appreciate other kinds of people as well as their own kind.
4) Drug control and rehabilitation programs:
Drugs are one of the most dangerous things on this planet. You take it once, you get addicted to it for a long time, maybe even forever. And after that, the worse is yet to come. It could lead to jail sentencing, or even worse, death. Many kids nowadays, especially teenagers, are getting hooked on drugs, or becoming drug lords. That is because they want, or need, to earn some money. Drugs area one-way ticket to death, so stay away from them. There arenít many drugs in Fiji, but itís not taking any chances, Fiji doesnít want it to spread.
Even thought the drug rate in Fiji is quite low, Fiji is trying to make Fiji a drug free country. Thatís why penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs are strict, and convicted offenders can expect jail sentences and fines. Fiji is not only trying to punish them, but also to help them, they did this by forming a programme called "National Programme for Prevention of Drugs and Substance Abuse" (NPPDSA), this programme was made to help rehabilitate drug addicts, and try to get them of drugs. Fiji thinks that drug addicts, dealers, or traffickers should by put up for lifetime imprisonment with daily visits to the rehabilitation centers.
Question: Taking Measures to Eliminate Racism, Discrimination, and Xenophobia:
Country: The Republic of the Fiji Islands.
Defining: a) racism as the practice of racial discrimination,
b) Discrimination as treating differently, or showing partiality or prejudice,
c) xenophobia as fear of hatred of strangers or foreigners;
Applauding the efforts of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD), in trying to decrease racial discrimination;
Believing that a world without discrimination and xenophobia is a much better world that one with discrimination and xenophobia;
Noting that a man against racism is convicted of torture and sentenced to jail in Fiji, was appointed peacekeeper in another nation;
Recalling how bad a condition the world was in when racism and discrimination were abundant;
1. Affirming the need to desegregate the world and unify nations views of the necessity of racial integrity;
2. Draws attention to the increase of profits and yearly income and the decrease of the unemployment rate without racism;
3. Further recommends that the UN gives this matter a little more attention, for at this moment, itís giving it less attention than it needs, and it is a very serious matter;
4. Calls upon the countries that have good laws regarding this situation for advice on
a) laws to help overcome racism, discrimination, and xenophobia,
b) suggestions that are for the good of Fiji,
c) punishments for discriminating,
d) forming a program that will help people who suffer from xenophobia;
5. Supports a country that is empty of racists and discriminators;
6. Encourages the UN to form a programmes that will help people that suffer from xenophobia, racists, or discriminators, for it will help world peace;
7. Confirms the need to take action towards this situation immediately, before it gets out of hand;
8. Requests the establishment of a law that mandates that whoever discriminates anybody because
a) he/she is of a different race,
b) he/she has different skin color,
c) he/she is a foreigner,
should be sentenced to temporary jailing;
9. Resolves that an anti-racist country is far better than a country with racists;
10. Further encourages that other countries should take a look at their people, and help them fight to overcome racism, discrimination, and xenophobia.
Honorable chair, fellow delegates, and attentive audience,
From its luxuriant forests, to its mountainous islands. From its peaceful quiet islands, to its raging volcanic ones. Fiji is the sugar in your tea. And it is the coconuts in you galaxy bar. And we are those tiny sparkles of gold on your jewellery, and in the ocean. But the paradise has experienced changing times, and many Fijians tend to prefer having the white inside of coconuts stripped of its protective darker cover.
Fiji is a small country, with a small population of which 46% are Indians, and 49% are native Fijians. The Fijians are always discriminating the Indians. And the Indiansí rights are a lot less that the Fijians. Fiji wants them to be equal. It wasnít the discrimination, racism, and hatred to end. Fiji wants itself to be set as an example in front of other nations; it wants to be unique, it wants to be different. It is hoping to achieve that goal as soon as possible. For there is no time to spare.