Event: Pearl-MUN 2001, ECOSOC
Student: Mohammad Al Matrouk
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Country Profile France
A) Political structure:
For many years, France has had many different governments, and the most recent government is called the "The Fifth Republic" which was formed by Charles de Gaulle. The governmental system of France is a presidential republic, based on the constitution that was known in October 1958. This document reduces the power of parliament to overthrow Cabinets and markedly enlarges the authority of the president. It vests the national sovereignty of the republic of French people, which practice their political powers by a representative parliament.
The French Parliament is made up of the National Assembly (577 deputies) and the Senate (321 members). The former body is elected by direct universal suffrage, deputies serve terms of up to five years. Senators are elected to nine-year terms by indirect popular suffrage-that is, by the membership of other representative bodies. France has a voting age of 18. The power of the parliament is mostly narrowed.
France's ninety-six departments are organized into twenty-two regions. Political parties: Rally for the Republic; Union for French Democracy (a center-right conglomerate of 5 parties: Democratic Force, Republican Party, and Radical Party are the three minor components) Socialist Party; Communist Party; National Front; Greens; Ecology Generation; various minor parties. France is a very stable nation. Although it is bordered by many countries, it maintains good relations them. Since France is a democratic republic, and has a Parliament and Senate, it is generally stable internally.
B) Natural Resources:
France is richly powered with an excellent balance of both mineral (particularly iron ore and coal) and agricultural resources. In addition, France has sizable deposits of antimony, bauxite, magnesium, pyrites, tungsten, salt, potash, radioactive materials, lead, and zinc. Production of natural gas, petroleum, and sulfur is being developed. France has extensive tracts of fertile soils, the richest of which are the marine sediments of the Paris Basin and the well-watered alluvial soils of the lower valleys of the Seine and Somme rivers. The native plant life of France shows the variety characteristic of continental Europe. h ranges from Arctic-alpine lichens and mosses to such semi-tropical species as olive and orange trees. This agricultural production reaches 14.7 million hectares of plants, which covers 27% of the area of France. There has been no history of high rate of poverty in France which means France's government call feed it's own population.
C) Cultural factors:
France is a large country that is made up of 58 million people. Roman Catholicism is the faith of more than 90 per cent of French churchgoers. Islam, Protestantism, and Judaism are the next most important religions. During the 19th century, the Christian and Jewish religions were subsidized by the State. In 1905, because of popular opposition to the political influence of the Roman Catholic Church and to Catholic control of public education, legislation prohibited the payment of public funds to the Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Jewish clergy. By the provisions of that and subsequent legislation, the French government withdrew official recognition of religious denominations. The language of the people is officially French. France has several ethnic minority groups, which are Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African, Indochinese, and Basque minorities.
Since prehistoric times, France has been a crossroads of trade, travel, and invasion. Three basic European ethnic stocks--Celtic, Latin, and Teutonic have blended over the centuries to make up its present population. There has been no feuding between these ethnic groups since that time
National service is compulsory for 10 months for males between the ages of 18 and 35, although in 1996 President Chirac announced plans to phase out conscription. Defense expenditure for 1998 totaled about US$39.831 billion. The army numbered about 219,900, the navy, around 63,300, and the air force about 83,420. The military manpower availability in France is 14,~19,317, while the military manpower fit for the army is 12,167,421_ France has developed its own nuclear force, including nuclear submarines and ballistic missiles. In the early 1990s, French forces were stationed in Germany and several African countries, notably Chad. In 1990, France took part in the Gulf War, sending troops and warships to the Persian Gulf after Iraq took over Kuwait. France's military expenditures take 2.5% for the GDP.
France has little or no military dependence on other nations because it builds its own weapons and has all the resources needed to run a military operation. France has always been one of the leaders of the world militarily. As most of the strongest countries, France's military primary focus is on its self- protection and peace keeping.
France is located in Western Europe, bordering the bay of Biscay and the English Channel, between Belgium and Spain, southeast of the United Kingdom, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Italy and Spain. Its climate is cold winters and mild summers. It has a very large area, which is 547,030 km, and 545,630 km of that is land and 1400 km of that is water. It is compared to slightly twice the size of Colorado in the United States of America. It's border countries are Belgium: 620 km, Germany: 45 1 km, Italy: 488 km, Luxembourg: 73 km, Spain: 623 km, and Switzerland: 577 km.
France's economy combines modern capitalistic methods with extensive, but declining government intervention. The government retains considerable influence over key segments of each sector, with majority ownership of railway, electricity, aircraft, and telecommunications. Large fertile land, the application of modern technology, and subsidies has combined to make France the leading agricultural producer in Western Europe. France is one of the ten country EU members that launched the Euro on January 1999. France's real GDP growth rate is 2.7%.
France has a lot of trading partners. Its exports gain them $304.7 billion, and its exports are made of machinery and transportation equipment, chemicals, iron and steel products, agricultural products, textiles and clothing. Its industries are made up of steel, machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy, aircraft, electronics, mining, textiles, tourism, and food processing. Its exporting partners are Germany 16%, UK 10%, Italy 9%, Spain 9%, Belgium and Luxembourg 8%, and the US 7%. France's imports cost $280.8 billion, France imports crude oil, machinery and equipment, chemicals, agricultural products. France's import partners are Germany 17%, Italy 10%, Belgium and Luxembourg 8%, UK 8%, Spain 7%, the US 9%. France's budget is not balanced for every year it have revenues of $325 billion and expenditures of $360 billion which makes them lose $35 billion each year.
G) View on world problems
France is a member of many of the world's organizations. First of all, France is a member of the United Nations (UN), the European Union/European Community (EU/EC), the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), G7, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and the West European Union (WEU). France is a leader in Western Europe because of its size, location, strong economy, membership in European organizations, strong military posture, and energetic diplomacy. France generally has worked to strengthen the global economic and political influence of the EU and its role in common European defense.
It views Franco-German cooperation and the development of a European Security and Defense Identity (ESDI) as the formation of efforts to enhance European security. France also totally supports the Middle East peace process and France has backed the establishment of a Palestinian homeland and the withdrawal of Israel from the occupied territories. France also supported the involvement of Arab parties in the peace process, France has played a big role in providing assistance to the Palestinian Authority. France also plays a big role in Africa for it has provided assistance in cultural impacts, military agreements, extensive aid programs, and commercial activities. France has also relations with all of Asia and Latin America and seeks to expand these relations with all countries. France's does not have enemies, but their most successful relations are with the WEU countries.
France was one of the earliest countries to progress from feudalism into the era of the nation-state. Its kingdoms surrounded themselves with capable ministers, and French armies were among the most splendid, disciplined, and professional of their day. During the late 1600s, France was the dominant power of Europe and it was the strongest. World War I (1 91 4-1 8) brought great losses of troops and materiel. In the 1920s, France established an elaborate system of border defenses (the Maginot Line) and alliances to offset resurgent German strength. France was defeated early in World War Il, however, and occupied in June 1940.
The German victory left the French groping for a new policy and new leadership suited to the circumstances. On July 20, 1940, the Vichy government was established. France emerged from World War II to face a series of new problems. After a short period of provisional government initially led by Gen. Charles de Gaulle, the Fourth Republic was set up by a new constitution and established as a parliamentary form of government controlled by a series of coalitions.
While France continues to revere its rich history and independence, French leaders are increasingly tying the future of France to the continued development of the European Union. During President Mitterrand's tenure, he stressed the importance of European integration and advocated the ratification of the Maastricht Treaty on European economic and political union, which France's electorate narrowly approved in September 1992.
Issue #i. Crime prevention and criminal justice:
All the countries in the world have suffered from a great deal of crime. Also, all countries in the world have tried and still are trying to lower and reduce crime and get everybody to respect criminal justice. France's law for criminal justice is that if anyone commits a crime his or her penalty will be execution. There have been many letters sent by the president of France ordering the execution of many famous criminals that have committed crimes in France. Our country's policy goes against the present action of the European Union.
The basis of the active policy of the European Union concerning the death penalty issue, is a political commitment, expressed by the European Council in June 195)8, to work toward universal abolition of the death penalty, as a strongly held policy view agreed by all EU members states. The European Union considers that the abolition of the death penalty contributes to the enhancement of human dignity and the progressive development of human rights. It was then decided that the European Union would raise the issue of the death penalty in its dialogue with other countries. Also, a call for the universal abolition of the death penalty, or at least a call for serious speeches would make these objectives known as an internal part of its human rights policy.
Issue #2. Improving the financial situation of the United Nations:
France believes and also supports the fact that the United Nation's budget should rise. France supported a systematic search to savings in the process of budget preparation. Detailed consideration of the amounts needed for 2002-2003 was needed. Special political missions should be reconsidered in the proposed budget outline, as it was essential to provide sufficient amounts for possible engagement of those missions.
CELINE CERVI (France), speaking on behalf of France, in the last general assembly, said that the United Nations is being involved in complicated programs, including those on the scale of assessments and the financing of peacekeeping. These projects should be reflected in budget decisions. France wants to have an estimate of the costs for assessments and peacekeeping planned by the UN. Then, France would decide its share of the financial implications of the program decisions taken by the General Assembly.
Issue #3. Taking effective measures to eliminate racism, racial discrimination, and xenophobia:
France it totally against racism, racial discrimination and xenophobia. Racism has been a problem since the beginning of time and everybody including France knows about the racism of color, one part of xenophobia. The other parts are religion and language or nationality. France believes that racism, racial discrimination, and xenophobia destabilizes a country, and also makes a higher rate of damage between families. It can also cause many problems such as murder and feuding. So basically France urges all nations including the United Nations to take this issue into consideration and work together to eliminate this worldwide problem.
Issue #4. Drug control and rehabilitation programs:
France strongly believes that the illicit drug trade affects its stability. Dealing drugs, consuming them, or using Them in any way, are major world problems. Anything that includes drugs in any way should be considered illegal and should be banned world wide, in all world countries, (including the Netherlands). France feels that any country with drug dealers importing the drugs on an international basis should be taken into consideration. France believes that, if the country does not posses the power to stop these drugs from spreading beyond its borders, and especially since it then becomes an international issue, then UN forces and organizations should interfere. France asks for all nations to not only be strict on drug dealers, but increase educational resources against drug use and abuse.
Delegate: Hamad Al- Matrouk
Question of: Drug control and rehabilitation programs
Defining drugs as a chemical or substance that effects the function of the nervous system of an organism,
Affirming that all countries aware of drug abuse should follow programs and take steps into curing problems caused by illicit drugs,
Taking into consideration that all countries affected by drugs should be participating in drug rehabilitation programs, as the United Nations have stated in recent assemblies, " Drugs are mostly dangerous and effective in recent days, but only with cooperation and action, drugs can be eliminated",
Noting with regret that mostly all the countries in the world have these drug problems which are spreading rapidly, and people in the world are misusing drugs and causing lives to be wasted,
Expressing with appreciation that the UN is encouraging countries to take this issue into consideration and that many countries are trying to get rid of drugs,
Desiring all countries to pay attention to problems that occur from drugs and try to solve them by benefiting their country and other countries and by cooperation and following successful resolutions all nations would get to success on eliminating drugs and drug addicts and drug dealers.
1- Accents that the UN has programs to get rid of drugs and supports this idea,
2- Declares all countries to take part of this resolution and work together to get rid of the illicit drugs,
3- Further Proclaims that the UN's programs are good programs but are not actually enough since drug addicts and crimes related to drugs are increasing rapidly in all nations of the world.
4- Regrets the loss of lives due to the misuse of drugs around the world,
5. Calls upon all nations to take strong actions against all drug dealers and drug addicts:
(Two) Fine severely drug dealers based on the quantity sold,
(Two) Jail drug dealers for a long period of time depending on the quantity of drugs they have,
(Three) Uncover drug dealers to the community and show their penalty so they can be a lesson to those people willing to be drug dealers, by warning them of the consequences,
6- Recommends that all nations take action to make people aware of the drugs by:
(One) Using media to get news to all people about how drugs are affecting people by using radios, TV shows and advertisements,
(Two) Forming drug awareness month/week,
(Three) Showing all people the drug dealers/addicts who have been caught and making interviews with them to show the people how these drug dealers/addicts are suffering from jail so that these drug dealers/addicts can be an example to other people so that they will eventually by scared away from drugs.
7- Urges all nations to help keep away teenagers from thinking about using drugs by:
(One) teaching the subject drugs as one of the main subject in one of the curriculums by letting them know:
a) the effect of drugs on the human body
b) the effect of drugs on the economy of not just the family but also the country
c) what happens to drug dealers/addicts of they have any illegal relationship with drugs.
(Two) increasing suitable places for teenagers so that they will reduce their spare time and take their minds off of thinking about drugs, these teenagers will be provided with a different for of entertainment and fun.
8- Resolves forming rehabilitation programs for drug addicts that will help with their problem, this program will have sections ranging from:
(One) Psychiatrists/ psychologists that will help them get rid of personal problems,
(Two) Biologists/ Specialized doctors to treat drug addicts,
(Three) Providing sufficient medications for drug addicts until they are cured,