Country: The People's Republic of Iran
Event: Pearl-MUN 2001
Student: Fatma Al Ibrahim
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A. Political Structure
The government in Iran is a theocratic republic. Iran has been an Islamic theocracy since the Pahlavi monarchy regime was overthrown on Feb. 2, 1979. It was the first of its kind in the world. Islamic law was introduced into Iran's legal system following the Islamic revolution of 1979. The country's highest judicial body is the Supreme Council of Justice, a five-member group of senior clergy that supervises the appointment of all judges and codifies Islamic law. The council also drafts all legislation pertaining to civil and criminal offenses; the Majlis then debates the drafts and may amend any proposed bill before voting to accept or reject it. The Faqih appoints the head of the Supreme Council of Justice; constitutional amendments passed in 1 989 combined this office with that of chief justice of the Supreme Court.
The definition of the word theocratic: \Theocratic, Theoretical Theocratical, a. "Having or pertaining to a theocracy; administered by the immediate ection of God." This theocracy allows a religious leader, the Faqih, to have supreme political and religious powers. He is also the commander of the
militants in the military and elects the cabinets. He also has the right to appoint the head of the judiciary. The faqih has absolute power on public broadcast such as television and radio. The real power rests with the chief of state and the leader of the Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Ali Hoseini-Khameni (since 4 June 1989) who is named as the faqih. The Faqih serves a lifetime term.
The president and Cabinet of the Islamic Republic of Iran have limited powers compared to those of the Faqih, the president is elected by the civilians and serve a four-year term.. His responsibly is international political issues and he is the representative of his country in any conference or meeting. The latest president is Mohammed Khatami. The members are elected every four years, while the Faqih elects the head of the Cabinet every year.
The Cabinet, or the Majlise Shoraye Islami, is responsible for passing minor proposals presented by the members. Khamenei and Khatami are two religious men with different looks. Khatami and his supporters, mostly the young people who makeup 60 % of all Iran's population, are trying to maintain a higher level of freedom and democracy in the country. Khamenei, on the other hand wants to limit the presidents powers
The organizations that Iran belongs to are the following: CCC, CP, EGO, ESCAP, FAG, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO.
B. Natural resources
Oil and gas are from the most important natural resources found in Iran. Natural gas and coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, and zinc, sulfur are other resources found in Iran.
The agricultural products are wheat, rice, other grains, sugar beets, fruits, nuts p cotton; dairy products, wool; caviar. They can not feed their own people because their imports are more than their exports by approximately 1.6 billion dollars.
Electricity production are fossil fuel: 92.33% hydro: 7.67%.
C. Cultural factors
Iran's population is made up of numerous ethnic groups. Persians migrated to the region from Central Asia beginning in the 7th century BC and started the first Persian Empire in 550 BC. They are the largest ethnic group, and include such groups as the Cilaki, who live in Gilan Province, and the Mazandarani, who live in Mazandaran Province. Except for about 60 percent of the total population, Persians live in cities all over the country, as well as in the villages of central and eastern Iran. Two groups closely related to the Persians both ethnically are the Kurds and the Lurs. The Kurds, who make up about 7 percent of the population, live in the Zagros Mountains near the borders with Iraq and Turkey. The Lurs make up 2 percent of the population; they live-in the central Zagros region.
Turkic tribes began migrating into northwestern Iran in the 11th century, gradually changing the ethnic composition of the region so that by the late 20th century East Azerbaijian Province was more than 90 percent Turkish. Since the early 1900s, Azeris (a Turkic group) have been migrating to most large cities in Iran, especially Tehran. Azeris and other Turkic peoples together are about 25 percent of Iran's inhabitants. The rest of the population make up small communities of Arabs, Armenians, Assyrians, Baluchis, Georgians, Pashtuns, and others.
Religion: Jafari Shia Islam has been the main religion of Iran since the 11th century. Followers of Shia Islam, known as Shiites, disagree with sunnites (who form the majority of Muslims in the Middle East and the Islamic world) over the rightful succession to the Prophet Mohammed, the founder of Islam. Iran's 1979 constitution assigns to the Shiite clergy important political leadership roles in the government.
Approximately 93 percent of all Iranians follow Shia Islam, and nearly all are members of the Jafari group. Because Jafaris believe there are 12 legitimate successors, or imams, to Mohammed, they are often called Twelvers. Most of the remaining population belongs to other Islamic denominations, primarily Sunni Islam. Iran also has small communities of Armenian and Assyrian Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians. The Baha'i faith, which originated in Iran during the 19th century, has several thousand secret followers, even though it has been a target of official since the Islamic republic came to power in 1979.
The ethnic groups and religious groups get along generally well and the percentage of conflicts among them is minor. However, the Kurds started some conflicts in and out of the country but these conflicts are well controlled by the country.
Iran's military structure is one of the strongest and largest structures in the Middle East. the GNP spent on this sector is only 2.4%. The Military branches in the Islamic Republic of Iran regular forces (includes Ground Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces), Revolutionary Guards (includes Ground, Air, Navy, Qods, and Basij-mobilization-forces), Law Enforcement Forces. Iran has the biggest navy force in the gulf. Most of the Iranian arms are either built in Iran using foreign plans, or is built by Russia, China or the USA secretly. The US is afraid from Iran since they have long range ballistic highly destructive missiles. Upon the recommendation of the president, the faqih appoints a joint chief of staff to coordinate the five branches of the armed forces. In addition, a total of 200,000 men and women were listed in volunteer reserve force, the Basij. A two-year period of military service is required of all male citizens of Iran aged 18 and older. The Ministry of Defense exercises general supervision over the armed forces. In general, the military is under the tight control of the civilian government, and armed forces personnel are encouraged to avoid involvement in partisan politics.
The country of Iran has the capability to defend itself because it has 1 7,762,030 militants working in the military. 10,545,869 are fit for military. It also has long range ballistic highly destructive missiles that also the U.S fear. These missiles are exported of high-quality.
The country of Iran is located in the Middle East, bordering on the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea, between Iraq and Pakistan. Iran's different landscapes allow it to have people with different ideas, values, and cultures, which supplies differences within the Iranian community. Iran consists of rugged, mountainous rims surrounding high interior basins. Iran ranks sixteenth in size among the countries of the world. Iran's capital is Tehran and has a population of over 52,522,000 people.
Iran is the second largest country in the Middle East, after Saudi Arabia. It extends over a total area of 1,648,000 sq. km (636,300 sq. mile). The country is roughly triangular in shape, with its longest side extending in a slightly outward are for 2,500 km (1,600 mile) from the border with Turkey in the northwest to the border with Pakistan in the southeast. The third point of the triangle lies in the northeast, about halfway along Iran's border with Turkmenistan. Iran's greatest extent from north to south is 1,600 km (1,000 mile) and from east to west is 1,700 km (1,100 mile).
Iran's varied landscape produces several different climates. On the northern edge of the country, the Caspian coastal plain, with an average elevation at or below sea level, remains humid all year. Winter temperatures sometimes fall below freezing, and maximum summer temperatures rarely exceed 29 85 averages 65 mm (26 in) in the eastern part of the plain (Mazandaran Province) and more than 1,900 mm (75 in) in the western part (Gilan Province). At higher elevations to the west, settlements in the Zagros Mountain basin experience lower temperatures. These areas are subject to severe winters, with average daily temperatures below freezing, and warm summers, averaging 25 77
northwest and 33 91 including snowfall, averages more than 280 mm (Ii in) at higher elevations. Most precipitation falls between October and April.
The central plateau region also experiences regional variations. In Tehran, located at an elevation of 1,200 m (3,900 ft) on the northern edge of the plateau, the temperature averages 29-85 and receives an average of 230 mm (9 in) of precipitation annually. The arid basins of central and eastern Iran generally receive less than 200 mm (8 in) of precipitation per year. Yazd, for example, averages less than 70 mm (3 in) of precipitation. Its winters are cool, but temperatures almost never fall below freezing; summers are very hot, averaging 38-100. The coastal plains along the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in southern Iran have mild winters, with average January temperatures ranging from 45 to 64 'Abbas on the Strait of Hormuz. Summers are very humid and hot, with temperatures exceeding 48 119 interior areas. Annual precipitation ranges from 145 mm to 355 mm (6 to 14 in) in this region.
Although agriculture historically was the most important sector of Iran's economy, its share of the gross domestic product (GDP) has been going down since the 1930s because of the rise of manufacturing. Meanwhile, the mining sector, which is made by the production of oil, has grown rapidly since Iran nationalized its oil fields in the 1950s. Factory manufacturing has experienced periods of both rapid growth and loss. Trade and commerce activities have grew with the country's increasing the number of cities. During the late 1970s the Iranian economy appeared ready to grow to a level on par with the world's developed countries, but the 1979 revolution and the following eight-year war with Iraq forced all economic sectors.
In the mid-1990s the service sector contributed the largest percentage of the GDP, followed by industry (mining and manufacturing) and agriculture. About 60 percent of the government's budget came from oil and natural gas revenues, and 40 percent came from taxes and fees. Government spending contributed to average annual inflation rates exceeding 20 percent. In 1998 the GDP was estimated at $i 13 billion, or $1,830 per capita, the United Nations classifies Iran's economy as semi-developed.
G. View on world problems
Iran and Iraq brought back diplomatic relations in 1990. Although they are still trying to work out written agreements settling outstanding disputes from their eight-year war over borders, prisoners-of-war, and freedom of movement and power over the Shatt al Arab waterway. Iran has two islands in the Persian Gulf claimed by the UAE. They are called Lesser Tunb (called Tunb as Sughra in Arabic by UAE and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Kuchek in Persian by Iran) Greater Tunb (called Tunb al Kubra inArabic by UAE and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg in Persian by Iran).
Iran jointly administers with the UAE an island in the Persian Gulf claimed by the UAE (called Abu Musa in Arabic by UAE and Jazireh-ye Abu Musa in Persian by Iran) . Iran has taken steps to exert unilateral control since 1992, including access restrictions and a military build-up on the island. The UAE has garnered significant diplomatic supporting the region in protesting these Iranian actions. Caspian Sea boundaries are not yet determined among Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan. This dispute is not yet settled and is still in progress.
Iranians believe that the United States is the "Great Satan," and the Soviet Union, the "Lesser Satan. Critics point out that the attempt to isolate Iran through unilateral trade sanctions has backfired since none of Iran's trading partners have been willing to abide by such heavy-handed tactics. Even close U.S. allies such as Canada and the European Union have denounced the extra-territorial aspects of the sanctions as a violation of international trade law. It is also highly doubtful whether Iran, a geographically large, historically ancient, culturally vibrant, and strategically positioned nation of more than 64 million people, which also happens to possess a substantial share of the world's oil and natural gas resources, can be isolated to any meaningful degree.
In the long run, the sanctions have probably contributed to Iran's goal of self-sufficiency more than anything else has. It also clear that Iran's economy has gradually improved since the imposition of the sanctions, though still greatly hampered by mismanagement, fluctuations in oil prices, and the consequences of the war with Iraq. In the past, Iran has had a "blunder" or "misunderstanding" with Iraq, where Iraq forced through and into Iran's boundaries. the trading among them. Khatami is now attempting to improve relations with the US, through dialogue. However, Khamenei, the Faqih, is completely against relations with the US, and has always discouraged and condemned any type of relations. That clearly shows there is a struggle between the president and the Faqih. Even though, both wings cooperate when there is an international attack or threat.
Iran encouraged the revolting of the Shia in their claim of rights and supported them. Iran has better relations with Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, but recently, the United States of America seems to condemn Iran for some prejudice reason, such as the continuous verbal attack on the United States and the religious and terrorist look made by Iran.
Arab Muslim armies began their conquest of the Persian Sassanian (Sassanid) Empire in AD 636 and during the next five years conquered all of Iran, with the exception of the Elburz Mountains and the Caspian coastal plain. They finally put an end to the Sassanid Dynasty in 651. For the next two centuries, most of Iran (which at that time extended beyond Herat in what now is western Afghanistan) remained part of the Arab Islamic empire. The caliphs the ruler of the Muslim empire ruled from Medina in present-day Saudi Arabia, then from Damascus, Syria, and finally from Baghdad, Iraq, as each city became the seat of the caliphate. Beginning in the late 9th century, however, independent kingdoms came out in eastern Iran; by the mid-11th century, the Arab caliph in Baghdad had lost effective control of virtually all of Iran, although most of the local dynasties continued to recognize his religious authority. From the time of Islamic conquest, Iranians gradually converted to Islam. Most had previously followed Zoroastrianism, the official state religion under the Sassanid dynasty, but minority groups had practiced Christianity or Judaism.
By the 10th century the majority of Iranians probably were Muslims. Most Iranian Muslims were still orthodox Sunni Islam, although some followed various sects of Shia Islam. The Ismailis, a Shiite sect, stayed a small but effectively independent state in the Rudbar region of the Elburz Mountains from the 11th through the 13th century.
The British and Soviet authorities allowed Reza Shah's system of political and press repression to fall and constitutional government to go with minimal interference. They permitted Reza Shah's son, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, to succeed to the throne after he promised to reign as a constitutional monarch. In January 1942 the two occupying powers signed an agreement with Iran to respect Iran's independence and to withdraw their troops from the country within six months of the war's end. A U.S.- sponsored agreement at the 1943 Tehran Conference reaffirmed this commitment. In late 1945, however, the USSR refused to announce a timetable for its withdrawal from Iran's northwestern provinces of East Azerbaijan and West Azerbaijan, where Soviet-supported autonomy movements had developed. Although the USSR withdrew its troops in May 1946, tensions continued for several months. The problem, which became known as the Azerbaijan crisis, was the first case to be brought before the Security Council of the United Nations.
This episode is considered one of the precipitating events of the coming from the Cold War, one of the shah's most vocal opponents was the leading Shiite scholar, or ayatollah, Ruhollah Khomeini. Khomeini was arrested in 1962 after publicly speaking out against the bill, and his arrest instantly elevated him to the status of national hero. Although released the following year, he refused to keep silent. He instead broadened his criticisms of the regime to include corruption, violations of the constitution, and rigging of elections. Khomeini's second arrest in June 1963 led to three days of rioting in many Iranian cities; the military suppressed the riots only after more than 600 people had been killed and more than 2,000 injured.
Fearing that Khomeini would assume martyr status if he were kept in prison or executed for treason, the Shah exiled him to Turkey in 1964. Khomeini settled in the Shia theological center of An Najaf in Iraq. From there he still has contact with his former students in the Iranian city of Qum. These students formed the covert anti-shah movement that was growing among the clergy. In 1971 Khomeini published a book, Velayut-ef~qih, that provided the religious justification for an Islamic government in Iran.
In the 1990s Iran worked to improve its foreign relations. The hostage crisis with the United States had brought international disfavor upon the Islamic republic. As a result, it had received little international support when Iraq invaded in 1980 or during the long years of war. In 1998 Iran's foreign minister signed an agreement promising that the Iranian government would not implement the fatwa; which is explained by the Islamic look or opinion made a very wise Islamic leader This made Britain rise to restore full diplomatic relations with Iran.
All over the 1990s Iran's leaders continued to distrust the United States, which they perceived as hostile to their revolution. While the United States is deeply suspicious of lran's regional plans, believing that Iran was developing weapons of mass destruction and supporting international terrorism. The two countries had unofficial contacts in the early 1990s but failed to solve their differences. In 1993 the United States, showing Iran as a threat to U.S. interests in the Middle East, adopted a policy to prevent Iran from gaining too much regional power. In 1995 the United States banned all U.S. trade with and investment in Iran, and in 1996 it drafted a law placing sanctions non-U.S. companies.
Issue #1: The issue of international cooperation in drug abuse and rehabilitation programs.
Nowadays, a large number of countries are concerned about the drug addiction wave that can strike and touched them by the maneuvers of the drug traffickers. Since 1909, the international legislation has set up barriers so as to put an end to this overwhelming pest and fight against traffickers whom, at times, are backed up by some countries and regimes. An interconnection is, sometimes, observed between traffickers and some banks in the whitening operation of the drug money.
[ran, which has territorial and Maritimes borders with 15 neighboring countries, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Russia, Khazakstan, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Oman, UAE, KSA, QATAR, Bahrain, Kuwait and Iraq, declares adopting a firm policy against poppy cultivation and tough measures against the drug traffickers. Iran emphasized that Afghanistan and Pakistan have, on several occasions, attacked Iranian territory as a reaction for the repression measures against the drug traffickers. Iran ensures taking all possible steps to fight against drug use in all its forms. Their measures aim, not only to protect its population whom more than the half are under 30, (knowing that 65% of the drug addicted person are under 30%), but to conform as well to international laws concerning drugs in order to protect mankind from this real annoyance. Iran is enforcing its laws against drugs and are establishing harsh ones to repel the threat of drug trafficking and to decrease the amount of drugs found in the country. Iran thinks that the UN is not doing enough to stop or decrease drug abuse and is asking the UN to increase its efforts on the issue.
Issue #2: Crime prevention and criminal justice
Each and every human society is characterized by the same machinery of 3 stages: the first one concerns the setting up of penal laws, meaning rules of conduct enforced under the threat of penal sanctions. The second consists of considering the crime as a universal social process provoked by the laying down of laws: laws that are infringed by the majority of society members all over the world. The third stage concerns the social reaction, in its fight against the crime The international society has set up appropriate machinery based upon mutual aid between governments, at legal and the creation of the international penal court.
Iran is doing its best to eradicate the crime and reduce the criminal acts between the citizens by applying and enforcing an Islamic justice, which respects. Above all, the Koran divines law. Iran notes that each society has it own values and traditions. On the occasion of international meetings relative to human right, Iran mentions, as the whole, Asian countries have no right to dictate its values, its ideas and its way to fight against the crime, because each society has its specific values in this world which must be respected. The Iranian values are taken from Islam; therefore, Iran applies the Islamic laws in its fight against crime. For instance, cutting off the hand of a recidivist thief or applying the death penalty are among the Iranian means to fight against crime.
Issue #3: Improving the financial situation of the United Nations:
Overtime the issue held an international meeting at the United Nations resistance of the poorest countries facing the richest countries. In this context, UNO is always asked to increase its interventions over the world because of civil wars, finical means. But the few rich countries, which are members of the organization such as USA, which contributes 25% to the UNO budget, hesitate or even sometimes suspend their financial contributions. Actually, UNO knows a financial crisis that prevents the organization from doing its job. The UNO secretary general called upon the United States to pay all the overdue fees and invited the other countries to improve the financing of this organization.
Iran, aiming to play a powerful role, suggests that the efforts asked to help UNO is first of all the responsibility of the richest countries and particularly the United States. Iran, a developing country, will contribute 0.8% to the UNO budget and aims to devote all its efforts in improving the standard of living of its citizens. Iranian government calls rich countries to improve the financing of UNO so the organization can improve the situation of poor countries and developing countries. I would like to add that Iran pays the 0.8% from its country budget and mainly from oil transportation.
Issues #4: Taking effective measures to eliminate racism, racial discrimination, and xenophobia.
The multiethnic and multi-cultural societies have known through out the history about multiple wars due to racial discrimination and ethnic confrontation. Racial discrimination is usually based on the will of majority groups to dominate minority groups as in the United States before the sixties It can also be based on the will of a strong group wishing to crush a weak one, as in South Africa before the arrival of Nelson Mandela. That unfortunately ends with bloody troubles and civil wars, and even sometimes with genocide as in Rwanda recently between the two ethnic groups.
Iran, a multiethnic country with 60% Persian and other minorities living peacefully together as Arab, Armenian, Turkmenistan, Azeri, Baluch, is proud not to be known to have discrimination problems and ethnic struggles. The United States and South Africa have problems, between black and white, and Central Africa experiences the genocide in Rwanda. Iranian government considers that there are two main factors responsible for avoiding these kinds of discrimination and struggles. First, Muslims are 98% of the Iranian population and second, the centralized power, dominates the political scene by the same time it allows every minority group the opportunity of having its own deputy in the parliament and have a say in government affairs.
Delegation: The Islamic Republic of Iran
Question Of: Measures to eliminate drug trafficking
Recalling: Previous resolution 1 193 (1998) of 28 August 1998, 1214 (1998) of 8 December 1998 and 1267 (1999) of 15 October 1999 as well as the statement of the President of the Security Council on the fight against drugs in Afghanistan,
Recalls also: all the recent statements of the participants in the international meeting and those of the international organizations concerning the fight against drugs,
Deeply concerned in the effect of drugs in:
a) youth health situation,
b) How to protect themselves from being dependent of drugs,
Reaffirms the importance fighting against the whitening drug money,
1. Deplores world wide drug crisis in:
a) Afghanistan drug trafficking,
b) Mexican drug traffickers,
c) U.S drug traffickers,
2. Notes with deep concern the inability of governments to stop drug trafficking, which threats seriously Public Health over the world,
3. Encourages the support of media in this particular situation,
a) To enforce an anti- drug attitude,
b) To make notice to citizens about how harmful drug trafficking can be,
c) To eliminate drug trafficking and increase anti drug efforts,
4. Condemns vigorously the high production of drugs around the world,
5. Reaffirms: the responsibility of all the countries 1 and whitening money particularly the United States,
6. Asks: all drug trafficker, drug dealers and smugglers to be punished severely,
a) for breaking the law of the governments,
b) threatening the health and lives of the citizens,
c) to have a weaker society and security forces,
7. Requests all the states to take serious measures in the exchange of necessary information for stopping drugs and whitening money, responsibility of all the countries to put an end to drug trafficking
8 Encourages also the serious repercussion of the illegal production and drug trafficking on close neighbor and asks to reinforce the international cooperation with the help of neighbor states to make efforts in putting an end to this drug trafficking,
9. Resolves the donations to the UNODCCP,
a) the donations are used to decrease the amount of drug trafficking in the world,
b) The donations should be taken from the UN budget (20/0) and rich, developed countries,
c) These donations will eliminate the amount of drug trafficking in the world,
10. Ask all countries to use the death penalty as a law enforced, it will be the punishment for drug dealers and jail fur drug smugglers and drug abusers, the judge determines (the amount of time stayed in prison) that the established laws above are only done when,
a) the drug dealer, smuggler or abusers was caught red handed and is found guilty after trial,
b) any one caught with more than a personal need amount of drugs is a drug dealer and must be killed,
c) the government and people must cooperate together to enforce this law,
d) Any palace that sells or buys drugs is considered an enemy and must be closed immediately and all people working in the current place must be punished,
12. Reaffirms all drug dealers, smugglers, traffickers are extreme criminals and must be punished severely,
13-Encourages that the UN should adopt and reinforce this law for- it provided a sufficient mean to resolve this problem,
Delegate: The Islamic Republic of Iran
Honorable chair, fellow delegates, helpful administrative staff and distinguished guests...good afternoon, Assalam Alaikom. The Islamic Republic of Iran would like to welcome all nations present today, and applaud them for their grave concern and sympathy for the attempts to solve the world's most important issues that are presented on the table today.
The Islamic republic of Iran emphasizes the importance of cooperation and negotiation in order to reach a reasonable solution to all issuesbeing discussed today. Furthermore, the Islamic Republic of Iran wishes to remind all nations about of the severe problems that result because of drug trafficking, and urges all nations to cooperate to find a workable solution to this world wide, nation destroying issue.
I yield the floor to the chair...