Mexico

Student: Zooman Al Mesbah

Event: Pearl-MUN 2001



 

Links to other sites on the Web:

Back to the 2000-2001 Team page
Back to the Briefing Book Library
Back to Teams
Back to Fruit Home

The Mexican National Anthem


HIMNO NACIONAL MEXICANO

Francisco Gonza'lez Bocanegra and Jaime Nuno'-

Mexicanos, al grito de guerra
El acero aprestad y el bridon;
y retiemble en sus centros la tierra
Al sonoro rugir del canon.

Cina -oh patria! tus sienes de olivo
De la Paz el arcangel divino,
Que en el cielo tu eterno destino
Por el dedo de Dios se escribio.
Mas si osare un extrano enemigo
Profanar con su planta tu suelo,
Piensa -oh patria querida! que el cielo
Un soldado en cada hijo te dio.
CORO

-Guerra, guerra sin tregua al que intente
De la patria manchar los blasones!
-Guerra, guerra! Los patrios pendones
En las olas de sangre empapad.
-Guerra, guerra! En el monte, en el valle
Los canones horrisonos truenen
Y los ecos sonoros resuenen
Con las voces de -Union! -Libertad!
CORO

Antes, patria, que inermes tus hijos
Bajo el yugo su cuello dobleguen,
Tus campinas con sangre se rieguen,
Sobre sangre se estampe su pie.
Y tus templos, palacios y torres
Se derrumben con horrido estruendo,
Y sus ruinas existan diciendo:
De mil heroes la patria aqui fue.
CORO

-Patria! -patria! Tus hijos te juran
Exhalar en tus aras su aliento,
Si el clarin con su belico acento
Los convoca a lidiar con valor.
-Para ti las guirnaldas de oliva!
-Un recuerdo para ellos de gloria!
-Un laurel para ti de victoria!
-Un sepulcro para ellos de honor!
CORO:

English:

CHORUS Mexicans, at the cry of battle
lend your swords and bridle;
and let the earth tremble at its center
upon the roar of the cannon.

Your forehead shall be girded, oh fatherland, with olive garlands
by the divine archangel of peace,
For in heaven your eternal destiny
has been written by the hand of God.
But should a foreign enemy
Profane your land with his sole,
Think, beloved fatherland, that heaven
gave you a soldier in each son.
CHORUS

War, war without truce against who would attempt
to blemish the honor of the fatherland!
War, war! The patriotic banners
saturate in waves of blood.
War, war! On the mount, in the vale
The terrifying cannon thunder
and the echoes nobly resound
to the cries of union! liberty!
CHORUS

Fatherland, before your children become unarmed
Beneath the yoke their necks in sway,
May your countryside be watered with blood,
On blood their feet trample.
And may your temples, palaces and towers
crumble in horrid crash,
and their ruins exist saying:
The fatherland was made of one thousand heroes here.
CHORUS

Fatherland, fatherland, your children swear
to exhale their breath in your cause,
If the bugle in its belligerent tone
should call upon them to struggle with bravery.
For you the olive garlands!
For them a memory of glory!
For you a laurel of victory!
For them a tomb of honor!

Mexico




Country Profile

 

Political Structure

Mexico's legal system is a mixture of US constitutional theory and civil system. The branches of the legal system in Mexico are:

1. Executive: It's made of the chief of the state and head of the government.

Note: The president Vicente Fox Quesada is both the head of the state and head of the government.

2. Legislative: It's bicameral. The National Congress consists of the senate. (128 seats; half are elected by popular votes to serve six years terms, and half are allocated on the basis of each party's popular vote). The Federal Chamber of Deputies. (500 seats; 300 members are directly elected by popular vote to serve three years terms; remaining 200 are allocated on the basis of each party's popular vote, also for three years terms). Note: It's running like this to give seats for the small parties.

3. Judicial: The president with consent of the state appoints Supreme Court judges. Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory (but not forced). The president serves for 6 years. The president can give any idea and the Legislative branch can decide. Mexico is partly a free country. We can say that the Legislative branch is the main power. It can agree on the president's wants or not.

Natural Resources

Mexico has energy resources like: petroleum, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas and timber. Mexico is the most country that produce silver in the world.

Mexico has a lot of agriculture products. Mexico can feed its population because they get things from agriculture like: corn, wheat, soybeans, rice, beans, cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes. Mexico has also diary products and wood products. Mexico is one of the most countries in the world that produce oil.

Cultural Factors

More than 100 millions live in Mexico. Almost all of the Mexicans speak Spanish. 89% of Mexico's population are Roman Catholic, 6% are Protestant and the rest are from different types of religions. There are different types of Ethnic groups in Mexico. Mestizos (Amerindian-Spanish) are 60% of Mexico's population. Amerindians or predominantly Amerindians are 30% of the population. White people are 9% of the population and the left 1% percent is other ethnic groups. These people live together without big problems currently and they share the same benefits and side effects.

There were some problems between Native Americans (Amerindians or predominantly Amerindians) and National Liberation Army in the year 1994. There wasn't any democratic change against these people. There was discrimination against them.

Defense

The Mexican armed forces is organized into three major branches: the army, which has approximately 130,000 troops, and the navy and air force, which together account for about 45,000 men and women. Mexico's military, measured in terms of the percentage of economic resources allocated per capita, is one of the smallest in the world. Mexico uses its troops to stop the drugs for entering the country, and it's the main use for Mexico's armed forces. Mexico can defend itself, because of the US, which tries recently to help Mexico in many ways. Note: Military age: 18 years old. Note: Starting of year 2000 women can volunteer for the army force.

 

Geography

Mexico is located in Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, between Belize and the US and bordering the North Pacific Ocean between Guatemala and the US. Mexico is slightly less than three times the size of Texas. Mexico's area is 1,972,550-km. 49,510 km are water. Guatemala is also a neighbor for Mexico. Mexico's climate varies from tropical to desert. The elevation has effects on the climate, because there are a lot of mountains in Mexico in different regions. Mexico's location is strategic on the southern border of the US.


Economy

Mexico has debts evaluated of 155.8 billion dollars. Although of the debts Mexico has a lot of things it makes like: food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables and tourism. The US is the major imports and exports partner with Mexico along Canada, Japan, South Korea, Brazil, Chile, Italy and Germany.

NAFTA had a great effect on Mexico's economy. NAFTA is an organization consists of the US and Canada with Mexico. NAFTA made the US and Canada the main imports and exports partners with Mexico. NAFTA did a lot of good things to Mexico, which increased the imports and exports of Mexico. Although NAFTA worked well, in 1994 when the contract was signed the currency fall down. But in the year 1997 the peso went up this shows that the peso isn't stable.


History

Highly advanced cultures, including those of the Olmecs, Mayas, Toltecs, and Aztecs existed long before the Spanish conquest. Hernando Cortes conquered Mexico during the period 1519-21 and founded a Spanish colony that lasted nearly 300 years. Independence from Spain was proclaimed by Father Miguel Hidalgo on September 16, 1810; this launched a war for independence. An 1821 treaty recognized Mexican independence from Spain and called for a constitutional monarchy. The planned monarchy failed; a republic was proclaimed in December 1822 and established in 1824.

Prominent figures in Mexico's war for independence were Father Jose Maria Morelos; Gen. Augustin de Iturbide, who defeated the Spaniards and ruled as Mexican emperor from 1822-23; and Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Ana, who went on to control Mexican politics from 1833 to 1855. Santa Ana was Mexico's leader during the conflict with Texas, which declared itself independent from Mexico in 1836, and during Mexico's war with the United States (1846-48). The presidential terms of Benito Juarez (1858-71) were interrupted by the Hapsburg monarchy's rule of Mexico (1864-67). Archduke Maximilian of Austria, whom Napoleon III of France established as Emperor of Mexico, was deposed by Juarez and executed in 1867. Gen. Porfirio Diaz was president during most of the period between 1877 and 1911.

Mexico's severe social and economic problems erupted in a revolution that lasted from 1910-20 and gave rise to the 1917 constitution. Prominent leaders in this period--some of whom were rivals for power were Francisco I. Madero, Venustiano Carranza, Pancho Villa, Alvaro Obregon, Victoriano Huerta, and Emiliano Zapata. The Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), formed in 1929 under a different name, continues to be the most important political force in the nation. It emerged as a coalition of interests after the chaos of the revolution as a vehicle for keeping political competition in peaceful channels. For almost 70 years, Mexico's national government has been controlled by the PRI, which has won every presidential race and most gubernatorial races.

But in the last elections it was marked the first time since the 1910 Mexican Revolution that the opposition defeated the party in the government. So every thing changed after the last elections.

 

View on World Problems

Mexico doesn't have problems with any country. The US is a very good friend for Mexico and a lot of things happened between the countries like letting it easier to move between the two countries on land. Mexico and the US have the same policy towards Cuba, but they don't agree on tactics to reach the same goal. There are some problems between the US and Mexico about the borders. But there aren't any big problems.

There is only the drug problem that is causing problems for Mexico infant of other countries of Central America. There is also Money Laundering that goes to other countries of Central America. The money goes from drug dealers from Mexico. This thing causes problems for Mexico, because it tries very hard to stop money laundering.

Mexico joins a lot of organizations like: OPEC, GATT, APEC, OECD, WTO, And the most important organization NAFTA, which all the countries which to enter an organization like NAFTA.

 

 

Policy Statements

1. Crime prevention and criminal justice.

Crime is an offense for which there is punishment by law. Mexico thinks that there are a lot of people that must be punished because of offenses they did. Mexico thinks that poverty is the main cause of crimes in the world, after taking a look on the world you will find in poor countries crimes. The need of money is the main cause of most of the crimes in Mexico and other poor countries.

Mexico thinks that by giving money to poor countries, and improving the criminal justice in the entire world by making strict laws on criminals will eliminate the criminals. Mexico thinks that it's hard for each country to solve the crime's issue until the UN work together in a better way. Mexico thinks that this is the best way to prevent crimes and improve the criminal justice.

2. Improving the financial situation of the UN.

Mexico believes that some rich countries are the only countries pay for the UN. Mexico thanks these countries for all the efforts it do for the improvement of the UN. Mexico thinks that it's hard for the poor countries to pay for the UN. Mexico thinks that there are other ways, which poor countries can help the UN in.

The help from the rich countries is needed today more than tomorrow. Tomorrow things will be worse in poor countries because of the growth of population. Mexico thinks that it's harder for the UN to solve the problems later if it doesn't solve the problems now. The financial situation will not be capable in the future to solve the growth of problems. Mexico asks the UN and specially the rich countries to solve the problems today, because things will be worse tomorrow.

3- Taking effective measures to eliminate racism, racial discrimination, and xenophobia.

Mexico thinks that racism, racial discrimination, and xenophobia are found everywhere also in the rich countries. Mexico thinks that these problems can be solved if each country's government work together with the UN. These problems can be solved within the country, in Mexico's thinking. Mexico thinks that these problems can be found anywhere and everywhere.

Mexico thinks that giving every race part of the community is the main solution for these problems, like what happened in Mexico after 1994. All the races must be treated the same with having the same rights. Mexico like to inform all the countries that these problems can be solved with the help of other countries experiences in other issues like that. Mexico thinks that these problems must be solved in all of the countries.

4- Drug control and rehabilitation programs.

Mexico thinks that the drugs issue is the most issue concerning it currently. Drugs are used for pleasure or to remove pain and anxiety, but the problem is that many people are using the drugs in a wrong way. Mexico thinks that the entire world must work together to solve this social, economic and political problem. Drugs are causing a lot of problems on the community and governments of countries.

Mexico thinks that rich countries and poor countries must work together to solve this problem. The countries must increase the efforts on the borders to eliminate the concept of entering the drugs into a country. Countries must work to stop producing drugs in the gardens of each country. Mexico thinks that there must be contracts between neighbor countries to solve the drug issue. The drugs issue needs a lot of money and work form governments. Mexico works hard to eliminate the drugs on it lands.

 

Resolution

Forum: ECOSOC.

Question of: Drug control and rehabilitation programs.

Country: Mexico.

Defining drugs as substances that contain components, which effect the person, either in exhilarative way or the substance being analgesic.

Bearing in mind that the drugs cause a lot of side effects on the Mexican community.

Regarding the significance problem of drugs in Mexico the UN will try to go to great lengths to eliminate the drugs in Mexico.

Deeply concerned about the Mexicans that pass through a lot of problems because of drugs.

Noting that Mexico and other countries must cooperate together for the world's advantages.

Thanking all the organizations that work to prevent drugs in the world.

Specially thanking organizations that try to catch the drug smugglers like the Interpol.

Wishing that the goal of drug control and rehabilitation programs would work.

1. UN works hard to improve Mexico's military force to prevent the drugs from entering and getting out of Mexico.

2. UN helps Mexico by a large amount of money for a lot of different programs that will try to eliminate drugs. Programs are:

First: Educational programs

a) Make programs in schools to educate children about the side effects of drugs.

b) Increase the programs on the media to make the children know the importance of getting away of drugs.

c) Make programs on the media to let parents stay with their children to take care of them, and will make them solve their children's problems.

Second: Health programs

a) Build hospitals to help drug takers to stop.

b) Make organizations to help the drug takers in their life, and try to make them stop taking drugs.

Third: Community Programs

a) Try to build playgrounds for children with all the needed things like light to prevent the children from selling or taking drugs.

b) Force the parents to let their children go to study by making strict laws on the parents that force the children to work instead of learning.

3. UN encourages countries to make very strict laws on drug smugglers.

a) Execute the drug smuggler only and only if the amount of drugs is really big.

b) Other drug smugglers must stay in prison for long time and it depends on the amount of drugs they sell.

4. Encourage the citizens to help the UN and governments to prevent the drugs by:

a) Paying the people who work in organizations that work to prevent drugs and help drug takers.

b) Thanking the soldiers and policemen that catch drug smugglers by prizing them with big amounts of money.

5. The UN encourages neighbor countries to sign contracts for working together to improve the work of eliminating drugs. Things must be in the contracts like:

a) Cooperation on the borders of the countries to increase the quality of the inspection works.

b) Cooperation between countries without interfering about each country's policies.

c) Cooperation between the security authorities of all the countries.

6. The UN will make sure that all the clauses work without problems by making agencies in all the countries that need helps in the drug issue. People who work on these agencies must:

a) Be paid money from the UN.

b) Have experience in the administrative affairs.

c) Be neutral.

7. UN will not allow this clauses to continue unless the cooperation of the countries.

 

Opening Speech

Honorable delegates, distinguish chair.

From the Andes Mountains, from up high, Mexico sends its message. Across the Atlantic Ocean and other seas, Mexico wishes that the word enters your heart you feel it and think. Think about Aztecs that fall and other civilizations and think and think….

Don't forget to think about Mexico…Hear the story of Mexico…

Mexico is country that passes through a very significant social and economic problem. Mexico has an enemy, Mexico is in a war, with something that kills without mercy, with something asks for victims from all the ways and directions.

Ladies and Gentlemen hear and open your hearts. Mexico needs another hand, the hand of the world to help it against it enemy, drugs. Mexico stands here asking for the other hand to clap together and dance on the song of life without drugs.