Event: Pearl-MUN 2001
Student: Khaled Shahroor
The Federal Republic of Nigeria got its independence 10 years after it found the oil which was 1950 so they got independence in 1960. The Federal Republic of Nigeria shouldn’t have rally been called that seeing that it was not a republic at all, but it was in the hands of the military, and anything the military wanted had to happen so it was under a military rule, and it was not democratic yet. In 1978-1983 it tried to become a democratic republic but it failed since all what was expected went the other way around, and nothing good happened so it was given back to the military to take control of the situation. Again now in 1999-2000 it tried to become a democratic republic and till now everything is going as planed, and really smooth. Since the elections every country greeted Nigeria as a democratic republic, and not one under military orders. May 29th was the exact day the freedom of democracy was introduced to the Federal Republic of Nigeria, and from then all the people have had their freedom and been welcomed to the free world.
Nigeria has many natural resources they are very important for the trade of Nigeria because without them and especially petroleum Nigeria would be the poorest country in the world. Crude oil, coal, tin, columbite, palm oil, peanuts, cotton, rubber, wood, hides and skins, textiles, cement, construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, and steel. Nigeria also has agricultural products and they are cocoa, peanuts, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, timber, and fish are all natural resources found in Nigeria. If it wasn’t for the natural resources Nigeria would have no economy and since petroleum is 98% of its income money and the rest is crops so it really needs these natural resources.
Nigeria, which is one of the most populous countries in the whole of Africa, and to prove that it is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups, the following ethnic groups are the most populous and politically influential of all the ethnic groups in Nigeria, and they are:
1. Hausa and Fulani (29%)
2. Yoruba (21%)
3. Igbo or Ibo (18%)
4. Ijaw (10%)
5. Kunari (4%)
6. Ibibio (3.5%)
7. Tiv (2.5%)
Nigeria also is kind of religiously mixed it consists of:
1. Muslims (50%)
2. Christians (40%)
3. Indigenous beliefs (10%)
The ethnic groups in Nigeria get along well with each other, but the main fight is between the Muslims and the Christians who kill each other over nothing, this has put down from the countries place towards other countries. The main problem between the Muslims and the Christians is that they fight over the oil money, and over education. The ethnic groups as a total are over 250 groups but the seven main groups are nearly 88% of the whole population the rest of the groups (aprox. 243) are the 12% left of the population.
The main ethnic groups are the strongest ones, and no ethnic group in Nigeria is a mixed-religion ethnic group they are either Muslims, or Christians.
The Nigerian army is one of the countries most out-looked things. The Nigerian military consists of three branches which are the army, airforce, and the navy. The military in Nigeria is optional, and no one is forced to join them. The participation decreased since a new civil democratic republic appeared. The military consisted of 300,000 people at the end of the civil war, and all the way up-till 1997 it decreased and became 77,000 people in all three branches of the military in Nigeria. The Nigerian military then was not spread around equally as the numbers varied a-lot from each branch to another. The approximate numbers were as follows:
? Army: 62,000 troops
? Airforce: 9,500 troops
? Navy: 5,500 troops
Nigeria has a defense academy located somewhere in a place called Kaduna. The cooperation between the UN and Nigeria is mainly because of the participation in the peacekeeping operations.
Nigeria is one of the most strongest countries in Africa and it can overcome any country trying to attack it, and due to a good army it can defend itself perfectly. Nigeria also has a good military put together and it has much more personnel than the personnel of the other countries in Africa and therefore it can attack any country in Africa. If Nigeria wants to attack a strong country it will have much problems, and if a strong country attacks it its defense wont be so good, and that tells us that all the weak countries can be attacked, and all the attacks by the weak countries can be defended but if it is a big and strong country it will have some problems.
Nigeria is a country located in North Africa, and its bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon. The full area of Nigeria is 923,768 sq km, the are of the land is 910,768 sq km, and the area of the water is 13,000 sq km. Nigeria’s land bounderies as a total are 4,047 km, and it’s country borders are as follow:
Benin 773 km
Chad 87 km
Niger 1,497 km
It also has a coastline border, which is 853 km in total.
Nigeria has many natural resources which are petroleum, tin, colombite, iron ore, coal, limestone, lead, zinc, natural gas, hydropower, and arable land. Nigeria uses its land differently. 33% of the land is arable land, 3% of the land is used for permanent crops, 44% of the land is used for permanent pastures, 12% of the land is forest, and woodlands and 8% of the land is used for other types of stuff. Nigeria suffers only from one main natural hazard, which is periodic draughts.
Views on world problems:
Nigeria has participated in many peacekeeping operations with the United Nations, and it has also provided many soldiers to go there and help in these operations. It joined the West African peacekeeping force in Liberia (1990) and in Sierra Leone (1997). In 1960 Nigeria joined the UN right after its independence in 1960. It also joined the BCN, which is the British Commonwealth of Nations, and got suspended for a time period of 4 years between 1995 till 1999. Nigeria recently has stronger relationships with the UN and the BCN and the relationships are still getting stronger. Nigeria is also a member of the OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries since its main source of income is petroleum. Nigeria is also a member of all the following organizations:
ûWTO (world trade organization)
ûIMF (international monetary fund)
ûNAM (non aligned movement)
ûOAU (organization of African unity)
ûECOWAS (economic community of West African states)
ûADB (African development bank)
ûLake Chad basin commission
Nigeria is a member of all these big organizations especially in Africa because it is a country, which is rich (to the African countries) and has to handle a really large number of people living in it.
Nigeria has many neighbors, which are:
Nigeria has good relations with all these countries which are on its border except one which is Benin, and that is due to some violent fights between the governments and the people of the two countries. Nigeria is a peacekeeper and doesn’t like wars or violence and it has joined in all the peacekeeping missions for the UN.
Nigeria’s relationship with the U.S.A are strong, and the U.S.A under no sercumstances will attack Nigeria, and that is due to Nigeria’s trade to the US which is mainly oil, and the US really needs that oil, and due to that the US is an ally to Nigeria, and would help n the military problems, and in all its problems. Another reason bout the good relations between the US and Nigeria is that most of Nigeria’s population is black and if the US puts any sanctions on Nigeria it would be considered as racism and it would be said that the US congress as a whole is racist.
Nigeria is a main producer of oil, and oil products. Nigeria depends nearly entirely on oil, 20% of its GDP 95% of its foreign exchange, and 65% of budgetary revenues. Nigeria though has a rising GDP it has risen by 2.7%. the GDP composition for Nigeria is 33% from agriculture, 42% from industries, and 25% from its services. Nigeria has many industries and they are crude oil, coal, tin, columbite, palm oil, peanuts, cotton, rubber, wood, hides and skins, textiles, cement, construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, and steel. Nigeria also has agricultural products and they are cocoa, peanuts, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, timber, and fish. Nigeria has $13.1 billion as export money, and this is mainly of petroleum, and petroleum products, which represent 95% of Nigeria’s, export money. Nigeria has many export partners the are:
1. U.S.A (37%)
2. Spain (11%)
3. India (9%)
4. France (6%)
5. Italy (4%)
6. Other countries (35%)
Nigeria that used to export food now has to import it as one of its imports. Nigeria has $10 billion put in for imports from other countries. Nigeria imports many things of which some are machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, and live animals. Nigeria has import relations with many countries, but the leading ones in their import are:
1. U.K (13%)
2. U.S.A (12%)
3. Germany (10%)
4. France (9%)
5. Netherlands (8%)
6. Other countries (48%)
Nigeria is also in debt and that debt is $29 billion (1999) and now is $32 billion (2000), so Nigeria’s debt is increasing, and not only that since the price of the oil is dropping again its GDP is decreasing, Nigeria though has enough money to pay of the debts write now Nigeria has paid off $7 billion and they are only using 25% of their money. The GDP till now is increasing but dropped from a 2.7% increase to a 2.3% increase but if Nigeria pays off more than one quarter the debt would get paid off faster. Nigeria though cant pay the interest because it is already in trouble and cant afford to pay off more money that it is already paying. Nigeria mostly owes its money to the U.S.A and the U.K and France who have all given it loans for billions. The GDP for Nigeria is $30 billion and $250 per capita, and if they pay half the money they get the debt would be over in just about 2 years and half seeing it takes no more money but if it still pays quarter of the money it gets it would be over in about 4 and a half years providing no money is taken.
Nigeria before the British rule was the wealthiest and strongest and richest country in most of Africa. Of-course that was due to the friendship and the nobility between the Muslims and the Christians. Another reason that Nigeria was well ruled, and had a good reputation was that its government was strong, and took care of all Nigeria’s problems. Nigeria then was well dependent on itself and only imported really crucial things. Nigeria then also had a good economy but it started to drop slowly after the oil was found.
Nigeria then was taken by the British, and the British ruled everything but only in the southern part of Nigeria were the Christians lived, and the British left the Muslims all alone. The Muslims got angry then because all the education was going only towards the Christians who were only 25% of the country, and then the problem between the Muslims and the Christians started. The Christians would kill the Muslims, and vice versa and all the trouble spread out in the land.
Nigeria then was left by the British and the problems still remained, and to make things worse the oil was found in the Christian land, and all the money went to the Christians, the Muslims then had a bigger problem and the killing rate rose rapidly.
Nigeria till now has this problem because in their law-book it says that no Muslim is to become a Christian, and that all Muslims should remain un-educated.
Another happening that happened to Nigeria was between the years 1978 and 1983 when the elections were preformed. The parties really wanted to get the presidency because if they did the oil prices were high and that would help them in economically improving the country. Unfortunately the president then got a blow back the oil prices drooped and the debt of the country rose a-lot nearly to $13 billion and this affected the country very much. Not only that but the party members also had fights since they all knew that the winning party could steel money from the oil money and that had made all parties want to win.
Another thing is the Nigerian Labor Congress, which had already held a general strike to protest the annulled election of Abiola, organized another general strike to protest Abacha's coup. Political pressure groups such as the Campaign for Democracy also stepped up protests against Abacha. In May 1994 the government announced plans for political reform and held elections for local governments and delegates to yet another constitutional conference. In October 1995 Abacha lifted the ban on political activity, and promised a transfer to civilian power in 1998. The government dubiously accused the activists of murdering government supporters, gave them a hasty, unfair trial, and executed them. The Abacha government imprisoned many people, among the most prominent being former President Olusegun Obasanjo, former vice-president Shehu Musa Yar'Adua (who died in prison in December 1997), and the 1993 president-elect Moshood Abiola. The execution and imprisonment of opponents and other violations of human rights intensified international pressure on Abacha and resulted in Nigeria's suspension from the British Commonwealth of Nations. The president till now, and till the year 2002 will be Olusegun Obasanjo who was elected in 1997 and the presidency is 5 years in Nigeria.
The Policy Statements:
Issue no.1: Crime prevention and criminal justice.
Nigeria is aware of the crime it has in it as a country, and knows hat crime can really tear a country apart. Crime in Nigeria is threatening, and it is a brutal way of crime. Nigeria, though, has put measures against crime, and just for example it is adding 40,000 police officers every year for the next three years, and it is also raising their salary, so this would give more awareness to crimes and crimes have already decreased (said by the president). Nigeria also supports the fact that each country is responsible for punishing its own criminals, and does not call upon any organization to help them in doing that.
Nigeria is also aware that the international case of crime is getting better. Each and every country has put measures to stop crime, and all the countries have increased the punishment of crime. Nigeria would like to state some so far working suggestions, and they are to increase policemen’s salary, and increase the policemen themselves.
Issue no.2: Improving the financial situation of the UN.
Nigeria is well aware of the UN’s financial problem, and knows how severely bad the UN’s income is. Nigeria is part of the UN, and has paid all the money it is supposed to give the UN on time, and without delay. Nigeria once tried to raise the money they paid to their fellow countries that they are in debt to, and to the UN, but the whole plan backfired, and left the country in a big loss of money. Nigeria in its own opinion is paying what it can to the UN, and isn’t delaying the payment at all. Nigeria hopes that the financial situation will improve in the UN.
Nigeria also knows that some other countries are paying their money on time, and also knows that some other countries delay the payment of money until they get what they want, and this goes especially to the rich countries. Nigeria knows that most of the world is trying to help the UN’s financial situation, and it knows that a-lot of countries are raising their payments to the UN. Nigeria would like to suggest that all countries that don’t pay the UN on time should be punished, if it was because they wanted something and wouldn’t pay until they got that thing. Nigeria would suggest that all countries no matter whom should pay their payments on time, and without delay.
Issue no.3: Taking effective measures to eliminate Racism, Discrimination, and Xenophobia.
Racism, discrimination, and xenophobia are present, and active in Nigeria. They have the most affect on Nigeria, and on Nigeria’s people. Nigeria has tried approaching these problems in several ways. Nigeria has put more policemen on the force, and it has also increased the punishment on racists, and all the people who follow these beliefs. Nigeria would really like to solve these problems, and so far each plan has backfired. Nigeria would like to suggest a solution to this problem, and it is that any racist that has anything o do with killing someone is killed, and the others who don’t have anything to do with killing are put in jail.
Nigeria is also aware that the whole world is suffering from these reasons, and especially Africa. In Africa black have their own part of the country, and the white people have their own part as well, or Muslims have their own part, and Christians have their own one too, or even ethnic groups have there own part of the country. Nigeria is also aware that this is present in the west of the word, and that it causes big problems their too. Nigeria suggests only two things, which are death to those racists who kill, and imprisonment to those who believe in these things.
Issue no.4: Drug control and rehabilitation programs.
Nigeria really suffers from drugs, and it is not only known for taking drugs, but it is also known for growing drugs on trees. Drugs have become a problem in Nigeria, and not only do they cause killing people because of how drug addicts act, but it also causes AIDS which also troubles most of Africa, and especially Nigeria. Nigeria has tried to stop all this drug abuse, but all its plans backfired, or just pulled out at a certain time. Nigeria has modernly put more cops on the force, and hopes that that could decrease drugs on the streets.
Nigeria is also well aware of drugs, and its rapid ‘spread around’ in the world, and is also aware of the entire problem it causes. Drugs are an international problem, and therefore it calls for an international solution. Nigeria would congratulate Mexico, and the US for getting rid of a large amount of drug traffickers, and a large amount of drugs, but this doesn’t solve the problem. The world needs o co-operate on this case especially so that it can get rid of drugs once and for all.
Delegate: Khalid Shahroor
Question of: crime and criminal justice
Welcomes all the countries who are here today and are taking part,
Reminds all the countries of how serious a problem crime has become, and how it affects the people and countries in only bad ways,
Bearing in mind that crime has become the most fatal illegal ‘thing’ carried out by people, and all the criminals,
Points out that all countries should cooperate to get rid of crime and criminals by starting to put measures on crime but only within their boundaries and not any other countries territory,
1. Calls upon the ICJ and Interpole to take better measures towards crime by:
One. taking better measures towards crime,
Two. putting more effort into their investigations about criminals,
Three. being serious and realistic towards crime and what it has become,
2. Requests the richer and the more advanced countries to help the poorer countries and the UN so that measures against crime can be put and the countries could offer help by:
One. putting a 2% tariff on the rich countries that will be collected by the countries themselves,
Two. collecting donations from people, businesses, organizations, or even countries that wish to help in getting rid of crime by giving money to either:
- the UN and its organizations against crime,
- the poor countries who need money to put affective measures,
Three. putting the debt on hold so that the poor countries who owe debt can use the debt money to put measures against crime and criminals and after the countries are stable the debt would start getting paid back as usual,
3. Further requests that the poor countries that have a high crime rate start putting measures with their own money and then they will be paid back by either:
One. the 2% tariff on the rich countries
Two. the donations given by the people, businesses, organizations, or the countries,
4. Suggests that the countries with a high crime rate should start collecting volunteers to help the police by:
One. giving rewards on the criminals heads,
Two. raising the salaries of the policemen and giving the volunteers money,
5. Encourages all the courts in the world and especially in the high rate crime countries to give harsh and severe punishments so that:
One. all criminals realize how serious crime is of an issue,
Two. criminals get scared and that might stop them from being criminals,
Three. they give a warning that no matter who is caught doing a crime will be severely punished,
6. Urges all the countries to forgive criminals who give themselves in because that will:
One. Make criminals surrender and not be criminals because they are scared of the severe punishment,
Two. Lessen crime rate since any criminal would rather be forgiven that punished,
7. Assures all the rich countries that their money would be returned by:
One. the money returned by the criminals after giving themselves in
Two. the leftover money from the:
- donations given by people, businesses, organizations, or other countries,
8. Asks all the countries to vote for this resolution because it:
One. clearly solves the crime problem and lessens it,
Two. nearly doesn’t use any money since the money will be returned to the rich countries.
The Opening Speech:
My fellow delegates, and the honorable chair good morning/afternoon/night. Nigeria is standing in front of you for one reason and one reason alone, and that is to cooperate for a better and more safe future, and present.
Nigeria that was overruled by military, and had no democracy is standing here right now overwhelmed by what it has become, a democratic republic. Nigeria is proud, and happy for what it has become and hopes that this democratic rule could help it face its troubles, and its problems. This democratic republic would never be what it is now if it wasn’t for the cooperation and effort people put in it, and Nigeria hopes that countries here could cooperate to solve theses issues for a better world, and a safer one.