Country: Norway, ECOSOC
Event: Pearl-MUN 2001
Student: Mohammad Al Essa
The recent president of Norway is Chandrika Kumaratunaga, he was elected in1998 and he is still in his office. Every five years, the people of Norway choose their own president a country where democracy reigns. Norway is a hereditary legal kingdom, with a Constitution that was drafted in 1814. It gives broad powers to the king, but the council of ministers, headed by the prime minister, generally exercises this power as king in council. The 165 members of the parliament are elected for a fixed term of 4 years by all Norwegians 18 years of age or older. The government is divides into three branches - executive, legislative, and judicial. Ruler usually appoints leader of strongest political party or coalition, a coalition is a group of parties, in parliament to be prime minister. Monarch appoints other government officials like judges and county governors with advice from Cabinet. Norway has a government official called Ombudsman: he investigates complaints by citizens against the government's actions or decisions.
There are a lot of parties in Norway: Labor Party, Center Party, Conservative Party, Christian People's Party, Socialist Left Party, Progress Party, Liberal Party, and a small percentage of other parties. Seats by parties consist of: Labor Party 65, Center Party 11, Conservative Party 23, Christian People's Party 25, Socialist Left Party 9, Progress Party 25, Liberal Party 6, and other minimal parties.
Political parties and leaders: Center Party [Johan J. JAKOBSEN]; Christian People's Party [Valgerd HAUGLAND]; Conservative Party [Jan PETERSEN]; Labor Party [Thorbjorn JAGLAND]; Liberal Party [Lars SPONHEIM]; Norwegian Communist Party [Kare Andre NILSEN]; Progress Party [Carl I. HAGEN]; Red Electoral Alliance [Erling FOLKVORD]; Socialist Left Party [Kristin HALVORSEN]
In the past, the two main natural resources in Norway were petroleum and natural gas, both originating from the North Sea. Norway is the world's second-largest oil exporter and provides about 40% of Western Europe's crude oil requirements and 20% of its gas requirements. In 1997, Norwegian oil and gas exports accounted for 48% of total merchandise exports. In addition, offshore exploration and production have stimulated onshore economic activities. Foreign companies, including many American ones, participate actively in the petroleum sector.
As Norway was advancing, more natural resources have been found. Some of the natural resources that are have been uncovered and located are pyrites, nickel, iron ore, zinc, lead, fish, timber, hydropower and copper. Since Norway’s development, the current resources have replaced the two older resources.
Norway, located in Northern Europe, has more than one language. The Languages of the kingdom are divided into three forms. The first, and most widely used is the Bookmel: the book language, in which 80% of school children use. The second language is the Nynorsk, the New Norse, which is used by 20% of the children in school. The last is the Saami, spoken only in the north side of Norway. About 89% of the people believe in the Evangelical Lutheran church of Norway, the church that is supported by the states, while the other 11% believe in Pentecostal, and other Protestant Denominations.
Norway is an independent free country. The capital of Norway is Oslo, which is the largest city that constitutes the most population of 483,401 out of 4,455,707 population of Norway. Norway is a rich country that represents rich folks; its population is primarily Germanic. The largest ethnic minorities are S?mi (Lapps) living Northern Norway (Finnmark) who number about 20,000 a few thousand Norwegian Finns (Kvens) lives in northern Norway. Norwegian is a Germanic language developed from the Old Norse spoken in the Viking age; it is closely related to both Danish and Swedish. Norway has hundreds of dialects of spoken Norwegian.
In Norway there are ethnic groups and they go along well, the largest ethnic minorities are S?mi, living Northern Norway (Finnmark) who number about 20,000 a few thousand Norwegian Finns lives in northern Norway. Norwegian is a Germanic language developed from the Old Norse spoken in the Viking age; it is closely related to both Danish and Swedish.
The king is the commander of the armed forces, which total some 31,000 personnel. Conscription for 12 to 15 months is compulsory for all male citizens when they reach the age of 19, while women are given the option of participating in military training. A home guard, with a force of about 79,000, serves local areas. The defense of Norway is bound up with NATO, which the country joined in 1949. The most important objectives of the Norwegian Armed Forces is to maintain peace through preventive action and to secure the freedom of the government to defend the rights and interests of the Norwegian people in times of peace. Norway is not 100% capable of defending herself, she might be 85% to 90% ready, and Norway does not have all the weapons to defend them in a secret attack, well if they inform them prior they would ask a friend to help them in their attack or they would buy from them some weapons.
Norway is a kingdom that shares its border with 80% of seas. Norway shares it border with Barents Sea and an arm of the Atlantic Ocean and that’s from the north. From the Northeast it shares its border with Finland and Russia. And from the south side it shares it border with Skagerrak strait and the North Sea. And from the West it shares its border with The Atlantic Ocean. Most of Norway is land that covers 307,860 sq km and the rest is water that covers the space of 16,360 sq km, over all Norway land and water covers the space of 324,220 sq km. The lowest point at Norway is the Norwegian Sea that is 0 m, while the highest point is Galdhopiggeh that is around 2,469 m.
About two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much indented coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in North Atlantic; one of most rugged and longest coastlines in world; Norway is the only NATO member having a land boundary with Russia.
View on World Problem:
Norway is a country that belongs to the NATO organization. Although it is a friendly country, it still has some enemies. Norway’s friends include the United Kingdom, Germany, Netherlands, Sweden, France, and last but not least the United States. Norway’s enemies include Austria-Hungary and Serbia, which they fought against inWorld War II. Norway supports international cooperation and the peaceful settlement of disputes, recognizing the need for maintaining a strong national defense through collective security. Accordingly, the cornerstones of Norwegian policy are active membership in NATO and support for the United Nations and its specialized agencies. Norway also pursues a policy of economic, social, and cultural cooperation with other Nordic countries -- Denmark, Sweden, Finland, and Iceland -- through the Nordic Council. On January 1, 1999, Foreign Minister Knut Vollebaek became Chairman In Office of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe.
In addition to strengthening traditional ties with developed countries, Norway seeks to build friendly relations with developing countries and has undertaken humanitarian and development aid efforts with selected African and Asian nations. Norway also is dedicated to encouraging democracy, assisting refugees, and protecting human rights throughout the world.
The United States and Norway enjoy a long tradition of friendly association. The relationship is strengthened by the millions of Norwegian-Americans in the United States and by about 10,000 U.S. citizens who reside in Norway. The two countries enjoy an active cultural exchange, both officially and privately.
The economy of Norway is based exclusively on oil and international oil prices; Norway is the second country that exports oil after Saudi Arabia. Growth was a meager 0.8% in 1999 because of weak private use and weak investment activity in the oil and other sectors. Growth should pick up in 2000, perhaps to 2.7%. Notwithstanding their high per capital income and generous interests profit, Norwegians worry about that time in the next 20 years when the oil and gas begin to run out.
Although the Norwegian economy is based on free business organization, the government regulates a large amount of supervision and control. The country’s large trade task remains of great importance to the economy. The 20th century has been a period of great industrial development for Norway, based primarily on general and reasonably priced energy from hydroelectric power resources. The country has one of the highest standards of living in the world; the estimated gross house product per capita in 1998 was about US$32,920. The national budget in 1997 showed US$66,284 million in profits and US$54,760 million in costs. Because of the mountainous land and poor soils, less than 3 per cent of the total land area is refined. In 1998, exports were valued at about US$39,645 million, and imports at US$ 36,193 million. Norway’s three most important trading partners are the United Kingdom (which takes about 20 per cent of all exports) Sweden, and Germany. Other important trade partners include the United States, Denmark, and the Netherlands.
Paleolithic culture original from western and central Europe populated Norway as early as 14,000 years ago. Later farmers from Denmark and Sweden moved in the area. The farmers spoke a Germanic language, and new arrivals made their homes on the shores of the large lakes and fishing. By the time of the first previous records of Scandinavia, about the 8th century AD, small kingdoms existed in Norway.
The kings gave full attention to the sea, seeing it as the easiest way to communication with the outside world. Around AD 875 they well knew the settlement in Ireland, Britain, and Iceland and in the Orkney, Faroe, and Shetland islands. Symbol in the 9th century, the first successful attempt to form a united Norwegian kingdom was made by King Harold. Harold died in the year of 940; his son (Eric blood axe) took over his place as a king. In addition, the Danish and Swedish kings were trying to take over the Norwegian kingdom. Before his taking over, Olaf had lived in England. Previously, Norway was divided into two separate lands, but was returned by Olaf II who made himself King in 1015. Norway became a state of Denmark, and Lutheranism became its official religion.
The Black Death, the infection that had swept through Norway and the rest of Europe in the 14th century, killing up to one third of the population, compounded the country’s refuse. Sweden and Denmark were considered larger than Norway. During the following four centuries, Norway remained dull under the logical rule of Danish officials. Norwegian folktales and folk songs were collected and arranged and became very popular. King Oscar was forced to give up in 1884. Then, the Norwegian policy centered on demands for a separate consular service and a Norwegian flag for some trades without the combination.
Viking Venture Norway is an organization, founded in 1995 by the county of Hedmark. They are specially made and comitted to offer assitance to investors, interested in investing and establishing business in the Hedmark region. Their assistance ranges from supplying information about the region, to offering comprehensive networks of contacts and business executives to interested partners and investors.
The base of Viking Venture Norway was a natural result of the investments placed in development of the county's communications prior to the 1994 Lillehammer Winter Olympics. These and later developments have rendered the region ideal for establishing new business, with new road and communication systems as well as the new Oslo International Airport at Gardermoen. Well-organized transportation and modern technology has simplified their task: to offer advantage for new business establishments in Hedmark.
Regardless of its neutrality, Norway was not able to avoid occupation by Germany in World War II. In 1949, neutrality was abandoned and Norway became a member of NATO. Discovery of oil and gas in neighboring waters in the late 1960s boosted Norway's economic fortunes. The current focus is on containing costs on the extensive interests system and planning for the time when petroleum reserves are used up. In referenda held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining the EU.
In Norway there are a lot of important issues, there are five issues and the significant issue is air pollution from vehicle emissions, know that Norway invented cars people there are using them a lot and when they drive it smoke comes out from the exause that causes people to breath bad and make a whole in the Ozone Layer, and it would affect the animals, birds to die, and there are many other things but these are the most important things that the air pollution from vehicle emissions would do to Norway.
Issue # 1: Racism and xenophobia:
Issue # 2: Drug control and Rehabilitation:
Norway has a small amount of drug addict compared to the population, and it’s starting to be a big problem, but Norway is trying to reduce the amounts that are taking drugs. The number of active injecting drug users is estimated to be 9-12 000 people out of a total population of about 4,2 millions. Norway tries to solve the problem of drug addiction by 1. Preventing it to occur, (information, border control, police activity, stimulating other leisure time activities) and 2. By providing treatment for those who need it to kick the habit. The consequences for a drug dealer, if caught by the police, may range from a rather large fine to a maximum prison sentence of up to 21 years, depending on the extent of the crime. The drugs stem from several countries, for example the Golden Triangle in Asia, from the Balkans, from South America, and some synthetic drugs are manufactures in Poland and the Netherlands.
Cannabis often arrives from the Middle East, but may also stem from the Netherlands. In short: The drugs may stem from anywhere.
Our programs for drug addicts are various: Mostly people are taken into long-term rehabilitation institutions, which aim at a drug-free life afterwards. But some programs also involve treatment with methadone or buprenorphine. The use, possession and trafficking in drugs are strictly forbidden. Those who violate these rules are punished. The people who import or distribute large quantities of drugs are harshly punished if detected. But Norway has a very long border and the border control is very difficult. Moreover it has a very long coastline, and has much ship traffic. It is therefore inevitable that some drugs arrive into the country all the time. The drug control then is a constant struggle to keep the import of drugs as low as possible.
Issue # 3: Improving financial situation of united nation:
Since 1945 few countries have matched Norway's trust and big savings in - not to mention general interest for - the world society, the UN. Whatever political shade Norwegian governments have had, the UN has always been a vital instrument of their overseas policy. After the Norwegian Minister of Native Dealings Trygve Lie became the UN's first Secretary-General in 1945, historians have said that Norwegian foreign policy was "as pro-American as it dared, as pro-Soviet as it had to be, and as pro-UN as it possibly could be."
In close support with the other Nordic countries, Norway has used the organization to advance our values and interests worldwide. In the UN the Nordic countries have been able to play a role, which is unequal to our share of the universal population. The Nordic countries have provided two of the organization’s seven secretary-generals and a number who have filled other input positions. A notable example is Norway's former nonprime minister, Gro Harlem Brundtland, who was elected to lead the World Health Organization in May 1998.
Throughout the history of the UN, the Nordic countries have been key contributors to the organization’s peacekeeping and development assistance activities, and have been instrumental in furthering human rights issues. Although three of the Nordic countries are EU members, the Nordic political leaders have resolved to maintain their regional profile in the UN.
Issue # 4: Crime prevention and criminal justice:
It is difficult to classify the Norwegian legal system exclusively by reference to the range of Ideal categories of legal systems, which are Commonly cited. This is because the Norwegian Legal system has largely been set up on a national Level. The Norwegian system is most similar to the legal systems of the other Nordic countries, particularly those of Denmark and Sweden. Norway does not have a general codification of private or public law matching to the Code Civil in civil law countries. Norwegian courts do not attach the same weight to legal precedents as members of the courts in common law countries traditionally have done. Neither is Norwegian courts bound by involved rules about the acceptability of evidence; the basic rule is that all evidence is allowable.
Delegate: Mohammed al Essa
Delegation: The Kingdom of Norway
Issue: Drug Control and Rehabilitation
Defining Drug as "a chemical substance that affects the central nervous system, causing changes in behavior and often addiction",
Considering the actions of a plan that can stop the spreading of drugs worldwide,
Believing that the only way for people to stop taking drugs is to aware them of the dangers of drugs,
Approving to stop the use of drugs universally,
Recognizing that drug addicts and trafficking are increasing,
Keeping in mind to stop drugs all-inclusive,
Having heard that drugs is being a significant problem,
Resolves that our best defense towards drugs is preventing the spread of drugs in the future,
1. Congratulates the efforts of many countries for trying to reduce the amounts of drugs;
2. Encourages countries to advise their people to discontinue taking drugs in various ways;
3. Draws the attention of the effects of taking drugs on:
C) Teenagers and adults,
4. Expresses Its Hopes that they would rather have their addict consume benzodiazepines (a kind of a drug pill) instead of injecting heroine due to the harm reduction that is caused by oral intake as opposed to intravenous intake;
5. Confirms that the consumption of drugs can lead to many diseases, few of which are:
C) Hepatitis B,
5. Regrets countries that do not recognize the problem of drugs worldwide;
6. Further resolves that the only way to stop the problem of drugs is from:
A) Preventing it to occur,
i. border control,
ii. police activity,
iii. stimulating other leisure time activities,
B) By providing special care rehabilitation centers,
7. Urges the UN to pass this resolution because of the increase of drugs and the knowledge that this resolution if passed will at the very least decrease the amount of drugs in the world.
Honorable chair, fellow delicates, and most distinguished guests, Norway would like to welcome all the fellow delegates here today to the general assembly meeting.
From the country of two-third mountains to the home land of the once great Vikings, the Kingdom of Norway welcome each delegate to this meeting to discuss the grave issue of drugs and drug rehabilitation programs.
Member states of the United Nations, we are gathered here today to discuss a drug that has rebelled; we are here to discuss the issue of "illegal" drugs. The Kingdom of Norway is a country that realizes that drugs equal disruption of country and instability, and Norway hopes that this instability will be fixed.
Done by: Norway\ Mohammed al Essa.