Country: Norway, Security Council
Event: Pearl-MUN 2001
Student: Sarah Al Dukair
Norway’s Country Profile
The Kingdom of Norway has a constitutional monarchy government. The functions of the King are mainly ceremonial, but he has influence as the symbol of national unity. Although in 1814 constitution grants important executive powers to the king, theses are almost always exercised by the Council of Ministers in the name of the King. The Council of Ministers consists of a Prime Minister who is chosen by the political parties represented in thee Storting and other ministers.
The Norwegian constitution is founded on three principles, which are the principle of the sovereignty of thee people, the principle on the separation of powers, and the principle of human rights. The constitution states that "The King himself chooses a Council from among Norwegian who are entitled to vote", but the principle of parliamentary rule has set precedence in the Norwegian political system. This means that in practice, the Storting has the authority over executive branch and that the government is accountable to the Storting and dependent on its confidence. The principle of parliamentary rule is not mentioned in the Constitution at all.
The chief of the state is King Harald V since the 17th of January 1991, head of government is Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg, and the monarch with the approval of the Parliament appoints the rest of the cabinet.
The Constitution of the Kingdom of Norway has been amended and some articles changed, but due to a constitutional conservation no major revision has taken place. The Constitution states that "The Executive power is vested in the King, or in the Queen". This is however not the case today. Due to parliamentarism the King does no longer have any real power, but the language of the Constitution has not been changed accordingly. Therefore, whenever it refers to the powers of the King the actual powers lies with the Government. The original language has been kept and is still is used whenever a change or amendment is made to the Constitution.
Natural resources in Norway helped its economy to grow rapidly. Norway's principal mineral resources are petroleum and natural gas, which are extracted from the vast reserves located along the continental shelf of the North Sea. Other mineral resources include modest amounts of iron ore, copper, zinc, and coal.
Agriculture accounts for 5% of annual GDP. Because of the mountainous terrain and poor soils, less than 3% of the total land area is cultivated. Grains are grown in the East Country. The West Country and North Norway specialize in livestock raising and dairy farming. The leading crops are potatoes, barley, oats, and wheat. Norway is self-sufficient in many agricultural products, but fruits, vegetables, and some grains must be imported.
The Norwegian forestry industry accounts for a relatively small proportion of Norway's yearly GDP and of the country's annual exports. Forestry is concentrated in the East and South countries, where 60 percent of the productive forestland is located.
The fishing industry provides nearly 7% of the total annual export revenue. Since the early 1970s, fish farming, particularly of salmon and sea trout, has been intensively developed by the government. Norway is one of the leading fishing nations in the world, accounting for more than 2 percent of the world's total catch, and the large fishing fleet has expanded its catch area to the banks of Newfoundland, Canada. The total yearly marine catch in the early is about 2.1 million metric tons. Important species caught include capelin, herring, mackerel, cod, sandeel, saithe, salmon, and prawns. Commercial whaling was banned in the late 1980s, although Norway continued to hunt small numbers of whales for scientific purposes. In 1993 commercial hunting of minke whales was resumed.
Before offshore drilling for petroleum began in the 1970s, mining was relatively unimportant in Norway. This sector now accounts for about 13% of GDP; the percentage in any given year depends on world petroleum prices. Petroleum production began on a trial basis in 1971. In 1974 a pipeline was completed to carry crude oil to Teesside, England. By the early 1990s the annual crude petroleum production was 827 million barrels; natural-gas production was about 27.7 billion cu m. Natural gas is piped to both Scotland and Germany. Other mineral products included iron ore, lead concentrates, titanium, iron pyrites, coal, zinc, and copper.
The population of Norway is ethnically homogenous. Norway is divided into several ethnic groups, which include, Nordics, Alpines, Baltics, Saami. The country also has a small number of Danes, Swedes, Britons, Pakistanis, Americans, and Iranians who live in Norway. In Norway, religions are so limited. The main religion belongs to the Evangelical Lutheran Church who make up 94% of the population. Other religions such as Pentecostal, Protestant, and Roman Catholic are considered a minority. Religious preferences tend to be nominal in Norway.
In Norway limited languages are spoken. The most language spoken is Norwegian which is divided into two forms. The two forms are officially recognized as equal. The older form, Bokmni is used by about 80 percent of children in schools, and 20 percent use Nynorsk. The Saami people in the north speak Saami, and English is also spoken by some of the Norwegians.
Norwegian Army, Royal Norwegian Navy that include Coast Artillery and Coast Guard, Royal Norwegian Air Force, and Home Guard are all part of Norway’s Military. There are 1,103,256 males between the age of 15-49 who are available for defense purposes, but only 915,949 are physically fit for military service. To be part of the Norwegian military the male has to be at the age of 20 or older, to give young men a chance to complete their education. All military expenditures are $3.113 billion per year. Although Norway has no enemies at the time being, they have a large amount of people ready for any surprise attack.
The Kingdom of Norway is located in Northern Europe occupying the western and northern portions of the Scandinavian Peninsula. Norway is bordered on the north by the Barents Sea, an arm of the Arctic Ocean, on the northeast by Finland and Russia, on the east by Sweden, on the south by Skagerrak Strait and the North Sea, and on the west by the Atlantic Ocean, which in Norway is also called the Norwegian Sea. The Norwegian coastline extends about 2740 km including all the fjords and offshore islands, the coastline totals about 21,200 km. The islands, known locally as the skerry guard, form a protected waterway along the coast. Norway has an area of 323,877 sq. km. Oslo is Norway's capital and largest city.
The climate in Norway depends on region. The northern part lies in the Arctic Circle. Along the northern coast rain falls as snow in winter. In the south the lowlands have dry warm summers but cold winters with severe frosts. Much of the interior of Norway is mountainous. The interior highlands have an arctic climate in winter with fine spells in summer combined with long hours of sunshine and relatively high temperatures. The coast of Norway is long and indented. The Atlantic coastal regions have mild winters due to the gulf stream. However in general gales, rain and cloud are dominant weather features. Overall the climate in Norway is changeable throughout the year.
The Norwegian economy is a prosperous bastion of welfare capitalism, featuring a combination of free market and government intervention. The government controls key areas, such as the vital petroleum sector, and extensively subsidizes agriculture, fishing, and areas with sparse resources. The extensive welfare system helps propel public sector expenditures to more than 50% of its GDP. Norway is one of the world’s richest countries. It has an important stake in promoting a liberal environment for foreign trade. Its large shipping fleet is one of the most modern among maritime nations. Metals, pulp and paper products, chemicals, shipbuilding, and fishing are the most significant traditional industries. Because of Norway’s great economy, Norway is under no external debt.
A major shipping nation, with a high dependence on international trade, Norway is basically an exporter of raw materials and semi-processed goods. The total amount of their exports per year is $47.3 billion, and they export petroleum, petroleum products, machinery and equipments, metals, chemicals, ships, and fish. Norway exports of thee EU (77%) from which they are, UK (17%), Germany (12%), Netherlands (10%), Sweden (10%), France (8%), and the US (7%). The total amount of their imports is $38.6 billion, and they import chemicals, metals, and foodstuffs. They import of the EU (69%), from which are Sweden (15%), Germany (14%), UK (10%), Denmark (7%), US (7%), and Japan (4%). Thee GDP of Norway is $151 billion.
Norway’s emergence as a major oil and gas producer in the mid-1970s transformed the economy. Large sums of investment capital poured into the offshore oil sector, leading to greater increases in Norwegian production costs and wages than in the rest of Western Europe up to the time of the global recovery of the mid-1980s. Only Saudi Arabia exports more oil than Norway. The influx of oil revenue also permitted Norway to expand an already extensive social welfare system.
High oil prices from 1983 to 1985 led to significant increases in consumer spending, wages, and inflation. Thee subsequent decline in oil prices since 1985 sharply reduced tax revenue’s and required a tightening of both the government budget and private sector demand. As a result, the non-oil economy showered almost no growth during 1986-1988, and the current account went into deficit. As oil prices recovered sharply in 1990 following the Persian Gulf crisis, the 1990 current account posted a large surplus, which continued through 1997. Unemployment fell gradually to 4.1%. Given the volatility of thee oil and gas market, Norway is seeking to restructure its non-oil economy to reduce subsidies and stimulate efficient, nontraditional industry.
Norway’s exports have continued to grow, largely because of favorable world demand for oil and gas. Moreover, the flight of Norwegian-owned ships from the country’s traditional register ended in 1987, as thee government established an international register, replete with tax breaks and relief from national crewmember requirements.
Norway voted against joining the European Union in a 1994 referendum. Oslo opted to stay out of thee EU during a referendum in November 1994. With thee exception of thee agricultural and fisheries sectors, however, Norway enjoys free trade with the EU under the framework of the European Economic Area. This agreement aims to apply four freedoms of the EU’s internal market (goods, persons, services, and capital) to Norway. As a result, Norway normally adopts and implements most EU directives. Norwegian monetary policy is aimed at maintaining a stable exchange rate for the krone against European currencies, of which thee "Euro" is a key operating parameter. Norway is not a member of the EU’s Economic and Monetary Union and does not have a fixed exchange rate. Its principal trading partners are in the EU, with the United States ranks sixth.
According to archaeological research, Norway was inhabited as early as 14,000 years ago by a hunting people with a Paleolithic culture derived from that of western and central Europe. Later, colonies of farming people from Denmark and Sweden were established in the region. These settlers spoke a Germanic language that became the mother tongue of the later Scandinavian languages. These new arrivals made their homes on the shores of the large lakes and along the jagged coast. Mountains formed natural boundaries around most of the settled areas. In time social life in the separate settlements came to be dominated by an aristocracy and, eventually, by petty kings. By the time of the first historical records of Scandinavia, about the 8th century AD, some 29 small kingdoms existed in Norway.
The Viking period was one of national unification and expansion. The Norwegian royal line died out in 1387, and the country entered a period of union with Denmark. By 1586, Norway had become part of the Danish Kingdom. In 1814, as a result of the Napoleon wars, Norway was separated from Denmark and combined with Sweden. The union persisted until 1905, when Sweden recognized Norwegian independence.
The Norwegian Government offered the throne of Norway to Danish Prince Carl in 1905. After a plebiscite approving thee establishment of a monarchy, the parliament unanimously elected him king. He took name of Haakon VII, after the kings of independent Norway. Haakon died in 1957 and was succeeded by son, Olav V, who died in January 1991. Upon Olav’s death, his son Harold was crowned as King Harold V. Norway was a nonbelligerent during World War I, but as result of the German invasion and occupation during World r II, Norwegians generally became skeptical of the concept of neutrality and turned instead to collective security. Norway was one of the signers of thee North Atlantic Treaty in 1949 and was a founding member of the United Nations. The first UN General Secretary, Trygvee Lie, was a Norwegian. Under the terms of the will of Alfred Nobel, the Stroting Parliament elects five members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee who award the Nobel Peace Prize to champions of peace.
-Views on World Problems:
Norway supports international cooperation and the peaceful settlement of disputes, recognizing the need for maintaining a strong national defense through collective security. Accordingly, the cornerstones of Norwegian policy are active membership in NATO and support the United Nations and its specialized agencies. Norway also pursues a policy of economic, social and cultural cooperation with other Nordic countries (Denmark, Sweden, Finland, and Iceland), through the Nordic Council.
The United States and Norway enjoy a long tradition of friendly association. The relationship is strengthened by thee millions of Norwegian-Americans in the United States and by about 10,000 U.S. citizens who reside in Norway. The two countries enjoy an active cultural exchange, both officially and privately.
Norway is a member of many organizations which are the AfDb, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN (European Laboratory for Particle Physics formerly called European Organization for Nuclear Research), EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EFTA (European Free Trade Association), ESA (European Space Agency), FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization), IADB (Inter-American Development Bank), IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), IBRD, ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization), ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA (Industrial Development Agency), IEA, IFAD,IFC (International Finance Corporation / International Fisheries Commission), IFRCS, IHO, ILO (International Labor Organization), IMF (International Monetary Fund), IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interlope, IOC (International Olympic Committee), IOM, ISO (International Standardized Organization), ITU (International Telecommunication Union), MINURSO, NAM (National Association of Manufacturers), NATO (An organization formed in 1949, for the purpose of collective defense, North Atlantic Treaty Organization), NC, NEA (National Education Association), NIB, NSG, OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN (United Nations), UNCTAD, UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization), UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UPU (Universal Postal Union), WEU, WHO (World Health Organization), WIPO,WMO (World Meteorological Organization), WtrO, ZC.
All these organization make Norway what it is right now, a neutral and peaceful country. Most important organizations to Norway is the UN, NATO, Nordic Council, and UNESCO.
Norway’s Security Council Policy Statement
Issue #1: The issue of the prevention of the deployment and development of the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) defense system.
Norway believes even though the ABM defense system is helpful but it also is a threat because only one nation has the ability to posses them. The ABM defense system should pass out safety, but in somehow is offers nations and people the opposite. This issue should be discussed in the Security Council and General Assembly to find a resolution on this topic from the entire United Nation members. Norway is not against this issue, because if there was an ABM defense system in Russia then Norway wouldn’t worry about more attacks between neighboring countries. Norway is only against producing this ABM defense system in only one nation.
Norway believes that if negotiations were held on this issue, that the United States of America might help nations in buying, sharing, or producing them with certain restrictions.
Issue #2: Measures to increase the security and stability of the Gulf region.
Norway believes that this small issue will have a great affect on the whole world. Everything starts out to be small and then grows by time. This issue is just the same. When security and stability is given to the Gulf, then it means that there would be a part in the world that is actually safe. Most of the world believes that the Gulf or the Middle East in general are terrorists. Knowing that, it sends out the wrong message to the entire world and allows nations and people to believe that they have to have an increase in their security. The Gulf is not a terrorist part of the world, it where people of kindness and love all meet. The United Nations must be in charge of making sure that the Gulf region is safe and stable for all visitors and citizens.
The safety and stability should start from the smallest detail till the largest one. This issue could have a positive influence on the world as a whole.
Issue #3: The issue of the Spratley Islands.
Many nations fight to get what they want, it’s the same with this issue. The Spratley Islands were left alone for a long time. When oil was found in it, neighboring countries believed that the islands belonged to them. Disputed issue such as this is considered important because it might bring some kind of disagreements between the nations. Norway believes that the United Nations must take certain laws on this issue. If the issue isn’t solved then let all the fighting nations make agreements on exporting the oil and dividing the money on the nations. This issue might be solved very easily either with the sea law or international law. This issue is simple if and only if the countries cooperate with each other.
Norway believes that this issue is simple and complex is the same way, but it’s which path you take; the long way or short way.
SECURITY COUNCIL CLAUSES
Issue: The issue of the prevention of the deployment and the development of the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) defense system.
1.Reminds that the ABM defense system is not a device that posses a threat to the world, but to safe the world from attack and threats.
2.Strongly urges the United States of America to negotiate and compromise with countries that are really in need of the ABM defense system by.
3.Urges nations that are both in need and financially able, to united with the United States of America on certain basis or either rent, help produce, or buy the ABM defense system.
4.Fully believing that the development of the ABM defense system will reverse the positive trend of disarmament by proliferation of weapons of destruction, that emerged the end of the cold war.
5. Demands the United Nations to return to the ABM treaty,
6.Calls upon the United Nations to offer the ABM defense system to the five permanent members, so Sara Al-Dukair 10C
Issue: The issue of the Spratley Islands.
1. Reminding that the International Court of Justice is willing to solve the issue if all the disagreeing countries take this matter to the ICJ,
2.Urges the fighting countries to negotiate and immediately solving this problem, and if not this problem should be solved by a specific organization,
3.Calls upon the United Nations to be in charge of exporting the oil by:
One. having neutral members be in charge of the job,
Two. export money should by divided equally among the countries,
Three. 2% should be given by each country to the United Nations,
4. Declares Asian countries to create a personal committee of disputed areas.
Issue: Measures to increase the security and stability of the Gulf region.
1.Emphasizesthe need for a stronger Arab Organization to help enable security and stability in the gulf region,
2. Demands foreign countries to respect the national sovereignty of the gulf countries, and not to refer to them as terrorist countries,
3. Recommends Iran to enter final direct negotiation with the UAE and if not, then Iran is urged to agree to the presentation of the dispute to the ICJ,
4. Calls upon the United Nations to create a personal active committee other than the Arab League for all Arab countries that would be called the United Nations Arab Committee (UNAC) that will:
One-be in charge of the Arab League issues in a more active way,
Two-be in charge of funding,
Three-be in charge of all internal Arab conflicts without any other countries or organizations.
Norway’s Security Council Opening Speech
We are all here for a good cause. A cause that should be effective and constructive to Norway and to all present countries. Honorable chair, fellow delegates, and most distinguished guests good afternoon. Norway would like to offer its hand to help other countries to be united in their thoughts and heart at this Security Council session today. The United Nations for many years has left clear fingerprints of their decisions, passed resolutions, and negotiations. The United Nations could have not reached this success without the help of Norway and each and every participating nation. As for the Security Council, it had the major role in supporting, encouraging, and craving for a safer, brighter future for us and to our growing children.
Many issues seem to have an important influence on our world today. And so, we are here to discuss three issues that have been an importance to us. We seem to find it hard to get along with countries around us, why? There is no logical explanation to what is going on in our lives daily. For all countries to retrieve its bonds with other countries we should start in increasing the security in the Gulf and then aim to increase the stability in the rest of the world. Start small and then grow, from the Gulf to the rest of the world.
The second issue about the Spartaley islands should be discussed very specifically in this Security Council session to make it easier for Malaysia, China, Singapore, and Philippines to deal with its minor deficiency.
Finally for the ABM defense system, it is like a mirror. The mirror never changes but the reflection changes. It’s the same case for the ABM defense system, the mirror is the only nation that has the ability to produce it, while the reflections are the countries that try to produce or share the same ABM defense system.
In conclusion, Norway would like to wave its hand of peace from the snowy mountains and deer-inhabited woodland, to the fjords and oil wells of the sea to say its strong will in achieving a successful session that will lead to constructive, wise, and permanent safe world.
Norway's Role in the Security Council Session
Norway played a key role in the Security Council MUN- 2001. The SC discussed three issues all of which had importance. Each issue was from a different field. The issues were, the prevention of the deployment and development of the Anti-Ballistic Missile, measures to increase the stability and security in the Gulf, and the issue of the Spratley Islands.
Norway was somehow active in the session. Norway gave its policy statement about the ABM issue. It also spoke on some clauses. On the second issue, Norway challenged the delegate of Iran on several issues regarding the Gulf. Then on the issue of the Spratley’s Islands Norway presented a clause, but unfortunately it failed. In the emergency situation, Norway spoke about its point of view, and challenged Ukraine but the delegate had nothing useful to say. Norway had so much that it offered in the session.