Event: Pearl-MUN 2001
Student: Ala'a Al Sayer
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COUNTRY PROFILE: ROMANIA
The Romanian constitution provides for a President, a Parliament, a Constitutional Court, and a separate system of lower courts that includes a Supreme Court. The President is elected by popular vote for a maximum of two four-year terms. He is the Chief of State, Supreme Commander of the Army, and Chairman of the Supreme Defense Council.
The President nominates the Prime Minister who, in turn, appoints the government, which must be confirmed by a Vote of Confidence from Parliament.
Today, the President is Emil Constantinescu and his Prime Minister is Mugur Isarescu.
Romania harbors a range of natural resources, the most famous ones being Petroleum, Timber, and Natural Gas. In recent years, as Romania started digging more for its natural resources, they were able to find Coal, Iron, Ore, Salt, Arable land and Hydro Power.
Even though Romanians represent 89% of the population, Romania has a diversity of Ethnic Minorities. Hungarians represent 7.1%; Germans 0.5%, Ukrainians, Serbs, Croats, Russians, Turks and Gypsies represent 2.5%.
The dominant religion is Orthodox and 86.8% of the population follow it. However, Romania encompasses, again, a variety of religious beliefs. The Roman Catholic represents 5%, The Reformed Protestant, Baptist and Pentecostal represent 5%, The Greek Catholic 1%, and the Jewish less than 0.1%. The official language is Romanian yet; Hungarian and German are also used.
The army enjoys popular support and constitutes the largest service. 180,000 soldiers are conscripted to the army. However, the Romanian parliament has approved a plan to decrease the size of the army to 112,000 by the year 2004.
Romania is located in Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine. The area is 237,500 sq. km of which 230,340 sq. km is land and the remaining 7,160 sq. km is water. It is slightly smaller than New York and Philadelphia combined. Its highest point is Moldoveanu, which is 2,544m, and its lowest point is the Black Sea, which is 0m. Its capital is Bucharest.
6.Views of world problems:
Romania has suffered from 44 years of Communism. In 1960, the relations between Romania and the United States started improving culminating in the opening of embassies in 1964. However, in mid 1980s, due to Ceausescuís mistreatment of religious and ethnic minorities, the Romanian foreign relations weakened tremendously. This status remained until 1993, when the U.S. re-admitted Romania to the MFN (Most Favored Nations). Ever since, Romaniaís policy has become pro-western and the U.S. has moved to deepen the relations.
The highlights of Romanians foreign relations are its stand with the Allied forces during the Gulf War and its service as President of the United Nations Security Council. Furthermore, in 1996 Romania signed a treaty with Hungary and a treaty with Ukraine in 1997.
Romania has a great economic potential, as it is very rich in energy sources material and agricultural lands. It also has touristic potential due to its location on the Black Sea. Since the fall of Ceausescuís Regime in 1989, successive governments have sought to build a Western-style market economy. Unfortunately, and due to many Socio-economical factors, the Romanian economy has not stabilized and risen to its potential. However, many laws have been passed to improve the economy and financial as well as technical support continue to flow in from the U.S., European Union and others.
From about 200 B.C., when it was setteled by the Dacians, a Thracian Tribe, Romanian has been on the path of a series of migrations and conquests. In 1881, the first king of Romania was crowned, the German prince, Carol of Hohenzollern. Romania joined the Allies and the U.S. in World War I and it maintained a Liberal, Constitutional , Monarchy until 1938-World War II. In 1947, Romania was declared a communist country and was called The Romanian Peopleís Republic.
During the 60s, and under Nicolae Ceausescuís rule, Romania started to become more and more independent from the Soviet Union, turning torwards the U.S. Yet, Ceausescu was a dictator who had little respect to human rights. He was overthrown and executed along his wife in the revolution that took place in 1989.
In 1991, Romaniaís constitution proclaimed Romania a democracy and market economy preserving human dignity and civic rights. Today, Emil Constantinescu is the President and Chief of State. He was elected in 1996.
1.Crime Prevention and criminal justice
We address the necessary steps to be taken to prevent organized, international crime. By that we specifically mean: money laundering, drug trafficking, and the illicit trafficking in human beings and human organs.
As we have been witnessing, when countries co-operate crime can be prevented. I take this opportunity to congratulate Hong Kong, Australia, and Britain on their co-operation in the latest arrest of money laundering and human smuggling ring that took place in March this year.
This is only the beginning of what can be achieved when we unite, when we exchange classified information. These points have been stressed at Palermo Crime Convention in December 2000 L/T/4358.
My country has always been very keen in preventing crime on the national and international scene. In the past we have donated $2.4 million to the South-Eastern European Regional Center, and today we still hold the same position. We continue to give and do our best to help in crime prevention and criminal justice.
The Palermo Crime Convention was a turning point in the international crime scene, and now more should be done. We suggest that the U.N should finance a security model system to be implemented in all under-developed and developing countries, as those are the countries that suffer the most crimes.
2.Improving the financial situation of the United Nations
Defining the financial situation in three parts 1.Scale of assessments 2.Budgetory system 3.Structural administrative system. On the 23rd of March 2000, the U.N was declared to have stepped out of its financial crisis. 126 of the U.N member states paid their dues for that year and all earlier years in full. This achievement was made possible after a series of resolutions and action plans. We recall the special assembly session on the 6th of February 1996, GA/9050 where various measures to confront the crisis were put forth, followed by GA/AB/3116 on the financial investigation to be conducted by the joint inspection unit.
Efforts continued in this respect with the fifth committee (administrative and budgetary) where "Program budget for the biennium 2000-2001" and "Review of efficiency of the administrative and financial functioning of the United Nations" were discussed GA/AB/3421 14th December 2000.
My country remains adamant in supporting the U.N and we will always keep on fulfilling our financial commitments. We suggest that countries financial commitments and their scale of assessment should be based on their capacity to pay.
3.Taking Effective Measures to eliminate racism and racial discrimination, and Xenophobia
Defining racism and racial discrimination as any act of hatred, intolerance, violence or Coercion against humans due to their color, nationality, gender or religious belief.
We call attention to the latest racist actions: the web racism. 2001 has been proclaimed as the international year against racism, xenophobia and other forms of intolerance in the general assembly that took place on the 16th of November 1999- GA/SHC/3562.
Romania abhors and refuses to accept any form of racism. As a protector of human rights, Romania believes that such acts should be considered illegal and should be treated harshly by law. We propose that the cyber crime treaty should include a clause on the illegal spread of racist propaganda.
4.Drug control and rehabilitation programs
Defining drug control as governmental measures taken to stop illicit trafficking of drugs and rehabilitation programs as institutions preparing for the social integration for drug addicts.
The latest international drug cartel bust that took place on the 18th of May 2001, where police in five countries were able to arrest 22 traffickers in a Canadian-led operation, is yet another proof of the power countries can have when united. We refer to the third committee meeting held in the 8th of October 1998 GA/SHC/3467 where the destruction of the myth of invincibility of criminal cartels was put forth.
Our country, though still suffering from an inadequate institutional structure to combat illicit drug trafficking, has spared no effort in initiating legislative improvements, institutional rehabilations centers as well as the introduction of preventive education. We believe that all countries should become technologically equipped to share information about drug trafficking.
Question of: Crime prevention and criminal justice.
Believing in the United Nations destruction of the myth of zeina and criminal cartels.
Congratulating the U.N on the latest international drug bust and the latest arrest of money laundering and human smuggling ring.
Noting with appreciation UNís effort in supporting the exchange of classified information.
Realizing that most under-developed and developing countries lack the know-how and the financial means to effectively secure their borders against crime.
Pointing out that these countries are the ones that suffer the most crime as well as exporting them.
1. Disappointed with the security system on these countriesí borders and their lack of technology.
2. Urges the U.N to develop a model security system to be adopted by all these countries.
3. Affirms that with the up grading and standardization of border security systems criminal acts will be prevented.
4. Encouraging all developing countries to co-operate and unite in their quest for crime prevention.
5. Suggesting that a special fund be raised for this matter.
6. Remind nations that by helping other countries we are protecting ourselves.
7. Emphasizing the need for technological and financial support for the developing of border security systems.
8. Recommends all member states to contribute to the zeina and developing of a model border security system.
Honorable chair, fellow delegates, and distinguished guests, greetings from Romania, a country that is very proud of its achievements that we, at the United Nations, have accomplished. Yet, we do acknowledge the need for much more to be done and thatís why we are here today.
Romania promotes and will always promote human rights, we believe in our ability to make the world a better and safer place for all of us.
I would like to draw your attention here to one specific issue: Crime prevention and criminal justice. We believe that it is our duty to make all countries safe and secure. Their security is our safety.
My fellow members, I urge you today to look deeply into our suggested resolution for crime prevention and criminal justice, we suggest the development of a model security system to be implemented on all countriesí borders especially the under-developed and developing countries.
Today, once again, we rely on your support in order to make our world a safer place. Thank you for your co-operation, I now yield the floor to the chair.