Country: Rwanda

Event: Pearl-MUN 2001


Student: Fahed Sultan



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The Rwandan National Anthem

Rwanda

 

 

Country Profile

 

Political Structure:

Rwanda says it ha a democratic government while it really has a military government. Which is made of an Executive branch, Legislative branch and a judicial branch.

The Executive branch is a branch that has to d with caring and managing affairs and is made up of:

· The chief of state: President Maj. Gen. Paul Kagame since the 22nd of April 2000.

· head of government: Prime Minister Bernard Makuza Since the 8th of march 2000.

· cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

The people of Rwanda elect the president for a period of five years.

The Legislative branch is a branch that has to do with the making of laws and has the power to make laws and is made up of unicameral Transitional National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale de Transition which is a power sharing body made up of 70 seats established on 12 December 1994. The seats are permitted by the Arusha peace accord.

The Judicial branch is a branch that has to do with the administration of justice. The Constitutional Court, consists of the Court of Cassation and the Council of State in joint session.

There are many ethnic groups in Rwanda like the Hutu and Tutsis. The group in power is the Tutsis even though they are only 15% of the population. The Tutsis are in power now after the 1990 civil war when they destroyed Habyarimana government.

Political leader: Paul Kagame (Pasteur Bizimungu was installed as President after the July 1994 RPF takeover of the country. However, the central figure of the regime is Kagame, former military commander of the RPF and current Vice President). The government really runs the government.

 

Natural Resources:

Rwanda has a lot of natural resources like gold, cassiterite (tin ore), wolf Amite (tungsten ore), methane, hydropower, and arable land. Their land consists of arable land: 35%. permanent crops: 13%. permanent pastures: 18%. forests and woodland: 22%. other: 12%. Rwanda is 26,338 sq km, 24,948 sq km of which is land, and 1,390 sq km of which is water. Rwanda’s electrical production is 159 million kWh of which is produced with fossil fuel: 2.52% and hydro: 97.48%. It does have enough food supplies for its own country by growing 5 crops a year with the supply of natural rain that has two seasons. Its soil is very good for growing crops since most of it are hills and volcanic. It imports oil and petroleum products. Rwanda can Feed its country by growing crops but Is not giving some extra effort to feed themselves. It can but is NOT. Rwanda has a wide span of volcanic hills that have very good soil and would be very good to grow crops with the natural supply of rain (two seasons of rain a year).

 

Cultural Facts:

Rwanda has many ethnic groups of which is Hutu 84%, Tutsi 15%, Twa (Pygmoid) 1%. It also has many religions consisting of Roman Catholic 65%, Protestant 9%, Muslim 1%, indigenous beliefs and other 25%. The groups have many conflicts and caused a civil war.

On October 1, 1990, Rwandan exiles banded together as the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) and invaded Rwanda from their base in Uganda. The rebel force, composed primarily of ethnic Tutsis, blamed the government for failing to democratize and resolve the problems of some 500,000 Tutsi refugees living in Diaspora around the world. The war dragged on for almost two years until a cease-fire accord was signed July 12, 1992, in Arusha, Tanzania, fixing a timetable for an end to the fighting and political talks, leading to a peace accord and power-sharing, and authorizing a neutral military observer group under the auspices of the Organization for African Unity. A cease-fire took effect July 31, 1992, and political talks began August 10, 1992.

On April 6, 1994, the airplane carrying President Habyarimana and the President of Burundi was shot down as it prepared to land at Kigali. Both presidents were killed. As though the shooting down was a signal, military and militia groups began rounding up and killing all Tutsis and political moderates, regardless of their ethnic background.

The civil war between The Tutsis and Hutus was basically a fight over the power and a disagreement of their political system. It was actually a war between the U.S. and France since both side were trying to restrain stability and were each supplying one side with weapons, The Hutus were supplied with weapons by the U.S. and the Tutsis were supplied with weapons by the France since they had white colored skin and thought to be smarter. Belgium and France both helped the Tutsis at first but France influenced them the most. The U.S. just chose to help the Hutus since France was helping the Tutsis. After a few problems France betrayed the Tutsis and helped the Hutus and that is why France is not that trustworthy and Rwanda does not appeal to its help a lot.

Defense:

Rwanda’s military is made of an Army, Gendarmerie, Navy, and an Air Force. It has a military manpower of 1,774,459 males that are between the age of 15-49, but 902,970 are fit for service. Rwandan military forces are supporting the rebel forces in the civil war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, but can not defend themselves in a political war between two countries.

The government has launched an ambitious plan to demobilize thousands of soldiers. Under the International Military and Training program, the U.S. has provided professional training for Rwandan military officers, especially in civil-military relations and respect for human rights.

While the US did not provide much in the way of military supplies to Habyariamana, the report noted that Washington tended to be highly supportive of the Rwandan armed forces. But, according to Human Rights Watch, the greatest culprit in providing unqualified support the Habyarimana regime was Paris: "France, in contrast [to Belgium after October 1990], rapidly expanded its military role, becoming Rwanda's primary military partner. France has provided Rwanda with weapons, munitions and advisors, and has deployed troops in Rwanda for the stated purpose of protecting French nationals living there."

Thus, Habyarimana's most important European backers were France and Rwanda's former colonizer, Belgium. In 1990, Habyarimana skillfully drew France directly into the conflict by staging a mock RPF "attack" on the capital, fooling foreign journalists and diplomats into believing that the rebels were on the verge of overthrowing his government. France, as well as Belgium, quickly dispatched contingents to bolster the internal security of Rwanda. As the former colonial power, Belgium's interest in Rwanda is natural. For France's part, analysts claim that Paris came to the assistance of the Hutu government in 1990 in order to preserve the integrity of francophone Africa against the English speaking RPF leadership (others have charged that Danielle Mitterand, wife of the French President, personally does not like Tutsis, and that France welcomed the opportunity to sell arms to the government).

France persuaded others in support that Habyarimana was firm, while French criticisms of his Tutsi opponents were mocking. For example, Paris characterized the RPF as the" Khmers Rouges of Africa" after their invasion. France's support for the Hutu government continued even after Habyarimana's death and the routing of his successors. On June 23, 1994, France began dispatching 2,500 (marine and Foreign Legion) troops to Rwanda to establish a "safety zone" where Hutus, including presumably individuals who organized the genocide, could take refuge from the RPF.

 

Geography:

Rwanda is located in central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is in the African continent. Burundi 290 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 217 km, Tanzania 217 km, Uganda 169 km are the boundaries Rwanda has to other countries. It is a land locked country with a view to a lake and many rivers. Its climate has two rainy seasons from February to April and from November to January it is mild in mountains with frost and snow possible. The volcanic Birunga mountains that are in the northwest along the border with Democratic Republic of the Congo creates a natural hazard to Rwanda. Deforestation results from uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil erosion; widespread poaching.

 

Economy:

Rwanda is a rural* country with about 90% of the population engaged in (mainly survival) agriculture. It is the most densely populated country in Africa; is landlocked; and has few natural resources and minimal industry. Primary exports are coffee and tea. The 1994 genocide decimated Rwanda's fragile economic base, severely impoverished the population, particularly women, and eroded the country's ability to attract private and external investment. However, Rwanda has made significant progress in stabilizing and rehabilitating its economy. GDP has rebounded, and inflation has been curbed. In June 1998, Rwanda signed an Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility (ESAF) with the IMF. Rwanda has also embarked upon an ambitious privatization program with the World Bank. Continued growth in 2000 depends on the maintenance of international aid levels and the strengthening of world prices of coffee and tea.

Its exports are $68 million dollars of which its partners are Brazil, Germany, Belgium, Pakistan, Spain, Kenya, and Netherlands. They export coffee, tea, hides and skins, cassiterite, pyrethrum. Their imports are $275 million dollars of which its partners are Kenya, Tanzania, US, Benelux, France. They import foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, steel, petroleum products, cement and construction material. This goes against their economy since their imports are greater then their exports. And over all of that they are in dept for $1.2 billion externally. Rwanda have very wide spanned that can be planted and they can grow crops 5 times a year which will increase their exports rapidly after taking what they need and feeding their poor.

Compared to an annual GDP growth rate of 6.5% from 1973 to 1980, growth slowed to an average of 2.9% a year from 1980 through 1985 and was stagnant from 1986 to 1990. The crisis peaked in 1990 when the first measures of an IMF structural adjustment program were carried out. While the program was not fully implemented before the war, key measures such as two large devaluations* and the removal of official prices were enacted. The consequences on salaries and purchasing power were rapid and dramatic. This crisis particularly affected the educated leaders, most of who were employed in civil service or state-owned projects.

During the five years of civil war that culminated in the 1994 genocide, GDP declined in three out of five years, posting a dramatic decline at more than 40% in 1994, the year of the genocide. The 9% increase in real GDP for 1995, the first post-war year, signaled the resurgence of economic activity.

The Government of Rwanda posted a 13% GDP growth rate in 1996 through improved collection of tax revenues, accelerated privatization of state enterprises to stop their drain on government resources, and continued improvement in export crop and food production. It is estimated that in 1997 that food production levels will reach 81% of prewar levels, and should continue to improve as more returned refugees continue to put land back into cultivation.

Their population growth rate is 3% which is slower the their GDP growth rate which is kind of to their own benefit.

The GDP of Rwanda is 425 billion Rwandan francs. And the Real GDP** growth rate is 13%. A person in Rwanda would get an approximate of $234 a year.

Agricultural takes up 35% of the GDP, which consists of coffee, tea, cattle, hides and skin, pyrethrum, bananas, beans, sorghum, potatoes

Industry takes up 17% of the GDP, of which consists of beer production, soft drink, soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles, cigarettes, pharmaceuticals.

Their exchange rate is Rwandan francs (RF) per US$ 1 - 349.53. ???

 

View on World Problems:

Rwanda is in many of the thousands of international organizations of which are: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WtrO.

 

Foreign Relations:

Rwanda has been the center of much international attention since the war and genocide of 1994. Rwanda is an active member of the UN, having presided over the Security Council during part of 1995. The UN assistance mission in Rwanda, a UN chapter 6 peacekeeping operations, involved personnel from over a dozen countries. Most of the UN development and humanitarian agencies have had a large presence here. Several Western European and African nations, Canada, China, Egypt, Libya, Russia, The Vatican, and the European Union maintain diplomatic missions in Kigali.

It is very good friends with Uganda and Burundi which happen to be great friends with the U.S. All of them are friends because most of them are Tutsis as well as the Rwandan government. They all fought a war with the republic of Congo and all are enemies of it.

U.S. – Rwandan Relations

After the crisis period the U.S. interests shifted from strictly humanitarian to include the prevention of new regional conflict, the help of internal stability, and renewed economic development. A major focus of two-sided relations is the Agency for International Development's (USAID) "transition" program, which aims to promote internal stability and to increase confidence in the society.

To achieve this, USAID is trying to achieve three strategic objectives under an integrated strategic plan:

-Increased rule of law and accuracy in control.
-Increased use of health and social services and changed behavior -Increased ability of rural families in targeted communities to improve household food security.

The mission currently is implementing activities in humanitarian assistance and treatment women's income making plans, shelter, family relocation for children--administration of justice, increased local government capacity, improved health service delivery, AIDS and STI prevention, and enhanced food security.

 

History:

What is now Rwanda Ws first inhabited by Hutu farmers and Pygmy hunters. About 600 years ago the Tutsi a warrior people with large herds of big horn cattle invaded the area from the north. The Hutu could not defeat the Tutsi and so each Hutu agreed to serve a Tutsi "lord". The Tutsi agreed to protect them and allow them he use of some cattle. In this way the Tutsi dominated the area until 1959.

Germany conquered Ruanda-Urundi in 1897 were there was no Rwanda and Burundi. It ruled this area as part of German East Africa Belgian troops occupied the area then called Ruanda-Urundi in 1916 during World War 1. Germany lost its African colonies after the war in 1918 and Ruanda-Urundi became a mandated territory under Belgian administration. In 1946 the area became a united nation trust territory administered by Belgium.

Political unrest followed the death of Mwami Mutara the third (king). The Hutu rebelled against the Tutsi. Fighting between the two resulted in about 150,000 deaths. The Tutsis suffered the greatest casualties. During and after the rebellion about 150,000 Tutsi fled Rwanda to Burundi and other neighboring countries.

In 1961 the people of Ruanda voted to make their country a republic. Ruanda-Urundi became independent as two countries, Rwanda and Burundi on the 1st of July 1962. The people of Rwanda then elected Gregoire Kayibanda as the first president. The y reelected him in 1965 and 1969. In 1973, military leaders led by Major General Juvenal Habyarimana over threw Kayibanda, dissolved the nation’s legislature and took control of the government. Habyarimana who is a Hutu declared himself president and appointed other military leaders to the Government’s Cabinet posts. During the 1970’s Habyarimana gradually replaced most of these military leaders with civilians. A new constitution, which established a one party political system, was adopted in 1978. Habyarimana was elected president in 1978 and reelected in 1983 and again in 1988.

Rwanda made some progress under Habyarimana. Production of some goods increased but poverty remains a severe problem in Rwanda and Rwanda still depends heavily on overseas aid. In October 1990, Rwandan rebels called the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) had launched attacks against Rwanda’s government. Most of the rebels were Tutsi, who have been living in exile in Uganda. Fighting increased in the early 1990’s. In 1991 the government changed constitution to allow for a multiparty political system. In August 1993 the government and the RPF signed a peace treaty.

Before the war the Hutus were in control establishing a one party political system. After the war when Habyarimana was defeated and his government was dissolved The Tutsis took power and had control of the government that is mostly controlled by the military and established a multiparty political system.






Policy Statements

 

Issue # 1: Crime prevention and criminal justice

On October 1st 1990 the Tutsis or better known as the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) invaded Rwandan’s government whom are Hutus lead by Habyarimana from their base in Uganda. The Tutsis blamed the government of failing to treat them equally and to resolve the problems of 500,000 refuges living in Diaspora (Jewish word meaning scattering) around the world. The war dragged on for two years until political talks began on August 10th 1992. On April 6th the airplane carrying Habyarimana and the President of Burundi and many Tutsi political moderates was shot down and they were all dead and it was destroyed regardless of their ethnic group because Hutus and Tutsis were killed.

Rwanda would like to implement a policy that will increase the security of citizens and families and try to stop all xenophobic actions in all countries.

Issue # 2: Improving the financial situation of the United Nations

Rwanda has suffered a lot of loss in its civil war and its war with Congo. Most of its imports are machinery weapons and military equipment. Rwanda has to buy these weapons to protect itself and fight against Congo. It suffered a lot of financial and economical loss, which led it to be a third world country and a very poor country too. While it could have been a main attraction with its wide spread gardens and its beautiful mountain gardens. The UN budget is _____ and Rwanda pays a very minor portion of it even though it is very poor.

Rwanda is a very poor country, which needs financial aid, and could not supply or increase the financial situation of the UN. It needs the money to feed it poor people and to cure its poverty.

 

Issue # 3: Taking effective measures to eliminate racism, racial discrimination, and xenophobia.

On October 1st 1990 the Tutsis or better known as the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) invaded Rwandan’s government whom are Hutus lead by Habyarimana from their base in Uganda. The Tutsis blamed the government of failing to treat them equally and to resolve the problems of 500,000 refuges living in Diaspora (Jewish word meaning scattering) around the world. The war dragged on for two years until political talks began on August 10th 1992. On April 6th the airplane carrying Habyarimana and the President of Burundi and many Tutsi political moderates was shot down and they were all dead and it was destroyed regardless of their ethnic group because Hutus and Tutsis were killed.

Rwanda would like to implement a policy that will treat all members of a country’s nation equally since as an example the Tutsis that were based in Uganda but were originally from Rwanda said that they invaded Rwanda because they were not treated equally or fairly. Even thought the government would be divided to position people from all the ethnic groups, under extreme measurements one group has to take power over the other.

Issue # 4: Drug control and rehabilitation programs

Due to Rwanda’s very poor situations it has no money to buy Drugs or sell them. If it would have grown drugs and sold them then it would have been much richer, nut Rwanda has some brains and decided not to grow them. After all Rwanda has nothing to do with drugs neither selling them by growing them nor buying them.

Rwanda wants to implement a policy that would supply countris that have poor medical suplies with their needs of medical drugs. Its people’s health is very bad and have very poor and few medical services. The infant’s death rate has reached 123 deaths per 1000 infants. It needs much more advanced medical services and would except any experiments even though they were for the first time. If a person is sick with AIDS he would accept any medical drug that is thought of to help since there is no chance for him to live he would try anything. Rwanda would accept any medical drug that is thought of to be good.

 

Resolution

 

Delegate: Fahed Al Sultan

Delegation: Rwanda

Forum: ECOSOC

Issue: Taking effective measures to eliminate xenophobia


Defining xenophobia as "a deep dislike to foreigners,"

Bearing in Mind that many people around the world are suffering and dying because of xenophobia,

Deeply concerned about the importance of human rights and freedom,

Expecting that all countries that have an ethnic group in power will come down to an agreement that will give fair representation in the government,

Deeply disturbed that many countries that are suffering from xenophobia are resulting in nothing but tragedy. Resulting in the deaths of people and the standing of families without homes and orphaning children,

Regretting the massacre of 1990 of which a civil war occurred in Rwanda between the Tutsis and Hutus because of this disturbing cause,

Expressing its appreciation to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) for trying to help in reducing the amount and effect of xenophobia around the world,

Deeply conscious that the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs is not paying enough attention to the very disturbing issue of xenophobia and it’s killing results,

 

1. Emphasizes world wide conflicts caused by xenophobia in;

a. Rwandan 1990 crisis and the conflicts it is still suffering from;

b. South Africa’s xenophobic conflicts;

c. Sudan’s crisis because of xenophobia;

d. Germany’s disasters because of xenophobia.

2. Calls upon all nations to follow the Universal Declaration of Human Rights;

3. Expresses its hope that all countries that suffer from xenophobia will try to help implement this resolution so no country will suffer from this issue after passing this resolution;

4. Affirms that all xenophobically related problem makers should be punished severely for;

a. Destroying the lives of others;

b. For creation of a problem that caused the country’s breakdown;

c. Starting a very tragic problem out of nothing.

By:

a. Trials in within the country held by its courts;

b. If it is a crisis and very effective it will be passed on to the court of justice.

5. Further encourages that OCHA increase its efforts to end all xenophobic problems.

6. Resolves that additional funding should be granted to the OCHA;

a. The funds should be used to eliminate all xenophobic problems;

b. The funds should be taken from the UN budget doubling the amount from 42.4 million to $84.8 and from donating countries.

7. Asks that all xenophobic problem makers should be put through trials;

8. Requests the creation of the World Anti Xenophobia Organization (WAXO) that will be a sub committee of OCHA that will be doing the following;

a. Monitoring the government to ensure equal treatment of all members of the divided government by;

I. Enforcing a law that any objector or offender to any law that is made to keep the country xenophobia free will be punished with a sentence in jail after the permission of the country is granted. The permission will probably be approved by the countries that have a xenophobic problem because it’s to their own benefit and is assured to work;

II. Creating a sub agency that is positioned in every government that will be at every meeting to ensure equal treatment.

b. To educate people of the harms of xenophobia and the very reasons that lead to it by;

I. Putting commercials on TV and radios showing the heartbreaking effects of xenophobia.

c. Increase anti xenophobic efforts by;

I. Creating another sub agency that tries to persuade people to giving donations and increase posters and funding activities to make them hate the site of xenophobia and try to stop it;

II. Trying to persuade greater countries to help the poor and try to help solve the conflicts.

8. Fully Believing that all countries will cooperate in making our world a xenophobic free society by voting for this effective resolution that will try to minimize the offensive actions resulted from xenophobia and reduce the dilemma caused.

 

Opening Speech

Honorable chair, Fellow delegates, Helpful administrate staff, and most distinguished guests.... Hello and greetings from the homeland of the great apes. Greetings from the gardens of heaven.

A trail through Rwanda’s jungles is a journey you would treasure. Through the green jungles, the wide span of volcanic lands, the beautiful blue sky. Where the mountain gorillas take as a nest. Where peace is the word to describe it. But now it is nothing, War War War. It’s a word most of the world is suffering from. After the civil war in Rwanda, it ended up in nothing but tragedy. Everyone knows the tragedy that caused Rwanda to fall into anarchy.

Therefore, Rwanda is here today to stress the issue of xenophobia, which is destroying the world’s nations. Rwanda suffered a civil war due to it and is still suffering the consequences.

Here we the United Nations should put our hands together and fight against xenophobia. We should put the benefit of our world in front of our country’s benefit. If black and white is a problem what is left for the world, for our children, our coming generations…

Finally I would like to express a final welcome to everyone present in this important meeting today and would like to emphasize the importance of solving this killing issue.