Country: South Africa

Event: Pearl-MUN 2001

Student: Dana Al Essa

 

 



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The Republic of South Africa National Anthem




The Republic of South Africa

 

 

Country Profile: South Africa

 

A). Political Structure

The country South Africa is run by a republican government system. Their legal system based on Roman-Dutch law and English common law. On December 10 1996 the South African constitution was released. This new constitution became certified by the Constitutional Court on the 4" Of December 1996. The former South African president Nelson Mandela then signed it on December 10~h 1996. This constitution entered onto effect on February 3" 1997. The former president, the man whom holds the power of South Africa, Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki, was elected on June 16'" 1999

 

B). Natural Resources

South Africa's natural resources vary in many different areas, such as gold, chromium, antimony, coal, iron, ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, tin, uranium, gem diamonds, platinum, copper, vanadium, salt and natural gas. Agricultural products available in South Africa are corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables, beef, poultry, mutton, wool, and dairy products. Electricity production by source are 92.09% fossil fuel, 0.83% hydro, 7.08% nuclear, 0% other (1998). Electricity imports are 5 million kWh; exports are 4.093 billion kWh .The word's largest producer of platinum, gold, and chromium is found in South African mines. Industrial production also includes automobile assembly, metalworking, machinery, textile, iron, steel, chemicals, fertilizer, and foodstuffs. The GDP composition sector is 5% agriculture, 35% industry, and 60% services (1999).

 

C). Cultural factors

The ethnic groups present in South Africa are 75% black, 13.6% white, 8.6% colored, and 2.6% Indian. Religious groups consist of 68% Christian which include most whites and colored South African citizens approximately 60% of the blacks and about 40% of Indians. Other religious groups present are Muslims 2%, Hindu 1.5% (60% of the Indians), indigenous beliefs and animist 28.5%. There are 11 official languages spoken in South Africa including Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Pedi, Sotho, Sawazi, Tsonga, Tswana, Venda, Xhosa and Zulu. The literacy rate are 81.9% females can read and write, 81.7% of males can read and write, to the total population of South Africa 81.8% are literate.

Until 1991, South African law divided the population into four major racial categories: Africans (black), whites, coloreds, and Asians. Although this law has been abolished, many South Africans still view themselves and each other according to these categories. Africans comprise about 75% of the population and are divided into a number of different ethnic groups. Whites comprise about 14% of the population. They are primarily descendants of Dutch, French, English, and German settlers who arrived in South Africa.

 

D.) Economy

South Africa is a middle-income, developing country with an abundant supply of resources, well-developed financial, legal, communications, energy, and transport sectors, a stock exchange that ranks among the 10 largest in the world, and a modern infrastructure supporting an efficient distribution of goods to major urban centers throughout the region.

However, growth has not been strong enough to cut into the 30% unemployment, and daunting economic problems remain from the apartheid era, especially the problems of poverty and lack of economic empowerment among the Disadvantaged groups. South Africa's budget consists of revenues $30.5 billion, expenditures $38 billion, including expenditures of $2.6 billion. Export commodities are gold, diamonds, other metals and minerals, machinery and equipment. South Africa's export partners are UK, Italy, Japan, Germany, and U.S. Import commodities of the country are machinery; foodstuff sand equipment, chemicals, petroleum products, and scientific instruments, import partners include Germany, UK, Japan, and us. South Africa's debt external is $25.7 billion. Its economic aid recipient is $676.3 million. South Africa's currency, 1 rand is equal to 100 cents.

The African National congress wanted to help devise a strategy to fight aids. Although money was tight and there was much to be done in the top-down change from the white minority rule to the black rule. The South African government failed to deal with this aids situation which has resulted in a ruining practically everything the country has achieved since the end of the apartheid rule. More people are infected with aids then ever before. One in ever five adults in a population of 41 million has aids. Aids threaten to slow social change and undo economic development making it extremely expensive to care for the sick and the dying. The population growth rate in South Africa is 0.5% and the GDP growth rate is 0.6% this is very bad the country is only making slightly more than the population growth rate.

 

E.) View on World's Problems

South African forces fought on the allied side in World Wars I and II and participated in the postwar UN force in Korea. South Africa was a member of the League of Nations. And in 1927 the country organized Department of External Affairs with political tasks in the leading western European countries and the Unites States. During the establishment of the League of nations, South Africa was given authority to govern Southwest area of Africa, which is now known as Namibia. In 1990, Namibia earned its independence, with the exception of the territory of Walvis Bay, which was later on reformed into Namibia in March 1994. After South Africa held its First nonracial election in April 1994, most sanctions made by the international community that disagreed with the system of apartheid were lifted.

On June 1, 1994, South Africa rejoined the Commonwealth, and on June 23, 1994, its title in the UN General Assembly was accepted. South Africa also joined the Organization of African Unity (OAU). Having grown out of the international isolation of the apartheid period, South Africa has become one of the leading International actors there. The country's foreign policy's priority is to develop good relations with the entire country's fellow neighbors and members of the SADC and OAU.

 

F.) Recent History

The last of the so-called "pillars of apartheid", in 1991, were abolished. After several negotiations, a new constitution was forced into law in December 1993. The country's first nonracial elections were held on April 26-29, 1994 that resulted in the presidency of Nelson Mandela on May 10, 1994. During Nelson Mandela's 5-year term as President of South Africa, the government committed itself to reforming the country.

The ANC-led government focused on social issues that were ignored during the apartheid era such as unemployment, housing shortages, and crime. Mandela's administration began to reintroduce South Africa into the global economy by implementing a goal oriented economic plan. In order to fix the holes created by apartheid, the government created the Truth and Reconciliation Committee (TRC) under the leadership of Archbishop Desmond Tutu. In June 1999, Nelson Mandela retired and Thabo Mbeki was elected President of South Africa. To follow in wake of Nelson Mandela as President of South Africa is a hard task. For Thabo Mbeki, the new President, not being Mandela is but one of many personal challenges facing his leadership and, in turn, his effort to work on his vision for transforming South Africa. began arriving at the Cape in the late 17" century. Coloreds are mixed-race people primarily descending from the earliest settlers and the indigenous peoples. They comprise about 9% of the total population. Asians descend from Indian workers brought to South Africa in the mid-19th century to work on the sugar estates in Natal. They constitute about 2% of the population and are concentrated in the KwaZulu- Natal Province.

The quality of the education that the South African country is providing is slowly becoming less. Although while under the apartheid system schools were separated, and the number of schools and their teaching quality varied very much according to the racial groups. Even though the laws governing this separation have been abolished, the long and hard process of restructuring the country's educational system is just beginning. The challenge is to create a single nondiscriminatory, nonracial system that offers the same standards of education to all people.

 

G.) Defense

The military branches are the South African National Defense forces, which includes the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Medical Services. Another military branch that is present is the South African Police service. The military manpower age is 18, and the manpower availability is males ages 15-49: 11,345,031 (2000est). Military manpower fit for military service rate is males 15-49: 6,901,252 (2000 est.). Military expenditures are is $2 billion. The national defense force continues to integrate former military, black homeland forces, and ex-opposition forces.

 

H.) Geography

South Africa is slightly less then twice the size of Texas. Southern Africa is located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa. Its Geographic coordinates are 29 00 S, 24 00 E. South Africa is at borders with Botswana 1,840 km, Lesotho 909 km, Mozambique 491 km, Namibia 855 km, Swaziland 430 km, Zimbabwe 225 km. South Africa completely surrounds Lesotho and almost completely surrounds Swaziland. The area is divided into 1,219,912 sq. km of land, O sq. km of water. The Coastline is 2,798 km. South Africa's climate is mostly semiarid, subtropical along the East Coast, having sunny days and cool nights. The terrain consists of vast interior plateau rimmed by rugged hills and narrow coastal plain. Land usage is made up of 10% arable land, 1-% permanent crops, 67% permanent pastures, 7% forests and woodland, and 15% other. The Current environmental issue that South Africa is facing is lack of important arterial rivers or lakes requires extensive water conservation and control measure. Growth in water usage threatens to outpace supply and pollution of rivers. God gave South Africa a very wonderful gift which is the gift of diversity.

Diversity is an advantage because it allows the South African society to be more Self-sufficient depending on themselves for food, clothing, and crops. Also having many different climates allows them to offer more crops. Diversity saves a lot of money, and helps with trade and tourists.

 

 

Policy Statements

 

Issue #1. Taking effective measures to eliminate racism, racial discrimination, and xenophobia.

Since the national party was elected was the governing system in South Africa in 1948. South Africa was run by the Apartheid. The Apartheid is a policy of racial separation that divided South Africa between the governing white minority population and the non-white majority population. This law divided the people based on three major racial groups the whites, the blacks and the colored people. This law forbade almost all social contact between the following groups, it also only gave the whites the right to be part of the governing parties leaving the rest with hardly any political rights.

As countries such as the United States out pressure on South Africa's' "apartheid" system it stared fading away and by 1990, president F.W de Klerk stated hat the "apartheid" has officially ended and released Nelson Mandela the leader of the ANC. With these coming generation South Africa is strongly trying to fight away the racial discrimination their for fathers had set with the apartheid ruling system trying to make South Africa once again the place where no person is deprived of their human rights. South Africa is totally against all acts of racism including xenophobia and is working and has actually succeeded on its complete banishment.

 

Issue # 2: Crime Prevention And Criminal Justice

Crime in South Africa is perceived to be a significant threat to the country's overall stability and to the welfare of its citizens. Criminal activity, such as assault and armed robbery, is particularly high in areas surrounding many hotels and public transportation centers, especially in major cities. The government's anti-crime efforts, crimes such as carjackings, muggings, "smash and grab" attacks on vehicles and other incidents are regularly reported. Crimes against property, such as car jacking, have also often been accompanied by violent acts, including murder. South Africa has a very high rate for rapping. Local commuter and metro trains, especially between Johannesburg and Pretoria, are a center of muggings and violent attacks. In the Western Cape, police resources have been strained by continuing gang conflicts and vigilante violence in the townships near Cape Town.

Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating South Africa law, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in South Africa are strict, and convicted offenders can expect jail sentences and heavy fines.

 

Issue # 3: Drug Control and Rehabilitation Programs

The government of South Africa is concerned about the cultivation of cannabis in their territory. Crop eradication efforts have been done and been proved successful. The level of awareness of drugs in South Africa is very limited. The ODCCP is helping to guide and support actions in drug control in South Africa.

National inputs are continued to be required at the policy level to establish drug trafficking and abuse as a primary concern in South Africa. The ODCCP institutional strengthening projects are currently under operation in South Africa. For reasons of its relative prosperity, huge market geographic location and links to the outside world South Africa the dominating region in Africa, in illicit drugs market. As a result South Africa has begun to feature both, as an increasingly active market and transit node, which is why the ODCCP is devoting its efforts to eliminating the use of illicit drugs in South Africa. Researches on the drug market chains in Johannesburg have focused on new trafficking trends in cocaine and heroine smuggling.

 

Issue # 4: Improving the Financial Situation of the United Nations United Nations

Growth has not been strong enough to stop the 30% unemployment, and ending the economic problems that remain from the apartheid era, especially the problems of poverty and lack of economic empowerment among the disadvantaged groups. At the start of 2000, President Mbeki vowed to increase the economic growth and foreign investment by relaxing the strict labor laws, bringing up the private jobs and work, and cutting unneeded governmental spending. His policies face strong opposition from organized labor. South Africa's leader Mbeki met up with other fellow leaders of the African continent and discussed they independent movement economically decreasing poverty HIV and crime they are relaying on themselves to decrease their debts and improve their own financial situation. Since South Africa is still facing problems made from the apartheid period it is still under construction financially. South Africa is in debt with many countries. South Africa also thinks that it shouldn't have to pay money to the UN when in especially they can't afford it since they have to pay money to those countries they owe money to. In order to fix this problem South Africa feels that there should be some kind of compromise between those under developed countries with countries that have all the money. That either all sanctions on these under developed countries be dropped or that they are excused from financially supporting the UN's budget.

 

RESOLUTION

Delegation: South Africa

Forum: ECOSOC

Issue: Taking effective measures to eliminate Racism, Discrimination, and Xenophobia

Defining racism as "the belief that race accounts for differences in human character or ability and that a particular race is superior to others,"

Defining discrimination as "a treatment or consideration based on class or category rather than individual merit,"

Defining Xenophobia as "a fear of foreigners or strangers,"

Deeply disturbed at the large number of people facing the crucial issue of racism, discrimination and Xenophobia,

Listing major effects of racism towards its victims,

i.) Self-hatred, which is also accompanied by anxiety.

ii.)Self-destructive escapist reactions such as alcoholism or drug addiction.

c.) Causes them to be violent against whoever is practicing this hated act towards them, which then increases the level of crime.

1. Condemns all racist actions or doings that be expressing discrimination, racism or Xenophobia be banished completely from our society.

2. Requests/ Enforces the creation of a sub-organization within the United Nations called International Anti-discrimination Organization, IAO, This organization will be

i.) Emphasizing on the Awareness of Human Equality

ii.)making sure that anyone committing a racial act will be punished by

A.) A sentence in jail.

B.) Forced to pay money equal to the amount of three thousand U.S dollars

C.) Being banished from public places such as restaurants, cinema, leisure parks and malls

D.) Awarding and or showing appreciation to those whom are supporters and workers to eliminating racism, discrimination and Xenophobia

3.) Stating that joining this sub-organization is totally voluntary and by being part of IAO, countries are saying that they will allow the United Nations to interfere and take control of the punishment to those committing the crime,

4.) Urges the United Nations to send a police force or staff to those countries dealing with this horrifying issue in hope of complete elimination of racism, discrimination and Xenophobia,

5.) Calls upon all countries to act immediately in voting for this resolution whereas it gets rid of racism, discrimination, and Xenophobia;

6.) Fully believing that all countries will oblige in attaining the goal, that is taking effective measure to the elimination of racism, discrimination, and Xenophobia. By voting for this resolution, you are allowing all countries that are sadly facing this issue to have hope that it will certainly be eliminated.

 

 

Opening Speech: South Africa

 

From the deserts and forests, up winter snow-capped peaks down to wide, unspoiled beaches and coastal wetlands, lies the sprawling land called South Africa. This land of unequaled splendor and diversity beckons you. When the continents first shifted, Africa was blessed with many natural gifts. Nowhere is this more evident, than at the continent's southern-most tip - for this land at the foot of the African continent is one of immeasurable beauty and great contrast.

The Afrikaner-dominated National Party won the 1948 general election and immediately began to implement the policy known as apartheid, It was the constitution that was adopted when South Africa was created in 1990 that laid the majority of the rules for apartheid. The apartheid system forbade social contact between the different ethnic groups in the country and deprived most non- whites of their basic human rights. After the new constitution was made in 1994 and it was officially stated that the apartheid had ended, South Africa is on its way to gain back all that it has lost from the apartheid .