Event: Pearl-MUN 2001
Student: Sulaiman Al Omar
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Sudan: Country Profile
Jumhuriyat as-Sudan is a country harmed by the starvation of its people, unfriendly weather, weak world goods prices, and destroyed by civil war where more the millions of Sudanese are killed. Its economy suffers from political instability it had experienced. Sudan has been affected by various reorganization in the government. Since the independence of Sudan from the UK in 1956 the military dictatorships declared that an Islamic government has mostly run the country. Also, much of the budget of Sudan has been spent on the military, which has heavily expanded since 1968. The RCC-NS (Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation) chairman Lieutenant General Umar Hassan Ahmad al Bashir who designated the President of the republic and Prime Minister. In 1991 RCC-NS dictated the division of Sudan into nine states. Each state further subdivided into a territory and local government areas or districts. Although RCC-NS banned all political parties in 1989, it allowed political activity by National Islamic Front (NIF), a organization dominated by the Muslim Brotherhood.
Sudan's main crops are cotton, groundnuts (peanuts), sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sesame, durra (a type of sorghum), sugarcane, coffee, and dates. The main existence crops are durra and millet, with smaller amounts of wheat, corn, and barley. Petroleum and small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold, hydropower are also natural resources of Sudan. Petroleum was discovered in western Sudan in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Agriculture is also found in Sudan, and about 80% work on agriculture.
Sudan has a very big population, of about 35,079,814 estimated in June 2000. Sudan to everyone is one country, but it consists of many ethnic groups and traditions. The Sudanese are divided among 19 major ethnic groups and about 597 subgroups who speak more than 100 languages and dialects. Sudan has two distinct divisions. The north, which is largely Arab and Muslim, makes up 70% of Sudanís population. While in the south, the population consists mainly of black people, some of whom are members of indigenous faiths making up 25% of Sudanís population and others who are Christians who make up 5% of Sudanís population.
Sudan isnít a totally educated country with only 46.1% of its populations who are age 15 and over who can read and write. The males are 57.7%, while the females are 34.6%.
The military force that eventually became the Sudanese army was established in 1898, when six troops of black soldiers from southern Sudan were trained to serve with Britain's General Herbert Kitchener in his campaign to retake Sudan.
At independence in 1956, Sudan had 5,000 army men who were regarded as highly trained, skilled professional forces, but its character has changed in succeeding years. To deal with the southern terrorism, the army expanded steadily to 12,000 personnel in 1959 and it leveled off at about 50,000 in 1972. But now the level of military men is 5,014,429 and most are 18 years and older. There are many military branches in Sudan: the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Popular Defense Force Militia. The Soviet Union supplies most military equipment to Sudan.
Sudan is the largest country in Africa with a total area of 2,505,810 sq km and a coastline of 853 km. It has mountainous areas behind Red Sea coast, in the far south, and in the far west. The only interior highlands of consequence are the Nuba Mountains, west of the White Nile River. All streams flow to White Nile and Blue Nile rivers, which join just north of Khartoum to form River Nile. There are also swamps in the south, especially along Bahr al Ghazal (southernmost part of White Nile).
Many countries border Sudan. They are Central African Republic, Chad, and Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Libya, and Uganda.Sudan has a dry, hot climate. It is tropical in the south and has a dry and hot desert in north. The rainy season is from April to October.
Views on World Problems:
Sudan is a member of the United Nations (UN), the Organization of African Unity (OAU), and the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM).
The United Nations (UN) World Food Programme (WFP) had initiated Operation Lifeline Sudan (OLS) in March 1989, which delivered more than 110,000 tons of food aid to southern Sudan before it was obliged by renewed hostilities to close down operations in October 1989. OLS II was launched in late March 1990, via the UN and the International Committee of the Red Cross, to bring in food flights via Kenya and Uganda. In the spring of 1990, WFP indicated it was helping 4.2 million people in Sudan: 1.8 million refugees in Khartoum; 1.4 million people in rural areas of the south; 600,000 who had sought refuge in southern towns; and 400,000 in the "transition zone" in Darfur and Kurdufan, between the north and the south.
In addition to these sources of suffering, the government, beginning in the 1980s, had undertaken campaigns to destroy the Dinka and the Fur and Zaghawa ethnic groups in Darfur. As of 1991 the Bashir regime was also using armed militias to undertake depopulation campaigns against the Nuba in southern Kurdufan. Moreover, the government had to deal with the return in 1991 of Sudanese citizens who had been working in Iraq and Kuwait; according to estimates of the International Labour Organisation, such persons numbered at least 150,000. Finally, during late November 1991 and early 1992, the government forcibly uprooted more than 400,000 non-Arab southern squatters, who had created shanty towns in the outskirts of Khartoum, and transported them to the desert about fifty kilometers away, creating an international outcry.
In summary, in August 1992 the Bashir government found itself in a very difficult position. Although the country's economic problems had begun to be addressed, the economic situation remained critical. At the peace negotiations in Abuja, slight progress had been made toward ending the civil war in the south, but the central concerns about imposition of the sharia and arabization had not been resolved. Moreover, the regime appeared to be facing growing dissension, not only in the south but from elements in the north as well. These considerations raised serious questions about the stability of the Bashir government.
In 1990 the International Monetary Fund (IMF) took the unusual step of declaring Sudan noncooperative because of its nonpayment of debt to the Fund. After Sudan backtracked on promised reforms in 1992-93, the IMF threatened to expel Sudan from the Fund. To avoid expulsion, Khartoum agreed to make token payments on its arrears to the Fund, large exchange rates, and reduce aid, measures it has partially implemented.
The government has worked with foreign partners to develop the oil sector, and the country is producing approximately 150,000 barrels per day. The revenues of Sudan are now about $1.2 billion, while the expenditures are now about $1.3 billion. Sudanese main export partners are Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Japan, Britain, and other European Community (EC) members. Main supplier partners are Saudi Arabia (petroleum), Canada, Britain, other EC members, United States, Japan, and China.
Civil war in the south, massive crowd of refugees from neighboring countries and dryness in 1980s and 1991 was an obstacle economic development. New economic recovery program announced June 1990 to end economic problem by developing agriculture large trade, cancel most government ownership, successively get rid of budget lack, and develop energy resources.
Agriculture continues to dominate the economy of Sudan. Economic growth was virtually nonexistent between the mid-1960s and the early 1990s, when drought and civil war caused the annual gross domestic product (GDP) to fall to a mere $240 per capita. Sudan's huge foreign debt is seen as an obstacle to economic recovery. In 1992 the debt was estimated to be $15 billion, nearly three times the country's gross national product. The GDP began to increase in the mid-1990s; by 1998 it was $10.4 billion.
In compliance with the provisions of the agreement, the first Sudanese parliamentary elections were held late in 1953. The Republic of Sudan was formally established on January 1, 1956. Egypt and the United Kingdom immediately recognized the new nation. Sudan became a member of the Arab League on January 19 and of the United Nations on November 12. The first general parliamentary elections after Sudan attained independence were held on February 27, 1958. The Umma Party won a majority and formed a new government on March 20. It was overthrown on November 17 by Lieutenant General Ibrahim Abboud, the commander in chief of the armed forces.
In November 1964, President Abboud resigned. He was replaced by a supreme council of state. A revolt in southern Sudan that had begun under Abboud against domination by the Arab north continued as a civil war until March 1972. In 1986 after a year of military rule, Sadiq al-Mahdi, the great grandson of Muhammad Ahmad, was elected prime minister in the first free election in 18 years.
Voting was postponed in 37 southern constituencies, however, due to a guerrilla war led by southern rebels known as the Sudanese People's Liberation Army (SPLA) against the Muslim Arab government.
In January 1994 about 100,000 refugees fled to Uganda when Sudanese troops led an offensive against the SPLA. In March safety zones were established for the transportation of provisions and relief workers to the war-torn south. Throughout 1994 mediators from the Intergovernmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD), consisting of representatives from Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia, and Eritrea, attempted to negotiate a peace agreement between the Sudanese government and the SPLA. In September the negotiations resulted in the creation of the Supreme Council for Peace, an 89-member body with 38 representatives from the rebel-dominated south.
Issue#1: Crime prevention and crime justice:
The widespread instability and clashes between ethnic groups arising from the civil war were accompanied by breakdowns of law and order in many parts of the country. Killings, rapes, and thefts of personal possessions, food, and livestock were committed by various militia groups and frequently by the SPLA and the government armed forces as well. Large areas of Sudan became depopulated as a result of the fighting and migrations in search of safety.
Weapons are contributed to the prevalence of banditry, especially along the Chad, Zaire, and Uganda borders. In the western province of Darfur, the police wielded little authority, and lawlessness prevailed. Smuggling is common in the Ethiopian border.
According to the most recent data reported by Sudan to Interpol covering the year 1986, more than 135,000 criminal offenses were recorded, reflecting a rate of 650 crimes per 100,000 of population. More than 1,000 homicides occurred and 3,300 sex offenses were registered, including 600 rapes. There were 7,300 serious assaults. The more than 100,000 thefts of various kinds constituted by far the most common category of crime. They included armed robbery (33,000 cases), breaking and entering (22,500), theft under aggravated circumstances (1,900), and automobile theft (1,500). There were 15,000 cases of fraud and 3,600 drug infractions.
Sudan is not a major narcotics market place. Most of the narcotics consumed in Sudan is marijuana grown in the eastern part of the country. Penalties for narcotics use were similar to those for alcohol and could include severe torture (flogging). Sudanese authorities claimed to have solved more than 70 percent of drug related crimes of robbery and theft and 53 percent of all other crimes reported. Only 25 percent of homicides, 40 percent of general sex offenses, and 32 percent of rape cases were recorded as solved.
Issue#2: Drug control and rehabilitation programs
The collapse of security in many areas was not fully reflected in available statistics on crime, although some indications of the pattern of criminality did emerge. According to the most recent data reported by Sudan to Interpol covering the year 1986, more than 135,000 criminal offenses were recorded 3,600 were drug infractions. Sudan was not a major international narcotics marketplace. Most narcotics consumed in Sudan consisted of marijuana grown in the eastern part of the country. Penalties for narcotics use were similar to those for alcohol and could include flogging. In nearly all categories except narcotics violations, Sudan reported more offenses than Egypt, a country with more than twice the population. This discrepancy may be accounted for by more accurate police records on the extent of criminal activity or by different definitions of the offenses reported to Interpol. The special security courts gained a reputation for harsh sentences. Two defendants convicted of illegal possession of foreign currency and another convicted of drug smuggling were executed and others were sentenced to death for similar crimes, although the sentences were not carried out. The abuse of cocaine and heroin is a new and increasing phenomenon in Sudan.
Issue#3: Taking effective measures to eliminate racism, racial discrimination, and xenophobia
The Sudanese Human Rights Organization was forcibly dissolved in July 1989, and scores of politicians, lawyers, judges, and teachers were arrested. According to a February 1991 report by Amnesty International, arbitrary arrest continued to be frequent, at least 40 political prisoners with serious health conditions were not receiving medical treatment, more than 200 political prisoners had been detained for more than a year without charges, torture was routine, and some political prisoners were summarily executed after trials in which the accused were not afforded opportunities to present any defense. In March 1986, the Sudanese government and the SPLM produced the Koka Dam Declaration, which called for a Sudan "free from racism, tribalism, sectarianism and all causes of discrimination and disparity." All major political parties and organizations, with the exception of the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) and the National Islamic Front (NIF), supported the Koka Dam Declaration.
Issue#4: Improving the financial situation of the United Nations
A large foreign debt and huge back payments continue to cause difficulties. In 1990 the International Monetary Fund (IMF) took the unusual step of declaring Sudan is non co-operative because of its nonpayment of back payments to the Fund. After Sudan backtracked on promised reforms in 1992-93, the IMF threatened to expel Sudan from the Fund. To avoid expulsion, Khartoum agreed to make token payments on its back payments to the Fund, liberalize exchange rates, and reduce economical aid, measures it has partially implemented. They have a debt of 24 billion dollars.
1. COMMITTEE: ECOSOC
2. FORUM: GENERAL ASSEMBLY
3. SUBMIITED BY: SULAIMAN AL OMAR
4. DELEGATION: SUDAN
5. QUESTION OF: CRIME PREVENTION AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE
DefiningAn act committed or omitted in violation of a law forbidding or commanding it and for which punishment is imposed upon conviction. Unlawful activity: statistics relating to violent crime.
Fully Alarmed The spreading of crimes in our country and instability that it causes.
Expressing Its Satisfaction With efforts that successfully curbed crime
Noting With Deep Regret That it is not enough
Fully Deploring The people do not feel safe
1.Urges the United Nations to form a committee called UNSCPC (United Nations and Sudanese crime prevention committee) that:
a) Members of the committee will be chosen by the United Nations and participating countries.
b) 10 of the members will be in each country.
c) Weekly reports to the United Nations about the crime status in the country.
2.Strongly Urges that the UNSCPCís job will be:
a) To investigate the crime problems in the countries.
b) To be a threat to the criminals in each country.
4. Resolves there are many benefits from this committee and the most important one is that crimes will become less and soon there will be none. This is the UNSCPC policy:
a) There will be no wasta also the criminal was the one of the royal family.
b) The criminals name, pictures, and the crime he did will be announced in the TV and written in the newspaper.
c) There will be investigations and witnesses are used to be sure that the criminal is the right guy.
d) The criminal will be punished for the kind of crime he did.
5. Calls Upon
a) Countries to support and join the Sudan in itís efforts to improve.
b) Interpol to co-operate with UNSCPC, to decrease the crimes in all the
Honorable chair, fellow delegates, Saba7 il Ď7air
Greeting from the heart of Africa, the country where nature calls, the Nile River meanders through the green fields and the flowers perfume the atmosphere, Sudan.
Peace, freedom, and democracy are what Sudanese civilians believe in achieving the best.
Sudan stands here before you to highlight some important issues. Although murders, rapes, and thefts of personal possessions, which are under the crime prevention and criminal justice category, are spreading in Sudan, the Sudanese authorities have solved more than 70% of drug related crimes, and 53% of all other crimes. America and United nations are not paying any attention to the worlds problems and a good prove for this is that Americans in some African countries are selling slaves for $34, while they sale an African goat for $50. Where is the United Nations! Where is the democracy and human right!