Country: United Kingdom
Event: Pearl-MUN 2001
Student: Latifa Ben Essa
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The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Island, or the UK, is an unwritten constitutional, parliamentary monarchy and an island nation regulated by a king or queen. The United Kingdom is also head of the Commonwealth of Nations, and it is formed by England, Wales, and Northern Ireland. Commonwealth Nations act independently and have separate internal governments, but the UK is the head and is responsible of all interior and exterior associations of the four isles.
The monarchy is inherited and is measured as the head of the Commonwealth of Nations that leads the commonwealth countries. The monarchy is also in significant charge of settling on the prime minister, government, judges, etc… The queen of UK (Elizabeth II) has no power except for name. The prime minister of the UK, Tony Blair, who is now the prime minister in the UK, takes all political actions into hand. It is the cabinet of government officials, usually called ministers that rule the UK and have the power.
The United Kingdom is very rich and diverse in its natural resources. Agriculture makes up one significant resource and one-third of the lands in the UK are suitable and fertile enough for agriculture and raising crops. The UK’s large deposits of coal and iron ore helped make the country the first industrial nation in the world. Coal, which is an important resource to the UK, was mined for more than three hundred years. Other natural resources that are helpful to the UK include petroleum, natural gas, tin, limestone, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead and silica.
Other mineral resources existing in the UK are gold, silver, copper and zinc though in limited quantities. Large deposits of oil were discovered in the North Sea of the east coast of Scotland in the early 1970’s. In 1975, a pipeline began sending oil from the North Sea to Britain. The UK has many natural resources and is benefiting from them in countless ways and purposes.
The population of the UK, which is 59,511,464, does not contain many native British people. People from different cultures settled in the UK, and that is why the UK is made up of different of various cultures. These cultures included the Romans, Normans, and Saxons… The ethic groups in the UK include the Scottish, which are a 9.6%, the Irish 2.4%, the Welsh 1.9% and the West Indian, Indian, Pakistani, and others making up 2.8% of the population that isn’t English, which is an 81.5%.
These ethic groups don’t really get along with each other and problems have risen long ago and are still present today. Background is very important in the UK, and a person is usually respected by his/her background, and that is why these problems of ethic groups have arisen and are present still in most parts of the UK.
There are many different religions in the UK, and the UK definitely voices freedom of religion. These religions include the Anglican which are 27 million, the Roman Catholic, 9 million, the Muslim, 1 million, the Presbyterian, 800,000, the Methodist, 760,000, the Sikh, 400,000, the Hindu, 350,000, and the Jewish, 300,000, though Christianity is the leading religion in the UK. The main spoken language in the UK is English. The United Kingdom is famous as a touring site since about twenty million visitors travel to the UK yearly to visit its famous museums, theaters, art galleries and historical setting which makes the UK enchanting as it is.
The United Kingdom is a country with two military branches. One is the Army Royal Navy, which includes the Royal Marines, and the other is the Royal Air Force. The size of the military in the UK is (aged 15-49): 14,574,955, and another 12,134,272, (aged 15-49) are fit for military services. Britain is one of a number of nations in the world to with authorization, possess nuclear weapons. Its army, navy, and air force, while small in numbers, are highly skilled and trained. The prime minister (Tony Blair) is responsible for the defense policy.
Britain is a factor to the United Nations businesses and has organized and deployed troops to Bosnia, Cyprus, Kuwait, and Angola. British military instructors are effective in many countries, and thousands of military students from around the world attend military training courses in Britain. The UK is a close friend of the US, and the US’s defenses are tremendously stronger than the UK’s in all ways such as nuclear weapons. But the United Kingdom’s defenses, although with small numbers, can definitely defend themselves and their country from any harm that may occur.
The United Kingdom, comparing to the United States can’t really project power as much as the US. Although it does have power and is economically and politically a success, it does not project its power until discussing it with the US or waiting until the US projects their power so they don’t have to project theirs.
The United Kingdom’s location is bordered to the south by the English Channel, which separates it from continental Europe. The UK is also bordered to the east by the North Sea, and to the west by the Irish Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The only land border of the UK is between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. The total area of the United Kingdom is 244,110 sq km (94,251 sq mi). The capital and largest city is London. The climate in the UK is very mild and quite chilly. At winter, the temperature can drop as low as –12C and in the summer the temperature can reach 32C. The ocean currents that sweep from the equator influence the climate in the UK. UK has rain throughout the year and is constant.
The UK is a leading financial center and a leading power of trade. The UK holds one of the quartets of trillion dollar economies of Western Europe. The energy production in the UK accounts for 10% of the GDP, one of the highest of the many industrialized nations. Services also, such as banking, insurance, and business services are accounted by far for the largest proportion of the GDP, while the importance of industry in the UK has decreased. Industries in the UK include those of production machinery, electric power equipment, railroad equipment, shipbuilding, aircrafts, motor vehicles, electronics and communications equipment, metals, chemicals, coal, clothing, etc…The exports of the UK include manufactures goods, fuels, chemicals, food, beverages, tobacco. The export partners are: Germany, France, Netherlands, and the US being the largest export partner with 13%. The imports of the UK include manufactured goods, machinery, fuels, and foodstuffs. The import partners of the UK include: Germany, France, Netherlands, Italy, and the US with also being the largest import partner of the UK with 14%.
The U.S. and the U.K. share the world's largest investment partnership. U.S. investment in the U.K. reached $213.1 billion in 1999, while U.K. investment is valued at $183.0 billion. The UK is not in debt and does not own any country money.
The United Kingdom did not join the European Communities when first established because the UK thought that membership might weaken the UK's strong trade links with other countries in the Commonwealth, which gave access to cheaper food, and its strong political links with the United States of America.
The United Kingdom was actually interested in creating a European free trade area and in 1959 the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) was created by Britain, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Austria, Portugal, Iceland and Switzerland, with Finland as an associate member. It was not long before Britain realized that it risked economic and political isolation if it remained outside the Community, although it took more than ten years and several negotiations before Britain actually achieved membership in 1973.
As for the Euro system and if the UK has participated in it yet, well, the BLAIR government has put off the question of involvement in the euro system until after the next election, not expected until 2001. And until now, there has been no word of participation.
The economy of the United Kingdom is now, currently, in good shape.
a) British Expansion and Empire
In the 16th century, the British Isles underwent a series of political changes that eventually led to the establishment of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801. The creation of the United Kingdom brought England, Scotland and Ireland under the rule of a central government.
After the ending of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815, the United Kingdom was the leading European power. Peace in Europe allowed the British to focus their interests on more distant parts of the world. During this period was when the British Empire reached its peak. British colonial growth reached its peak during the period of influence of Queen Victoria (1837-1901). Queen Victoria's reign witnessed the spread of British technology, trade, language, and government throughout the British Empire. British colonies contributed to the United Kingdom's extraordinary economic growth and strengthened its voice in world affairs. Even as the United Kingdom became more known abroad, it continued to develop and broaden its democratic institutions at home.
When Queen Victoria died in 1901, other nations, including the United States and Germany, had developed their own industries, and have become economically challenging to the UK. The destruction of World War I, and the depression of the 1930s, made it difficult for the UK to maintain its excellent international position as a world power.
When Ireland achieved independence in 1922, only Northern Ireland remained with the UK, thus becoming The United of Great Britain and Northern Island.
In World War II, the UK played a major role. For one year, from 1940 until 1941, the UK stood alone against Germany. And Following the war, the British Empire began its change into a Commonwealth of state. Even though the UK is no longer a world power, it is still an important voice concerning many matters of the world.
b) The European Community
The UK became a member of EC on January 1, 1973. Britain's entry into the EC began a long period of conflict. The oil crisis in 1973 brought a period of price increases and low economic growth to the EC Member States and Britain. After problems arising in Britain in June 1975 the government wondered whether the UK should stay in the European Community. The British voters confirmed the British membership with a 67 percent approval rate.
In 1979 the Community prepared to join the European Monetary System (EMS), Britain chose not to participate. The British government was doubtful about balancing the British pound to the other countries. While Britain did not agree on the financial issue, it did agree that action needed to be taken against the declining competitiveness of the European industry, and thus the Single European Act (SEA) began. But conflict did arise to the Social Charter in the Act, which would make sure that workers as well as business would equally share the benefits of the single market program. All the heads of the EC Member States except Britain adopted the planned Social Charter and the SEA. Britain opposed, because the plan the reduced the power of trade and weakened Britain's social guidelines. To this day Britain has not yet joined the social portion of the SEA.
Currently, the issue centers on the joining the European Union's single currency, Euro. The British government supports the principle of a single currency but has yet not given any word of joining.
c) The Situation in Northern Ireland
Many conflicts have aroused in Northern Ireland because of civil right movements. These movements took place as Roman Catholics (religious group) asked for social equality. These movements resulted in violent actions. Acts of terrorism by the Irish Republican Army asked for Northern Ireland to be united to the Irish Republic, while the majority was in favor of being part of the United Kingdom. The British government decided to send troops to stabilize the region. Unfortunately, until now in 2001, these actions that have been sent have failed to stabilize the region.
d) The Thatcher Revolution
Margaret Thatcher, Britain’s first female prime minister won the election in 1979. Thatcher based her policy on the theory that involved strictly controlling the money supply. By 1981 both interest rates and unemployment reached high numbers, and a growing number of British firms faced bankruptcy. Even with all of those problems in the economy, Thatcher refused to abandon her policies.
In April 1982, Argentina seized the Falkland Islands, a British colony off the tip of South America. She ordered British troops to the Falkland Islands to retake them from Argentina. A British expeditionary force retook the islands in June and Britain announced victory in the war.
By the mid-1980s, the Thatcher policy had brought down interest rates and mortgages for an increasing number of homeowners and had restricted price increases, and the remaining British industries slowly became internationally competitive. Thatcher resigned in 1990. In brief, Margaret Thatcher has changed the British economy for the better.
e) Tony Blair Reaction
In 1994, the society chose Tony Blair, a young lawyer, as its leader.
Despite the continued economic boom in 1996, and the fact that price increases had nearly disappeared and that unemployment was the lowest in Europe, and growth the highest; Blair attempted to maintain his approach to government for the demands for social justice and the redistribution of wealth. Tony Blair also backed the Parliament’s decision to give Scotland and Wales more regional control and political independence.
Although Blair continued Britain's active participation in the European Union, Britain's strong economy policy reduced the appeal of accepting the unified European currency, the euro. Blair’s government backed away from its commitment to total economic union with the other EU countries because of the cost. In early 1998 Blair announced that it was undecided if they would participate in the Euro, and now in 2001, it is still undecided.
f) Situation of Foot and Mouth Disease
In 1996, a fatal disease found in Britain’s cattle, called the mad cow disease, and was also fatal to humans. The EU banned British beef worldwide. Britain developed a plan, which concerned slaughtering diseased cattle. And then mad cow disease is now not a problem in the UK, but unfortunately, the Foot-and-mouth diseases is.
In the year of 2001, the foot-and-mouth disease has cause many health dangers in the UK. Foot-and-mouth is an acute infectious viral disease, which causes fever in animals with hooves. Unlike the mad cow disease, foot-and-mouth disease is harmless to humans. European Union veterinary specialists have announced a ban on all imports of livestock from UK. The ban on all British exports of live animals, fresh meat and milk was increased as France defended the slaughter of 20,000 sheep imported from Britain. The UK has recently started a program in which all animals with hooves (pigs, cattle, etc…) will be slaughtered as done in 1996 because of the mad cow disease.
View on World Problems
The United Kingdom is a member of the United Nations (UN) and occupies one of the five permanent seats on the United Nations Security Council. The UK is also part in the European Union (EU), an organization dedicated to economic cooperation among European nations. Britain's defense policy leans on membership in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). As a member of the Western European Union (WEU), the UK is part of a forum that consults and cooperates on defense issues concerning European NATO members. The UK also belongs to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), to work to foster and protect human rights. Britain is also a member of the Council of Europe, which is for 40 democratic countries to work together on human rights and social and cultural issues.
The most historically significant international organization the United Kingdom belongs to is the Commonwealth. It consists of 54 members worldwide that have a historical connection to Britain. The British monarch is recognized as the nominal head of the Commonwealth. It brings together leaders and groups from developed and less-developed areas of the world to support each other economically, politically, and socially.
Britain belongs to many other international organizations. One of the most important is the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The IMF is an international financial system and helps member nations that are experiencing financial difficulties. Britain also joined with other countries to form the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), which promotes partnership on economic issues, gathers statistical information, and offers advice to less-developed countries. It is better to identify the United Kingdom as a fairly neutral country with many friends and no enemies. Even though there have been conflicts in the past between the UK and other countries such as Egypt, and India because it has invaded both countries. In the present day, the UK is a fairly secure and stable country.
The United Kingdom is one of the United States' closest friends, and British foreign policy emphasizes close coordination with the United States. Relations were strengthened by the UK's partnership with the United States during both World War I and II and its role as a founding member of NATO, in the Korean conflict, and the Persian Gulf War. The United Kingdom and the United States continually discuss with each other foreign policy issues and global problems and share major foreign and security policy objectives.
The United Kingdom did not become a member of the European Communities when first established because the UK thought that membership might weaken the UK's strong trade links with other countries in the Commonwealth, which gave access to cheaper food, and its strong political links with the United States of America. But it is now a member of the EU and the EU is one of the UK’s largest trading partners.
Issue #1: Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice
The United Kingdom is deeply disturbed by the increase of crime around the world. As a country that is most of the time stable, secure and peace loving, (except at times in Northern Ireland) the UK realizes the need for an environment of harmony. While the United Kingdom benefits from generally low crime rates, the UK lately has experienced a rise in crime (pick-pocketing for instance), including crimes relating to violence. The UK believes that government actions alone cannot solve the problem of crime in the UK and the world. The UK realizes that if a crime reduction strategy or crime prevention plan is to be implemented, then the public has to be involved in the process of crime reduction and prevention and of course willing to reduce the act of crimes in their country.
The United Kingdom understands that the crime reduction process can be established only when the people of the country are willing to better their country. Therefore, the United Nations should urge other countries and make them understand through discussions that an important step to preventing crime is to have an effective communication with the public and to involve the people of the country in the process of decreasing crime.
Issue #2: Improving the financial situation of the United Nations
The United Kingdom is fairly worried about the financial situation of the United Nations. The UK realizes that there are some countries that have not paid their amount of money to the United Nations that has totaled over 3 billion dollars. Even though the UK is proud to declare that it pays its dues fully to the UN, it is still worried of the consequences that might occur because some countries are unable, financially, to pay their dues. The UK feels that there is an air of uncertainty whether The United Nations is able to continue with the increase of unpaid fees.
Since the UK pays its fees completely and without delay, the UK feels that making the UK pay more than it already does is unfair. The UK believes that the only way to solve this problem is to cut the budget of the UN. This will probably make the countries pay their dues. The UK feels that this solution proposed is the most beneficial to the countries of financial difficulty. Of course, when the countries start paying their dues, and the financial system of the UN starts to escalate, then the financial statement would return to its original budget. The UK is not proposing a plan that would put the UK at odds with the economically unable countries; but is introducing a plan that would try to reduce the financial problem of the UN.
Issue #3: Taking effective measures to eliminate racism, racial discrimination, and xenophobia.
The United Kingdom firmly believes that racism, racial discrimination and xenophobia are violations to human rights. The phrases "racism" "racial discrimination" and "xenophobia" are not uncommon terms that are expressed in the society of the UK. Human rights, being universal by definition are entitlements of all individuals. The United Kingdom strongly feels that racism of any kind, racial discrimination, and xenophobia should be dealt with. And the United Kingdom is now working on building a Human Rights Culture, where the people are treated equally and not because of color, religion, status and culture. The Government of the United Kingdom has started to transform the UK into a society that is rid of all racial acts, where equality of opportunity is a reality for every individual. For the UK, even though still being viewed as a country of racial discrimination, xenophobia and racism, has made little but significant developments and has started to view itself beyond color, religion, status and culture.
The UK believes that the UN should urge all other countries that have a problem of racial discrimination and xenophobia to establish several organizations that are able to take operational measures to reduce racism, racial discrimination, and xenophobia. The UN organizations should assist every country with discrimination of any sort to begin taking actions towards reducing the prejudice existing between individuals of a country. If a certain country with racial discrimination has failed to take actions of reducing racism, then the UN forces should interfere and a severe step-to-step, detailed action should be put into action.
Issue #4: Drug control and rehabilitation programs
The United Kingdom finds the issue of drugs extremely important and believes that drug use of any kind is a major plague to the world. The UK detests anyone who has anything to do with drugs, using them or selling them. The UK sharply realizes that the issue of drugs is of a grieving situation worldwide and should be dealt with immediately without hesitance. The United Kingdom loathes drug dealers that are smuggling drugs throughout a worldwide basis and believes that they should be punished severely if found guilty. The UK urges countries that have drug smuggling and use origins to take immediate action to STOP and BAN drugs. If a country is incapable of doing so, other countries or UN forces would have to interfere.
The United Nations organizations can reduce the use of drugs in many ways. The UN can pass a policy that minds very strict monitoring of borders to stop transfer of drugs. The UN can also have a strict policy concerning consumers of drugs, dealers of drugs and farmers that grow drugs. If a country is incapable of stopping this plague of drugs by carrying out actions that have failed, then the UN’s forces should get involved with continuous actions.
Delegate: Latifa al- Essa
Delegation: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Issue: Drug control and Rehabilitation programs
Defining drug as "a chemical substance that disturbs the central nervous system, triggering changes in behavior and often addiction",
Welcomes the continued determination of countries to conquer the world drug problem by practical strategies to decrease the demand for, production of, and any other fixation associated with illegal drugs,
Gravely concerned that despite continued improved effort by countries, international organizations and non-governmental organizations, the drug crisis is still a challenge in the world,
Emphasizes the significance of an action plan that aims at preventing the use of drugs and at reducing the unfavorable consequences of drug abuse,
Further emphasizes the need of a drug-free environment,
Convinced that countries should remain to play an active role and make an effectual contribution to countering the world drug problem,
Acknowledges with appreciation the increased efforts and accomplishments of many member states, international organizations, and non-governmental organizations to opposing drug abuse and unlawful production and use of drugs,
Resolves that all countries come together as one to solve the miserable problem of drugs once and for all,
1. Calls upon all countries to adopt effective measures, including national laws and regulations to reduce the problem of drugs;
2. Urges member states, the United Nation bodies, specialized agencies, and other international organizations to support states if requested;
3. Draws the attention to countries in need of assistance and support, with the aim of increasing their capability to oppose unlawful drugs;
4. Condemns certain countries that don’t acknowledge the increase of drugs as a worldwide problem;
5. Confirms that the association of illegal drugs severely harms:
-Physically, mentally, and emotionally,
b. Family of individual,
6. Urges that all countries alert their people about the effects of drugs in many ways:
a. Articles in magazines, newspapers, handouts, etc.
b. Forming a drug awareness month,
c. Advertisements on television and radio,
7. Declares that individuals associated with drugs to be put in different classes and different punishments, defined by the following;
a. Class A: These include cannabis oil, cocaine and crack, where consumption would yield a penalty of seven years and possession thirty-five years,
b. Class B: These include amphetamine, barbiturates, and codeine, where consumption would yield a penalty of five years and possession fourteen years,
c. Class C: These include minor tranquillizers, where consumption would yield a penalty of two years and possession five years,
8. Further resolves that all nations producing of drugs listed in clause seven shall have the United Nations Narcotics Centers established in those nations to enforce the penalties defined in clause seven;
9. Further reminds countries that the aims of stopping drugs include:
a. To help young people resist drug misuse in order to achieve their full potential in a society,
b. To protect communities from drug-related behavior,
c. To enable people with drug problems to overcome them and live healthy and crime-free lives,
d. To strangle the accessibility of illegal drugs on streets,
10. Expresses its hope that the United Nations considers this resolution because the rapid increase of drugs is a worldwide dilemma and this resolution if passed can tackle the problem.
Honorable chair, fellow delegates, and most distinguished guests, good morning / afternoon / evening.
From the white chalk cliffs of Southern Britain, to the active railways of London. From the biggest clock tower in the world, to the longest streets of twenty-four hours shopping in Oxford.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland welcomes each and every delegate in this room to this ECOSOC meeting. The United Kingdom stands before you here today to discuss a curse that if even mentioned plagues this great room like a pesky mosquito carrying malaria of which we cannot be rid. Ladies and gentlemen, Why is the issue of illegal drugs world wide and known? It is famed because this dilemma doesn’t only plague the United Kingdom, but brings destruction to every single country sitting here today. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland finds the issue of drugs extremely disturbing.
Without hesitation, the United Kingdom believes that the sole most important matter here today is to discuss the issue of forbidden drugs in nations. "Illegal Drugs," two simple and plain words that take the lives of millions every single day.
Ladies and gentlemen, we are gathered here today to kill this pesky mosquito that has caused destruction in our lives before it kills us…