Event: Pearl-MUN 2001

Country: The United States, ECOSOC

Student: Abdullah Bourahmah



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The American National Anthem



The Star Spangled Banner

Oh, say! can you see by the dawn's early light
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming;
Whose broad stripes and bright stars, through the perilous fight,
O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming?
And the rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there:
Oh, say! does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?

On the shore, dimly seen through the mists of the deep,
Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes,
What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep,
As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses?
Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam,
In fully glory reflected now shines in the stream:
'Tis the star-spangled banner! Oh, long may it wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave!

And where is that band who so vauntingly swore
That the havoc of war and the battle's confusion
A home and a country should leave us no more?
Their blood has washed out their foul footsteps' pollution!
No refuge could save the hireling and slave
From the terror of flight or the gloom of the grave:
And the star-spangled banner in triumph doth wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

Oh, thus be it ever, when freemen shall stand
Between their loved home and the war's desolation!
Blest with victory and peace, may the heav'n-rescued land
Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a nation!
Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just,
And this be our motto: "In God is our trust":
And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.


The United States of America




The United States of America

 

COUNTRY PROFILE

 

Political Structure:

The United States government is a federal republic, which has a strong democratic tradition. The US government consists of three major branches. The first branch, which is the executive branch, consists of the President of the United States of America. The second branch, which is the legislative branch, consists of the congress and the senate. The third and final branch is the judicial branch, which consists of Supreme Court.

The president of the US must be a natural-born citizen of the United States, must be at least 35 years old, and be a resident of the country for at least 14 years. In elections for president, voters actually choose among electors committed to the support of a particular candidate. Each state is allotted one electoral vote for each senator and representative in Congress. This is called the electoral-college system. The current US president is George W. Bush, the son of the former president George Bush who played a great role in the Gulf War. George W. Bush was elected on the 3rd of December 2000.

The legislative branch of the government is the Congress, which has two houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives. Powers granted Congress under the Constitution include the power to levy taxes, borrow money, regulate interstate commerce, declare war, seat members, discipline its own membership, and determine its rules of procedure.

There are two major political parties in the United States of America, the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. Other parties have occasionally challenged these two, but without permanent success. One reason for their failure is that in order to win a national election, a party must appeal to a broad base of voters. The national parties exist mainly to contest presidential elections every four years, and in between their quadrennial national conventions, they are often little more than loose alliances of state and local party organizations.

 

Natural Resources:

The United States has plenty of agricultural products as natural resources. The agricultural products of the are wheat, and other grains, corn, fruits, vegetables, cotton, beef, pork, poultry, dairy products, forest products, and fish. The main and natural resources of this country are coal, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphates, uranium, bauxite, gold, iron, mercury, nickel, potash, silver, tungsten, zinc, petroleum, natural gas, and timber. The main export commodities of the US are capital goods, automobiles, industrial supplies and raw materials, consumer goods, and agricultural products. The main import commodities are crude oil and refined petroleum products, machinery, automobiles, consumer goods, industrial raw materials, food and beverages.

The main export partners of the US are Canada (23%), Mexico (12%), Japan (8%), UK (6%), Germany (4%), France (3%), and Netherlands (3%). The main import partners of the US are Canada (19%), Japan (13%), Mexico (10%), China (8%), Germany (5%), UK (4%), and Taiwan (4%).

 

Cultural Factors:

The United States of America has several ethnic groups within its boundaries, these ethnic groups are Caucasian, who take up 83.5% of the total US population, African American, who take up 12.4% of the total US population, and the Asians, who take up 3.3% of the total US population. The final ethnic group which is Amerindian, who take up 0.8% of the total US population.

The three main religions in the US, Christians, Jewish and Muslims. Christianity is sliced into to sides Protestant and Roman Catholic. The Protestants consist of 56% of the population, Roman Catholic about 28%, Jewish about 3%, Muslims about 3%, and other or none consist of 10% of the population.

For the past 200 years two ethnic groups have been feuding together for very reasons. The most important reason why the white people always attack and bother the black people is because of skin color. There have been several groups or an organization within this feud but the most effective and main groups is the Ku Klux Klan (KKK). This group is a group who tortures and attacks several African Americans in very cruel ways.

 

Defense:

There are three different military branches in the US and they are, Department of the Army, Department of the Navy (includes Marine Corps), and the Department of the Air Force. The Coast Guard is normally subordinate to the Department of Transportation, but in the wartime reports to the Department of the Navy. The official military age is 18 years of age. The availability of military manpower is 70,502.691 people of the total population, but the total number of people fit for military service is 2,056,762.

The United States as "power country" should and is helping other countries that need military, financial, and economic support. The most effective way that the US aids other countries is through military power so that there won’t be any other World Wars happening soon and so that there would be peace around the world.



Geography

The US is located in the continent of North America, bordering between both the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean. The US is between Canada and Mexico. The total area of the US is 9,629,091 sq. km, 9,158,960 sq. km of it is all land, and the rest of it is 470,131 sq. km is all water. These numbers only include the 50 states and District of Columbia. The US is about half the size of Russia and about two and one-half times the size of Western Europe.

The climate of the US is mostly temperate but is tropical in Hawaii and Florida, and arctic in Alaska. The climate is semiarid in the Great Plains west of the Mississippi River, and arid in the Great Basin of the southwest. The temperatures in winter go very low in the northwest. They are ameliorated occasionally in January and February by warm chinook winds from the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains.

The terrain is a vast central plain, with mountains in west, and hill and low mountains in the east. There are Rugged Mountains and broad river valleys in Alaska. In Hawaii there is rugged and volcanic topography. The highest point is Mount McKinley, which rises up to 6,194 meters high. The lowest point is Death Valley, which is 86 meters under sea level.

 

Views on World Problems:

The US attempts to run the world. It attempts to keep peace and stability in less stable countries, mainly in Africa and Central Asia. A good example of this is its involvement in the Gulf War and its involvement in the Arab-Israeli peace talks. It is the most active country in NATO and the UN. Currently the US and Britain are responsible for the NATO action against Yugoslavia. The US wants world peace and stability. The long-term goals are to achieve the goals of the UN and NATO and of course the US’s personal interests.

 

Economy:

The United States of America has the most powerful, diverse, and technologically advanced economy in the world. Its GDP per capita is $31, 500, which is the highest among all industrial countries today. This high GDP is because is due to the private market-place that controls the economy, since the government itself buys what it needs from this market. Therefore, individuals and the private sector have great privileges in the US. Also, the US business are more able to expand capital plant, lay off surplus workers, and develop new products; on the other hand, US rivals such as Japan and countries in Western Europe do not have such expandable economies.

However, US firms are hardly allowed to enter markets of other countries, while other countries’ firms are easily allowed to enter the US market. This can be a strategic plan made by the government of the US, since it wants the money to remain in the US, and it wants to charge foreign firms for high taxes as a result of their investment.

US firms lead all others in technology, but this results in a "two-tier labor market" where people of low social status remain uneducated and deprived of many privileges such as health insurance and other benefits. Fortunately, the inflation rate in the US has decreased since 1994, for it is only 1.6% of the whole population. The US economy faces problems such as inefficient investment in economic infrastructure, rising medical costs of an aging population, large trade deficits, and recession in the family income of lower economic groups. The crisis in Russia and East Asia affected the US economy a great deal, since firms had a lot of investment in countries such as Japan, Malaysia, and South Korea.

The US budget’s revenues as estimated in 1998 was around $1.722 trillion, while the expenditures were $1.653 trillion, thus having a surplus of around $70 billion. The US’ exports in 1998 were estimated to be worth $663 billion to partners such as Canada, Western Europe, Japan, and Mexico. Export products included capital goods, automobiles, industrial supplies, and raw materials. Although the US has minor conflicts with Canada and Mexico on the border, it considers the economy a totally different sector and believes that political conflicts should not intervene with economic relations. The US imports were worth $912 billion. This does not mean that the US is not self-sufficient; in fact, it exports mostly crude oil, refined petroleum products, and industrial raw materials from Canada, Western Europe, Japan, Mexico, China, and some Persian Gulf nations. Using the crude oil and raw materials, it makes industrial products out of them at low labor prices and sells them to Third World countries that lack adequate industry opportunities are high prices. Therefore, a lot of profit is obtained. The US is part of many international organizations, such as the IMF and WTO.

 

History:

The Cold War was a time when tensions were very high between the US and the Soviet Union due to the nuclear threat. Since then the US has been involved in three major wars including the Korean War, Vietnam, and the Gulf. Lately its been heavily involved in Yugoslavia. The US has seen many rises and falls in the economy but has managed to stay stable. It saw some major advancement in military technology starting in the early 80’s. The US got involved in the Gulf War against Iraq in 1990. It’s currently involved in the war in Yugoslavia while maintaining peace in the Middle East. It has been very active concerning negotiations between the Israelis and the Palestinians. Iraq has kept the US active in the Persian Gulf since 1990.

 

Policy Statements

 

Issue 1: Crime prevention and criminal justice:

Crime is spreading rapidly around the world. This issue has concerned the US for a very long time and still concerns the US. There are several reasons why the US is concerned of this issue the most, the first reason is the crime of money laundering. Some countries, which I cannot mention in this session, receive their money from various sources. These countries get their income from illegal sources, that probably got their money from drugs or any other criminal acts. The second act of crime that the US is concerned about is the world famous World Wide Web hackers, These hackers are very dangerous, and they have the power to "hack" into the mainframe of government databases. These so-called hackers can get a copy of the government files that are stored in the mainframe and sell them at enormous prices to other countries.

The US is currently trying it’s best to capture these money launderers and these so called famous hackers. These types of crime is actually stable at this time but most likely going to come back in action and raise the rate of these crimes.

 

Issue 2: Improving the financial situation of the United Nations:

The US strongly believes that the United Nations’ financial situation should be improved because the UN would not be able to aid countries in military, financial or economic support. But as the United Nations main income provider, the US strongly encourages other countries to help with the financial problem, which the UN is dealing with.

 

Issue 3: Taking effective measures to eliminate racism, racial discrimination, and xenophobia:

The UN should have an active role toward eliminating racism, racial discrimination, and xenophobia. The US urges the member states of the UN to take firmer action in resolving the racism and racial discrimination in several countries. As most delegates might know that the US has had a bad history of racism and xenophobia, and in some places this action is still going on. The US has had several problems dealing with racism and would like to encourage other countries to help in this issue and to prevent racism, racial discrimination and xenophobia in their country.

 

Issue 4: Drug control and rehabilitation programs:

Drugs have widely spread through out the world during these past years. The UN should also have an active role toward building rehabilitation programs around the world. The US has been having problems with the wide spread of drugs. The US also urges other countries to be more firmly on their countries drugs laws and to try harder to prevent drugs. As a final point the US strongly agrees with this issue.

 

 

Resolution

 

FORUM: ECOSOC

QUESTION OF: Crime prevention and criminal justice.

DELEGATION: United States of America

DELEGATE: Abdullah Bourahmah

Defining crime as an act that abuses or harms a living thing’s life.

Defining criminal justice as "the system of law enforcement, the bar, the judiciary, corrections, and probation that is directly involved in the apprehension, prosecution, defense, sentencing, incarceration, and supervision of those suspected of or charged with criminal offenses."

Aware of the fact that crime rate is rapidly increasing internationally.

Having considered the United Nations and INTERPOL courses of actions to tackle this crisis,

Deeply concerned about the number of people committing crime and the number of those being harmed or abused, whether abused emotionally, physically or mentally,

Expressing with Appreciation that some nations internationally are cooperating to eliminate crime.

Emphasizing that the United Nations should take measures to improve and increase its efforts towards crime prevention and criminal justice.

 

1-Draws the attention to the rapid increase of crime rate internationally,

2-Congratulates the United Nations and INTERPOL on their efforts towards crime prevention and criminal justice,

3-Regrets those nations that are not more consistent in their laws, enforcement of laws, and extradition of criminals to the nation that they committed the crime in,

4-Supports the United Nation’s international enforcing of law inside the nation that needs this enforcing,

5-Further resolves that any nation willing to help to form an international police force like INTERPOL called The United Nation’s Criminal Control Committee (UNCCC), that will try to do its best at all times, and will meet twice a year.

a)will meet at a different country every time they meet, and this country

b) Will be chosen by how high the criminal rate is. The UNCCC would be:

c) It would have educational programs that would encourage people to avoid criminal acts, and these programs would be in these types:

i) Videotapes made by former convicts that have served time in jail and have regretted committing a crime.

ii) Lectures from former convicts that have also regretted having committed a crime

iii) Promoting the selling of crime prevention products and self-defense products like: spy cameras, burglar alarms, ant-theft devices, registration programs, and mace, pepper spray.

iv) Setup a program that would broadcast on television and would:

-Inform the public of major criminals

-Have a hot line that would be free 24-hours a day so people could call and inform our officers of any fugitives and any criminal acts.

6-Further resolves that the UNCCC will decrease the rate of crime by establishing and reinforcing the following:

a) Strictly applying ascending punishments for crimes of different degrees.

i) The maximum punishment should be life sentence but should not include execution.

ii) In order to apply these punishments, a judicial committee should go over the crime and decide on the right punishment according to the crime committed.

b) Form incentives for people to avoid committing crimes and find alternatives to attract criminals away from the "crime world" by providing:

i) Jobs that correspond with the persons talents and interests.

ii) Life necessities such as shelter, food, etc…

7-Encourages all countries willing to help to place a 3% tariff on its highest imports, like oil, and especially the oil-rich countries, to help fund the UNCCC

8-Calls upon donations to the UNCCC from:

One- Countries willing to help neighboring countries with a high rate of crime, with their own police force.

Two- Citizens who are willing to help.

9-Further requests the United Nation to provide generous donations from it income.

10-Urges the IMF for financial support;

11-Further resolves that the UNCCC will build Police Offices and training facilities that will provide help to countries in need and would train officers that would work in these offices.

12-Urges all nations across the world that aid this international police force to tighten its security in air, land and sea borders. So that weapons and other illegal objects would not be able to be smuggled in or out the country.

13-Requests all nations who have caught a person who has committed a criminal act to make criminal pay the consequences no matter how insignificant the crime is.

14-Encourages all families to have strong family values and a strong influence on their children.

 

 

Opening Speech

 

Honorable chair, fellow delegates, helpful administrative staff, and distinguished guests…Good Evening.

From the land of the Great Lakes, the land of the free, and the home for many nationalities, the United States of America stands here at this United Nations ECOSOC Assembly for two good reasons: crime prevention and criminal justice. We, the representatives of our countries who play a vital role in the outcome of world events, need to cooperate in order to eliminate the violence and instability in the world today.

Daily the world witnesses several disturbing criminal acts that continue to occur, over and over again. The US invites all nations willing to work with the US in its pursuit for safety in all of our nations. So follow us, fellow delegates, in pursuing our goal to increase crime prevention and criminal justice.

As a final point, honorable delegates, the US urges you to come into this session with an open mind. If we cooperate and compromises in this assembly the US feels that many issues can be resolved. Thank you for your time.

I yield the floor to the chair.