Event: Pearl-MUN 2001
Country: The United States, Security Council
Delegate: Aziz Al AteeqiLinks to other sites on the Web: Back to the Model UN 2000-2001 page
The United States of America can be called in a conventional form such as the USA or US and its capital is Washington, D.C. The data code of the US is the US and its government type is a federal republic with strong democratic traditions. Several political parties make up the US government, which are the Democratic Party, the Republican Party, and several other parties. The administrative divisions of the US are divided into 50 states and 1 district, which is the District of Columbia. On the other hand there are several dependent areas in the US such as American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island, and several others. It gained its independence on the 4 of July 1776 from Great Britain, and later on is formed its constitution on the 17 of September 1787. The legal system of the US is based on the English law. The government consists of an executive branch, which consists of the chief of state, head of government, cabinet, and elections for the president and the vice president. The legislative branch is a congress that consists of senates and House of Representatives that are also elected. The judicial branch consists of 9 justices for life chosen by the president and confirmed by the senators. There has not been any huge amendments to the USís constitution nor to the governmentís structure thus making the US have a pretty stable government and political structure that has not been changed substantially.
The United States is a huge country with vast amounts and varieties of natural resources. The US possesses coal, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphates, uranium, bauxite, gold, iron, mercury, nickel, potash, silver, tungsten, zinc, petroleum, natural gas, and timber. These natural resources are found in vast amounts throughout the country; they are enough for supplying the nation with enough goods and services extracted and made by these resources. The US territory consists of about 19% arable land, 0% permanent crops, 25% permanent pastures, 30% forest and woodland, and the remaining other pieces of landform 26% of the total land area. The total area of the irrigated land is 207,000 square kilometers making the US able to supply its nation with enough food. There are international agreements concerning air Pollution, air pollution-nitrogen oxides, Antarctic-environmental protocol, Antarctic Treaty, climate change, endangered species, environmental modification, marine dumping, marine life conservation, nuclear rest ban, ozone layer protection, ship pollution, tropical timber, tropical timber, wetlands, and whaling that the US in involved because it wants to preserve its natural resources instead of losing them because of misuse.
American culture is rich, complex, and unique. It emerged from the short and rapid European conquest of an enormous landmass sparsely settled by diverse indigenous peoples. Although European cultural patterns predominated, especially in language, the arts, and political institutions, peoples from Africa, Asia, and North America also contributed to American culture. All of these groups influenced popular tastes in music, dress, entertainment, and cuisine. As a result, American culture possesses an unusual mixture of patterns and forms forged from among its diverse peoples. Various ethnic groups make up the population of the US. These ethnic groups are the white 83.5%, black 12.4%, Asian 3.3%, Amerindian 0.8%; the Hispanics are not considered an ethnic group because the US Census Bureau considers Hispanic to be a mean of a person of Latin descent that is living in the US and that person can be a black or a white of an Asian. The most spread religions in the US are the Christian religion and the Jewish religion. Christian Protestants make up about 56% of the population, 28% Roman Catholic, 2% Jewish, other religions make-up 4% of the population, and the people with no religion make up 10% of the population.
The United States of America has the strongest military arsenal in the world. Furthermore, it has the highest technological weapons and a wide range of them too. The USís military is divided into several branches which are the department of the army, department of the navy (includes Marine Corps), department of the air force, the department of transportation. The armed force of the country is divided into the army, brigade, artillery, cavalry, commando, infantry, military police, navy, and the reserved forces. The military manpower consists of men ranging from 18 years old to 49 that make about 70,502,691 men. A fixed budget is made for the military, which adds up a value of $276.7 billion US dollars in the year 1999 that is about 3.2% of the countryís GDP.
The United States of America is located in North America, bordering between the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean, between Canada and Mexico. It is the worldís third largest country coming after China and Russia. It is located in the 38 00 N and 97 00 W geographic coordinates. The US is divided into 50 States and the District of Columbia. Roughly, 9,158,960 square kilometers of the United Statesí area consists of land, and 470,131 square kilometers of water. Thus, adding up to a total area of 9,629,091 square kilometers. Furthermore, its coastlines are about 19,924 kilometers. The maritime law consults that the territorial seas are 12 nautical miles. The US terrain is vastly a central plain, mountains in west, hills and low mountains in east; rugged mountains and broad river valleys in Alaska and rugged, volcanic topography in Hawaii. The lowest point I the USís land is the death valley, -86 meters, and the highest point is Mount McKinley which is about 6,149 meters high. The border countries to the United States are Canada, Mexico, and the US naval base at Guantanamo Bay in Cuba (the base is leases by the US thus remains part of Cuba. The total distance of borders of the countries with the US is 12,248 kilometers.
Views on World Problems:
President Clinton took office at a time when history's accelerator had been floored by far-reaching political and technological change. An unprecedented opportunity had arisen to bring nations closer together around basic principles of democracy and open markets, and the rule of law and a commitment to peace. There was an urgent need to adapt or replace Cold War institutions, and to assert American leadership in responding to new and dangerous threats. Over the years, the US has negotiated more than 300 trade agreements that have helped to open markets to American products and services.
The US took the lead in supporting core worker standards and striving to outlaw commercial bribery, and ensuring the protection of intellectual property. In 1993, the USís most urgent security objective was to ensure the control and safe handling of weapons of mass destruction in the former Soviet Union. Since that time, the US has done much to reduce the nuclear danger. It had gained the removal of nuclear arms from three former Soviet Republics; helped deactivate thousands of nuclear warheads; and found peaceful employment opportunities for tens of thousands of former Soviet weapons scientists. Despite these steps, the job of safeguarding the USís citizens from "loose nukes" and other proliferation dangers is far from complete. Russia's record on nuclear and missile exports remains mixed, whether for lack of capability or lack of will. And that's why nonproliferation remains among our highest priorities in dealing with Russia. Europe must strengthen its military capabilities without dividing or duplicating the Alliance. NATO's door must remain open to those ready, willing and able to walk through it. And above all, the US must reinforce the understanding on both sides of the Atlantic that the destinies of Europe and America cannot be separated. Some suggest that the US should agree to divide its responsibilities, with Europe accountable for European security and America for the rest of the world, but that is wrong because it weakens the NATO so this shows that the US wants to be involved in everything and to prevent the over division of its responsibilities. America and Europe must remain linked in the tasks of security, the means of prosperity, and the arts of democratic life.
That is the combination that defeated Hitler, rebuilt Western Europe, faced down Communism, and forged regional and global institutions upon which the world still depends. And that is the combination that is making all the difference now in Europe's southeast corner. By acting with unity and resolve, the US can respond successfully to an urgent real-world threat, thereby sending an unmistakable signal to friends and potential foes alike. The US also reinforces the principle that, in our era, massive violations of human rights cannot be ignored; they must be opposed.
The US has the most technologically powerful, diverse, advanced, and largest economy in the world, with a per capita GDP of $33,900. Over 80 percent of the goods and services purchased by U.S. consumers each year are made in the United States; the rest are imported from other nations. In addition to spending by private households and businesses, government agencies at all levels (federal, state, and local) spend roughly an additional $1.5 trillion a year. In this market-oriented economy, private individuals and business firms make most of the decisions, and government buys needed goods and services predominantly in the private marketplace. US business firms enjoy considerably greater flexibility than their counterparts in Western Europe and Japan in decisions to expand capital plant, lay off surplus workers, and develop new products. At the same time, they face higher barriers to entry in their rivals' home markets than the barriers to entry of foreign firms in US markets. The outlook for 2000 is clouded by the continued economic problems of Japan, Russia, Indonesia, Brazil, and many other countries. Domestically, the potentially most serious problem is the exuberant level of stock prices in relation to corporate earnings. The US has a purchasing power parity of $9.255 trillion US dollars, 4.1% GDP yearly growth rate, a GDP per capita of $33,900 thousand US dollars. The composition of the US GPD is 2% agricultural, 18% industry, and 80% services. The US is a part of the World Trade Organization WTO (an organization promote freer trade, the International Monetary Fund IMF (is stabilizes the exchange rate across the member nations), the General Agreements and Tariff Trade Organization GATT (it reduces tariffs), and the North American Free Trade Agreement NAFTA.
George Bush, Reagan's vice president and successor, inherited Reagan's agenda and continued Reagan's policies. Bush won public approval for his management of the Persian Gulf War in 1991. But like his predecessors, Bush met with public disapproval about the economy. First the brief war caused oil prices to rise, and war costs put new pressures on federal finances. Second, Bush had promised "no new taxes," but in fact agreed to raise taxes. Finally, the president clashed with Congress over how to improve the economy and reduce the huge national deficit. Later on in 1992 Bill Clinton was elected for the presidency. In 1996 riding a booming economy, he also succeeded in obliterating the huge deficit Reagan left behind. Clinton's reputation suffered in 1998 because of his affair with the White Houseís intern. A special prosecutor originally appointed to investigate aspects of the presidentís past financial and administrative dealings brought the affair to the publicís attention. The affair and a lack of presidential candor about it led Congress to hold impeachment hearings. Clinton's supporters continued to endorse the president, as did many respondents to opinion polls. The president's detractors denounced him for lying to the public, to his family, and to his advisers for many months. Impeached by the House of Representatives in December 1998 on charges of lying under oath and obstructing justice, Clinton was acquitted by the Senate in February 1999.
The Anti-Ballistic Missile Defense System Issue
In 1972 a treaty called the Ant-Ballistic Missile treaty was signed by the big five countries. The treatyís objective was to maintain international peace and security by restricting any country from developing any kind of weapon. All countries that signed this treaty have to abide by its rules. Unfortunately, one of the countries that signed the treaty no longer exists today, which is the USSR. The situation in which this treaty was signed in has been changed because the dispute that existed between the USSR and the USA does not exist right now. The USA has withdrawn itself from this treaty by developing an ABM missile system and is has violated it.
The US reasons for its withdrawal from the treaty is behind a fact, which states that the conditions in which the treaty has been signed in changed. The USSR no longer exists, and thus the dispute between the US and the USSR no longer exists. At that time only the big five countries possessed nuclear weapons, however, nowadays many other countries have nuclear weapons in their possession too. The international security became in issue and the US thinks that the development of the ABM defense system will establish peace and maintain it. Thus, the ABM defense system must be developed, which makes the US excused from violating the treaty.
The security situation in the Arabian Gulf
A couple of incidents in the Arabian Gulf threaten peace process in it. Attacks against the USís ships in that region from terrorists in Yemen. Iran is crossing its sea borders and conquering the islands that belong to UAE and refusing to withdraw its troops from there. Iraq is threatening to attack Kuwait every now and then. Any of these incidents might spark up a war that would be devastating. This will severely threaten the process of establishing and maintaining international security and peace in that region and the world. Countries in that region are in disputes that are not being solved so what about disputes between countries in the rest of the world. The Arabian Gulf region is becoming one of the most dangerous regions in the world.
The US will keep its troops and naval army in the Arabian Gulf region until it reaches it goal in that region, which is to solve the terrorism problem in Yemen. Also to deal with the Iraqi dictator, Sadam Hussein, in order to secure the borders of Kuwait and to avoid any war resulting in the future between these two countries. Furthermore, the dispute amongst the Islands between and UAE has to be solved peacefully because if no attention is paid to that particular issue then violence might be used by any country involved in the dispute in order to solve the problem. The USís objective and goal is to secure that region from any dangers of wars of terrorist acts.
The Spratly Islandsí Issue
A long-simmering feud between China and the Philippines is threatening to boil over again with both countries seeking to enforce their claims over a rocky outcrop lying within the disputed Spratly islands, many other countries claim it too, such as Vietnam and Taiwan. Philippines claim that the Spratly Islands are part of Philippine and China argues that itís not. Navy officials say they also seized boxes of illegal fishing equipment such as electrical blasting caps, time fuses, dynamite sticks, and cyanide. The incident prompted the Philippine government to file a diplomatic protest against China over what it says is the frequent incursion of Chinese fishing boats. Each country claims that the islands belong to it. Several other countries such as Vietnam and South Korea claim the islands belong to it too. The main reason behind all of this is that the island has a lot of natural resources and the main natural resource is the oil in the grounds of the island. Before that this island was neglected because it was not really a permanent island. During high tides the island was covered with water and during low tides it re-appears.
The countries involved in this issue are trying to solve this issue by using power. Each country is sending some ships to the island awaiting the attack of the other countries. Each country wants the other country to attack to make the world see that country attacking it does not want to negotiate and solve the problem peacefully, itís using force. The USís policy towards this issue is simple, direct, and explicit. The countries should cooperate and negotiate a solution that pleases them all and not use power. If power is used, and the nations do not negotiate and do not comply with that, then serious measures will be taken against these countries.
Anti-Ballistic Missile Defense System Issue:
Requests the rich countries with a budget surplus to assist in the development of the
Anti-Ballistic Missile defense system in the following measures:
Sending financial aid that will be returned back by the United States with a market rate interest rate as soon as the defense system is developed and sold,
a. Lowering the costs of developing the ABM defense system,
ii) Sending physicists and chemists that would assist in developing the ABM defense system,
a. Making the process of developing the ABM defense system take less time
Reminds all nations that the ABM defense system will be sold to countries under certain conditions:
i) These nations are cleared by NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization),
ii) A clean history of the countries wanting to purchase the developed ABM defense system,
Advises all nations that the ABM defense system is made for defense purposes, if countries do not comply, the following strict measurements will take onto course:
i) Sanctions will be imposed on these countries,
ii) These countries will be expelled from the Disarmament Committee of the United Nations until further notice,
Spratly Islandsí Issue:
Demands the immediate withdrawal of Chinese troops from the Spratly Islands, if China does not comply, the following actions will be taken against China:
i) Trade restrictions will be imposed on China,
ii) China will be expelled from the Special Committee Territorial Disputes of the United Nations,
Reminds all nations that the Spratly Islands are not an integral part of China, Singapore, Philippines, Vietnam, Taiwan, nor Asean yet,
Strongly Advises all nations concerned in this issue of the importance of not using force to solve the problem,
Stipulates that if force is used:
a. The Spratly Islands will be considered in international waters that no country can claim or use its resources in the future,
b. All of the countries that use force will be expelled from the Special Committee of Territorial Disputes of the United Nations,
Security in the Arabian Gulf Issue:
Strongly Advises Iraq, The Islamic Republic of Iran, and Yemen to maintain peace in the region, if the countries fail to comply:
i) One warning against these countries will be issued,
ii) The second time they are warned:
a. Sanctions will be imposed on these countries,
Urges the Islamic Republic of Iran to cooperate with the United Arab Emirates in order to take the issue of the disputed Abu Moussa, Tumb Al-Sughra, and Tumb Al-Kubra islands to the International Court of Justice under certain conditions,
i) no preconditions,
ii) All issues to be presented on the tables
Demands the immediate return of the Kuwaiti hostages in Iraq to Kuwait immediately, failure to do so will result in:
i) More strict sanctions being imposed in Iraq,
ii) Iraq will be expelled from the Human Right Commission of the United Nations,
Honorable Chair, Honorable Delegates, Worthy Audience, good afternoon. The United States of America would like to welcome all nations present in this Security Council Session, and applauds them for their grave concern on solving the worldís most important issues presented on the table, today. In fact, that gives the US and a good impression of the countries present here and their willingness to form a constructive session rather than a destructive session. The United States is and has been a country wanting peace to all nations and maintaining it in the world. Furthermore, the US would like to remind all nations of the importance of cooperating together and negotiating in order to establish peace in the world and maintain it, which is the key part to the prosperity of the world in its bright future, undoubtedly.
About thirty Years ago, nuclear bombs were in some countries possession, however, today, it is in many countries possession, including terrorist, which a very serious problem. The influence of terrorists and their dangers are and have grown in the past years, which threatens maintaining international security and peace. Today, we have to go beyond an old treaty signed 29 years ago, and stop the growing influence of the weapons possessed by terrorists by going beyond that old treaty and developing a new defense system, the National Missile Defense System (NMD). This new system will be used, and ONLY be used to defense purposes in order to weaken the effectiveness of the weapons in the terrorists' hands. Thank you. I yield the floor to the chair.
STATEMENT OF THE DELEGATE
Pearl MUN was a very successful event in which we faced and felt the basic essence of the real worldís United Nations. Most of the countries present abided by their policies, which made everything look as brilliant and as fascinating as the real United Nations. The American Academy for Girls and FAIPS joined us in making this a very successful event and that I really appreciate.
Without any of the secretary generalís, chairís, administrative staffís, delegatesí, and the coachesí efforts then this event would have been a total failure to be talked about throughout the Kuwaiti neighborhoods every now and then. Although we were in a battle against time in preparation for this event, we never gave up in order to reach our goal and bring up this event to life. However, without the other schoolís participation the event would have been nothing. Therefore, I really thank FAIPS and AAG for their participation in this event, which was a success. Thank you.
As for my experience in the Security Council as the Ambassador of the United States, I really think that everything was under control. I exploited the situation successfully and succeeded in controlling everything. However, that made many countries mad on me because I really represented the United States of America. Stubbornness, ambition, and leadership were characteristics that I had to possess in order to succeed in presenting the United States of America. I tried my best, never gave up, and thankfully that yielded me the best performance award for the event. These are the exact characteristics an Ambassador has to possess and especially the Ambassador of the United States. Two aspects that have to kept in mind to succeed in your job as a delegate, one must abide by his policy no matter what, and must not give up at any time, always fight.