Event: Pearl-MUN 2002
Student: Fahad Sultan
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Bahrain is a kingdom, which is now being ruled by King Hamad Bin Essa Al-Khalifa. He appoints a Council of Ministers and a 30-member Consultative Council. Bahrain is a member of the UN, Arab League, OPEC, and the GCC. It has a constitution instead of a monarchy, which it changed into recently. Bahrain’s legal system is based on the shareeah, which is the Islamic law, and English common law. It is a constitutional monarchy.
Bahrain's total area is 707 sq. km (273 sq. MI), a little less than that of New York City. The main island of Bahrain is by far the largest, with an area of 562 sq. km (217 sq. MI). The country lacks dramatic topographical features, such as mountains or valleys. The main island consists of a low desert plain that rises to a low central escarpment where Bahrain's highest point, Jabal ad Dukhan (134 m/440 ft), is located. The smaller islands, which include Al Muharraq, Umm an Na'san, Sitrah, Jiddah, and the Hawar Islands, are generally low-lying, some only a few feet above sea level. Parts of Manama are being expanded through land reclamation. Bahrain lacks rivers, lakes, and other permanent bodies of water. It obtains water for drinking and irrigation from underground aquifers.
Despite harsh desert conditions, Bahrain supports varied plant and animal life. Petroleum and natural gas constitute Bahrain's principal natural resources. However, the country's reserves of petroleum and natural gas are far smaller than those of its neighbors. Only about 4 percent of the land is suitable for farming. Bahrain's surrounding waters contain considerable numbers of fish and shellfish.
Bahrain’s population is 645, 361 where nearly a third are not Bahrainis. The people there are Bahrainis. Their main languages are; Arabic, English, Farsi and Urdu. In Bahrain there are five Ethnic groups, and they consist of 63% Bahrainis, 19% Asians, 8% Iranians, and 10% Non-Bahraini Arab. They are all mostly Muslims consisting of 60% Shi'a Muslim and 30% Sunni Muslim. Its death rate is 3.92 deaths/1,000 population and its birth rate is 20.07 births/1,000 population
Bahrain has a very small military force consisting of five main division, the ground force, Air force, Sea force (Navy), the coast guard and the Police. Bahrain’s military consists of people of the age of 15 and older. Its Military expenditures are $318 million.
Bahrain consists of 35 different islands, the biggest of which is Bahrain. It lies in the Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia (26 00 N, 50 33 E). It has been in dispute with Qatar over the islands of Hawar, which were recently granted to Bahrain by the ICJ. Bahrain has a mild climate, winters are quite pleasant, while summers are humid and hot caused by the tidal winds from the south called "AL KOUS"
Views of world problems:
Bahrain is a neutral country, it has good relations with most Arab countries and the only dispute it was involved in was the fight over the Hawar islands. Qatar invaded the islands and claimed it to its belongings, and Bahrain refused to give it to the,. This case was taken to the ICJ, and the islands were given to Bahrain.
In Bahrain, petroleum production and refining account for about 60% of export receipts, 60% of government revenues, and 30% of GDP. With its highly developed communication and transport facilities, Bahrain is home to numerous multinational firms with business in the Gulf. Bahrain is dependent on Saudi Arabia for oil revenue granted as aid. A large share of exports consists of petroleum products made from imported crude. Construction proceeds on several major industrial projects. Unemployment, especially among the young, and the depletion of both oil and underground water resources are major long-term economic problems
Known in ancient times as Dilmun, Bahrain was an important center of trade by the 3rd millennium BC. The islands were ruled by the Persians in the 4th century AD., and then by Arabs until 1541, when the Portuguese invaded them. Persia again claimed Bahrain in 1602. In 1783 Ahmad ibn al-Khalifah took over, and the al-Khalifahs remain the ruling family today. Bahrain became a British protectorate in 1820. It did not gain full independence until Aug. 14, 1971.
Although oil was discovered in Bahrain in the 1930s, it was relatively little compared to other Gulf states, and the wells are expected to be the first in the region to dry up. Sheik Isa ibn-Sulman al-Khalifah, who became emir in 1961, was determined to diversify his country's economy, and set about establishing Bahrain as a major financial center. The country provides its people with free medical care, education, and old-age pensions.
Conflicts between the Shiites and Sunnis are a continuing problem in Bahrain. The Sunni minority, to which the ruling al-Khalifah family belongs, controls nearly all the power and wealth in the country. Shiite Muslims have continued to agitate for more representation in government, and minor violent clashes have led to about two dozen deaths since 1994.
Bahrain has been an important Western ally, serving as a Western air base during the Persian Gulf War in 1991, and continuing to serve as the base of the United States' Fifth Fleet, which patrols the Gulf.
Sheik Isa ibn-Sulman al-Khalifah died in 1999 after four decades of rule. He was succeeded by his son, Sheik Hamad ibn Isa al-Khalifah, who immediately began a sweeping democratization of the country: censorship has been relaxed and draconian laws repealed, exiles have been repatriated, and the stateless Bidoons have been granted citizenship. In a Feb. 2001 referendum, which permitted women to vote for the first time, Bahrainis overwhelmingly supported the transformation of the traditional monarchy into a constitutional one.
Issue #1: Rights of space usage.
Issue #2: Sanctions against Iraq
After the gulf war of 1990-1991, Iraq left Kuwait in a sad image. Kuwait was destroyed from top to bottom oil wells were burnt, and people were slaughtered, killed, and tortured. This was offending the humanitarian rights of the people of Kuwait. Sanctions were imposed on Iraq, and that was the first step. Sanctions are war, They are the most brutal form of war because they punish an entire population, targeting children, the future, most of all. Sanctions are a weapon of mass destruction. From 1990, when sanctions were imposed on Iraq until 1995, half a million children under the age of five died of malnutrition and preventable diseases. Sanctions impose artificial famine. A third of Iraq's surviving children today have stunted growth and nutritional deficiencies that will deform their shortened lives.
Bahrain thinks that all sanctions except military Sanctions should be lifted off Iraq, since the US. / UN sanctions against Iraq, have now been in place for nearly eight years, are a crime against humanity. Millions of children are endangered by the lack of adequate food, medicine, water and sewage treatment, and all the necessities of life. There can be no justification for a policy that takes the lives of 300 people every day, this Bahrain thinks that this issue should be acted upon seriously and quickly. Bahrain would do what ever it takes to resolve this issue.
Issue #3: Fighting International Terrorism
After September 11 attacks the world was shocked, Terrorism has become a major issue and so it is. Terrorism by definition is the unlawful use or threatened use of force or violence by a person or an organized group against people or property with the intention of intimidating or coercing societies or governments, often for ideological or political reasons.
Bahrain thinks, Terrorism in all its forms must be vanished in a proper way. What is being done nowadays to fight terrorism is looking at one side and not the other. The red white and blue, have created a new definition to terrorism as they wish. This is against humanitarian rights, and Bahrain will strive in fighting terrorism the right way.
Issue #4: West Africa (Liberia)
The refugee crisis in Guinea is part of a complicated regional conflict, which started in Liberia more than 10 years ago, and spilled over to neighboring Sierra Leone. Diamonds from Sierra Leone helped finance the war. Although the roots of the conflict may date back to the arbitrary frontiers carved out by colonialists, events of the last decade have enmeshed these countries in each other's disputes.
By the beginning of 2001, Guinea was home to more than 400,000 refugees from Sierra Leone and Liberia. Most of the refugees were trapped in an area known as Parrot's Beak, caught between the rebels from whom they were fleeing, and a Guinea army reluctant to let them move north to safety. They are often caught up in cross border attacks, and blamed by the local authorities for collaborating with the attackers. Meanwhile, the UK and US called on the UN to implement sanctions against Liberia, who they blame for arming the RUF in exchange for diamonds.
Bahrain thinks that all sanctions should be lifted off Liberia and all offenders of any laws should be put through fair trails.
Honorable chair, Fellow delegates, Helpful administrative staff, and most distinguished guests… Al Salaam Alaykom… Greetings… Where the blue sky is wide open… where the velvet sea stretches to the world beyond, and where pearls shine and flourish our people… where kindness is a part our life… and where it seems like heaven is on earth… Greetings from everyone’s brother… greetings from Bahrain.
Bahrain is here today to discus a few important issues, most important of all is the issue of sanctions. Bahrain believes in limited sanctions that cause damage to the government and not to the civilians, sanctions should be supervised. Sanctions should be placed for governmental purposes. The imposing of sanctions on Iraq the way it is a crime, a crime killing more than 300 children a day. This issue must be looked into, before anything today and hopefully resolve this problem.
Bahrain is not here to complain and wine, Bahrain is here today for a purpose. Not a purpose of arguing with one another, not for recalling what happened in the past, not for pointing fingers and definitely not for condemning one another, but to make this world a better place, resolve our conflicts, and restore the dignity of each and every nation present. For all we have is one world, and we, human kind, are the rulers of it, so let us rule it together, as one hand, as one pride, as one nation, for this is in fact the United Nations.