Country: Republic of Chad
Event: Dhow-MUN 2001/KFSAC 2002
Ghadi Al RifaeLinks to other sites on the Web: Back to the 2001-2002 Team page
Chad considers itself a republic. The president is to be elected by a vote from the people. In order to win the election a candidate must have at least 50% of the votes. If no candidate gets 50%, then the two candidates with the most votes have a run of election. In the second election the votes are made again and the winner is the one with the most votes. The last election was on May 20th, 2001 and Idriss Deby was elected president because he took 63% of the votes. In addition to the president Chad has a prime minister who is appointed by the president. Nagoum Yamassoum was appointed prime minister in 1999.
The legislated brad of the legislated Chad is called The National Assembly. The national assembly has 125 seats. The representatives are elected by popular vote and serve for four years. The voting is the same as voting for president because a candidate must get 50% or more to be elected. If no candidate gets 50% or more a runoff election is held for the two candidates who have the highest number of votes.
The Republic of Chad is located in the north central Africa. It is a land locked country surrounded by Libya to the north and the Central African Republic to the south. Its eastern boundary is Sudan. Its western boundary is formed by Cameroon, Nigeria, and Niger. The Republic of Chad has an area of 1,284,000 sq. km. The northern half of Chad is in the Sahara Desert where Tibesti Massif being the highest elevation in the country. This country is dominated by the Lake Chad Basin that spreads into mountains and plateau. The Logon and Chari are the two important rivers. They are located in the southwest part of the country and flout into Lake Chad. Even though Lake Chad becomes twice as large in the rainy season, its level is falling because there have been extended droughts and over use of the lake water for irrigation and so on.
Agricultural resources are important to the economy to the Republic of Chad. About 3% of its land is being used for agriculture. Not only are local food crops grown, but imported seeds and plants have begun to yield food products. In addition cotton is grown in the south and has become an important export from Lake Chad and the two rivers fish are taken.
Besides agriculture there are also minerals in Chad. Salt in the form of Neutron is mind there. Several other resources are present but mining has not begun because the government is also unstable for example deposits of gold, Bauxile and Uranium in the north have been discovered but are still waiting to be mind and processed. Likewise oil deposits near Lake Chad have not been tact.
The Republic of Chad had about 8,707,078 citizens in the 2001 estimate. The population is made up of two main groups. The first is Muslim population and the northern and eastern parts of the country that makes up about 50% of the population. The Muslim group is divided into Arabs who are no modes and no Arabs who have settled on villages and on farms. Black African people in the south make up the other 50% of the population. This group is also divided into two types of people. Christians are about 25% of the group and traditional African religions are the other 25%.
The official languages are French and Arabic however local languages like Hausa are also spoken. In fact there are more than 100 different languages and dialects spoken by the people in the Republic of Chad. The Sara people who live in the south are the largest ethnic groups in the country. Even though most of the culture comes from the black African people and their ethnic heritage, there is a great deal of French and Islamic influence.
One of the poorest countries in the world the Republic of Chad depends on subsistence agriculture as the base of its economy. 80% or more of the labor force is involved with farming or raising animals. There are many factors that cause the Growth National Product (GNP) to be about $180 US per capita. This is one of the lowest in the world. The civil climate off-in drought which last along time and results in the loss of food. Another problem is the remoteness of the country and the lack of natural resources. Perhaps the most serious factor is the lack of an infrastructure and political corruptness. For all of these reasons the Republic of Chad is one of the most under developed countries in the world who must depend on fern aid to provide enough food for its people. The economy has also been elected by an unstable government food shortage and the civil was in the 1980’s.
Chad exports agricultural products and cotton, cattle, and text styles to earn about $172 million, its main trade partner is Portugal but it has trade agreements with Germany, Thailand, Costa Rica, South Africa and France. Its imports much more than its exports. In the year 2000 Chad imported approximately $223 million worth of machinery and transported equipment, industrial goods, petroleum products, food and textiles. 40% of its imports come from France but it also imports goods from Cameroon, Nigeria, and India.
As the member of the Franc Zone the CFA Franc of the Republic of Chad has a fixed exchanged rate. The CFA Franc has 100-cent times and does not do well in the world market. 608.93 CFA Franc is worth $1 US. Most of the time the country spends more than it earns and so it is always in dept. besides membership in the Franc Zone Chad is also a member in the UN, The Organization in the Islamic Conference, and the Organization for the African Unity.
The most recent information available on the Republic of Chad national security comes from 1987. At that time Chad had an army of about 28,000 men with an air force with less than 200 men. While the government drafted men for one year or more it was not considered. The presidential guard totaled 3,600. The army was not very well equipped and there were no combat aircraft for the air force. Most training for the army and air force in the south as well as most military supplies such as weapons come from France. On the other hand Libya supplied the northern troops with weapons and so on that it purchased from Russia. According to the 1987 information about 1/3 of the government money were spent on defense.
Views on World Problems:
Chad is a member of African Development Bank, Western African Economic Community, Conference of East and Central African States, European Community, Group of 77, World Bank, International Cotton Advisory Committee, Islamic Development Bank, Lake Chad Basin Commission, Nonaligned Movement, Organization of African Unity, Organization of the Islamic Conference, and the United Nations.
Chad has had many disputes and even more with Libya for many years but at president there is peace between them. In addition there were disagreements between Chad, Cameroon, Niger, and Nigeria over the boundaries around Lake Chad. However, there is an agreement that has been written for these four countries that will solve the border problems. Once they all agree to sign it.
The area around Lake Chad is very old. In fact cave paintings show that it was futile and heavenly populated in ancient times. In the eleventh century the rulers of Kanem-Bornu Empire adopted Islam and had its capital in Njimi. Over the years it was ruled by sultans from neighboring kingdoms of Baguirmi and Wadai. The bases for its economy was the export of slaves to northern Africa. By the 19th century this area was ruled by Rabah Zubayr of the Sudan. When he died the country was taken over by the French and became part of French Equatorial Africa in 1910. While this change established cotton plantation as part of the economy, it did not change the lives of the people in the country. The French controlled Chad for the next 50 years before Chad won its independence.
Today the country is politically unstable. There are at least 45 oppositional political and many dissident groups who keep the country in its present condition. A new constitution was adopted in March 1996. It established the executive power of a president who appoints a prime minister. Further more a bicameral legislature was established. However there is still political instability.
1) Measures to ensure the rights of minorities within a country
All people, whether minorities or not, should have their rights insured it is the responsibility of a government to have laws that do not distinguish a minority person from anyone else in other words everyone should be treated equally under the law. In addition there should be equal job opportunities, equal opportunities for education, and equal medical treatment available. In other words every person in a country should be treated the same as everyone else.
Chad is suffering from minorities and is trying to put an end to this problem without succession due to lack of economical support.
2) The Question of Palestine and the Peace process in the Middle East
Since the Belford agreement first gave the Jews to build their own country of Israel; there has not been peace. Perhaps there will never be peace in the Middle East because neither side is willing to compromise. Along the same line thousands of children have known nothing but war in Israel and Palestine. They have learned to hate each other and are now becoming adults who will fight each other. It may be they’ll still be fighting each other forever no matter what.
Chad is trying to help Palestine but due to political and economical instability it is encountering obsticles.
3) The Question of Drug usage, drug trafficking, and rehabilitation programs.
If we can stop drug dealers and put them out of business we can stop drug abuse. First all government must work together to cut of there money supply and close there bank accounts, without money they can not continue. One solution might be to use the money taken away from drug dealers to build and run rehabilitation programs for drug users.
Chad is suffering from poor border patrols which is leading to illegal drug trafficking.
4) The Question of International terrorism?
International terrorism is becoming a more serious problem everyday. There must be a world court that will try terrorist without bias towards race, religion, sex, etc. Penalty’s for convicted terrorist who have destroyed property and murdered people should be of the most serious kind. In some cases the terrorist may deserve the death penalty. It will take the co-operation of all counting in the world to stop international terrorism. Chad is not suffering from international terrorism but is willing to help this problem.
Delegate: Ghaida Al- Rifae
Welcoming all helps and support from organizations around the worldwide,
Defining drug as, "A chemical substance, such as narcotic or hallucinogen, that affects the central nervous system, causing changes in behavior and often addiction,"
Believing that the United Nations and the International Narcotic Control Board have encouraged the importance of reducing drug trafficking,
Congratulating the United Nations for its special convention against illicit traffic in Narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances and its declaration on the guiding principles of drug demand reduction,
Noting with appreciation the continued efforts of the UN to find a solution to the problem of drug trafficking,
Pointing out that there is also local drug abuse,
Realizing that the borders of most nations are easily passed through,
Noting with deep regret that the drug traffickers use fear and intimidation to recruit young people as carriers and drug dealers,
Thanking all nations for making all the great efforts from the UN and the National Organization,
1. Asks UN to identify countries trafficking drugs;
2. Strongly condemns drug trafficking and exploitation of young people by drug traffickers;
3. Calls upon the UN to become involved in developing measures for stopping drug trafficking across the world;
4. Suggests that stricter control of border crossings could deter drug trafficking;
5. Encourages development of programs to educate youth and offer them alternatives to drug dealing and drug trafficking;
6. Strongly affirms that the governments of all nations and the UN work together to set up rehabilitation centers for drug users;
7. Expresses its hope that the United Nations can work hand in hand with the countries to reduce drug trafficking across its border.
The Republic of Chad is a country of over 8 million people that is located in north central Africa. It is one of the poorest countries in the world and must have foreign aid to feed its people. The majority of the population is Arab Muslim but there are also black Africans who are Christians or follow traditional African religions. Besides local dialects like Hausa French and Arabic are also spoken. Culture and traditions in this country are a mix of black African heritage with French and Islamic influence. While the Republic of Chad is based on a very old culture it has not had an easy history. In the early twentieth century it was taken over by the French who controlled it for 50 years. In 1960 it became independent but still had to rely on the French for financial help. Today the Republic of Chad remains politically unstable. There have been efforts made to have free honest elections and more democratic governments. However this struggle continues.
For many years Chadeans have supplemented their pitiful incomes with money from drug trafficking. Since the Republic of Chad is located in the center of the African drug triangle it was easy for it to become part of a trade route for major drug trafficking. This business has brought some money into the country but has lead to serious problems. Many of the young people act as couriers and drug dealers because they have been intimated by the drug lords and are afraid not to do what they say. As the citizens become more involved in drug trafficking their government may become even more unstable because of conflicts between different drug trafficking groups. Drug trafficking is a serious problem for the Republic of Chad and can lead to even more