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Republic of Egypt
Egypt is a Republic whose 1971 constitution calls for the separation of Powers between the executive, and judicial branches. The president is nominated by two-thirds of the Majlis al-Shaab (People’s Assembly) and confirmed by popular referendum. As head of the state, the president appoints the vice president, Prime Minister, Council of Ministers, armed forces commanders, security heads, and some religious figures. He has the power of the law through presidential decrees, and is also the supreme commander of the armed forces. In September 1999, Hosni Mubarak was elected to his fourth, six-year term. The Majlis al-Shaab’s a 454-member body, 444 which are directly elected by citizens and of which are appointed by the president.
The NPD. Established in 1978, has been the primary party of the Egyptian Political scene. The main opposition party has individually been the New Wafd, which is a center-right party. The judicial system is based upon a mix of Islamic Law, Napoleonic Codes, and English Common Law. The courts of Egypt are divided into two judicial court Systems.
Egypt is part of the North Africa Region. It is in North of Sudan lying between the Gaza Strip and Libya. Egypt borders the Mediterranean Sea. It Controls the Sinai Peninsula. The Capital of Egypt is Cairo and other important are Al-Fayyum and Asyut. Important ports are Port Said and Alexandria. The formal name of Egypt is Arab Republic of Egypt. Most of the citizens are Egyptians and the rest are just from other Arab countries. The land area of Egypt is 995,450 Km 2 and the water area is 6,000 Km 2, and the total of both is 1,001,450 Km 2. Egypt is surrounded by four countries which are the Gaza Strip, Israel, Libya, and Sudan Egypt is hot desert .
Egypt is famous with its natural resources, for a fact Egypt is the second country that has petroleum, and natural gas. The minor sources are iron ore, phosphate, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead zinc. These are the Natural Resources of Egypt.
Egypt is confined the Nile flood plain, it benefits a lot from it. Egypt produces more than one thing like cotton, rice, fruits, and vegetables. This is how Egypt lives on it’s low economy. Egypt’s economy is based almost on farming. Industrialization increased in the 1960’s. Tourism and oil production was also an income for the Economy. Egypt is relatively poor country in world terms. Petroleum is Egypt’s most important mineral product.
Most of the Egyptian population are Muslim. 90% are Muslim And the rest have different religions. These are made up of mostly Christians and Much more.
Relations have remained tense between Egypt and Libya, due to the Camp David peace treaty in 1978. There have been many wars with Israel causing a devastating effect on the country's economy due to the need for development of military hardware. The wars resulted in the closure of the Suez canal also the occupation of Sinai, rich in oil wells.
Nasser was succeeded by Sadat who was responsible for putting together a peace treaty with Israel. Egypt has now an open border and trade links with Israel but a closed border and no trade links with Libya. The president has the power over the military as it’s supreme commander. All males except only sons serve three years of compulsory military service.
Egypt is known for it’s famous military forces, it has military branches and these are the Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command. The military age is from 18 years old and above, men above 18 must join the military but boys under 18 and over 15 are optional.
*Views on World Problems:
Egypt bitterly opposed the UN partition of Palestine in 1948 and played an important role in the Arab-Israeli Wars that followed. In 1952 the Egyptian army deposed King Farouk in a coup d'état; a republic was established in 1953, and Col. Gamal Abdel Nasser became president (1954). For a brief period Egypt and Syria merged (1958) in the United Arab Republic, then were joined by Yemen in the United Arab States; the union was dissolved in 1961. Inaugurating a program of economic and social reform, modernization of the army, and construction of the Aswan High Dam, Nasser, with the aid of the USSR, strove to make Egypt the undisputed leader of the Arab world. His rallying-cry was denunciation of Israel; in 1967 Egypt lost much territory in the Six-Day War, which also shattered its economy and armed forces.
Sedat was assassinated during a military parade by members of the Muslim Brotherhood, radical Islamic fundamentalists. Mubarak took over from Sadat and clamped down heavily on the Muslim Brotherhood and improved relations with Jordan. The fishing industry has also deteriorated but a factor that has been increasing is the disease Bilharzia, both in lake Nasser and in the lower Nile valley.
The recorded history of Egypt goes back for at least a thousand years, as is evident from the ruined monuments, pyramids and temples. It was the Romans who overshadowed the Egyptians, Egypt then lapsed into relative obscurity and it remained this way until the armies of Islam ruled the country following the death of the Prophet Mohammed. Cairo shortly became one of the greatest centers of Islamic culture.
Egypt later became part of the Turkish Empire, the Sultans becoming virtual recluses inside the Topkapi Palace in Istanbul. The Janissaries led Egypt into autonomous rule, these were mercenary troops of the Turks. The country declined under corruption and cultural decline. The British took over Egypt in the late 19th century. The British took over due to Egypt's inability to finance her foreign debts. In the 19th century there was a period of rivalry between the British and the French for political control and trading in Egypt.
During the 19th century also, de Lesseps conceived of and built the Suez canal. This has profited the country greatly, but due to the fact that it was privately owned up to the 1950s by the British and French shareholders, a large percentage of its income by-passed the Egyptian economy.
In 1952 there was a military group which overthrew the corrupt monarchy. The coup was led by Colonel Abdel Nasser, a nationalist and a tough negotiator. He was one of the most outstanding politicians in the less developed world. Using rivalry between the Americans and Russians he attracted the aid he needed for the construction of the Aswan dam, and also obtained the military hardware required for wars against Israel. During his period of rule there were many attempts at federation or unification with other Arab states, these did not succeed. There have also been proposals to merge with Libya and Sudan but nothing has come of this.
Minorities in Egypt:
There is a very small number of problems concerning minorities. Generally in Egypt members and groups of the none-Muslim minority worship without any problems of interference, but there are some minor problems. Almost 100 people, were arrested and charged for going against Islam. The members included were the Faramamy religious group. Another problem occurred in January 2000, between Muslims and Christians took place in AL-Khush. These resulted in the death of 1 Muslim and 21 Christians, and many were injured.
The government of Egypt accused 135 people for violence and compensated the victims. Regardless the improvements the government has done, the process for the construction of the Church remains slow. Egypt has a very small number of problems concerning minorities, it tries to stop all minority problems and hopes that there will be no more problems concerning minorities.
Drugs in Egypt:
Narcotics are not a major problem in Egypt. But it is still a transit point for heroin and cannabis, although it has reduced and decreased in 1999. The main agency for getting rid of narcotics trafficking in Egypt is the Anti-Narcotics General Administration (ANGA) Egyptian drug laws are strict. Penalties for drug trafficking are severe. In 1994, the Government of Egypt (GOE) adopted a complete drug control strategy, which is still taking place. The Egyptian police forces and military units, unite to stop narcotic shipments. Also, the Ministry of Health and Interior sponsor a national drug campaign, which is concentrated on school-aged children through the mass media.
Drugs is a major problem in Egypt and it is trying its best to stop drug trafficking. It also hopes that the number of drugs in Egypt will reduce and hopefully disappear. That is why Egypt has severe and strict laws against drugs.
Terrorism in Egypt:
The number of terrorist incidents increased in 1997 in Egypt due to attacks by al-Gama’at al-Islamiya (Islamic Group). The group was responsible for the attack at a pharaonic temple site in Luxor. This resulted in the death of 58 terrorists and 4 Egyptians dead. The six al-Gama’at leaders were killed by the police during their escape. The al-Gama’at took in hostages during the attack in exchange for the release of Shaykh Umar Abd al-Rahman, who has been guilty in 1995 for several terrorist attacks.
After what has happened in the attack in Luxor, there has been security at terrorist sites in Southern Egypt and Cairo. Nevertheless, the decline in the attacks of terrorism has caused severe economic losses to the country. Also, the Egyptian Government published on the Internet Worldwide Web a list of photographs and names of 14 Egyptians who are suspected in terrorism activities by al-Gama’at and the al-Jihad.
Although Egypt is looked as a pro-terrorist country, it has always and will always be against terrorism. The number of terrorism has increased in 1997 that’s why Egypt is trying to severe the punishment of terrorism.
Egypt’s policy on Palestine:
Although Egypt believes that Palestine has the right to have a Palestinian state, it is the only Arab country that recognizes Israel as a state. The UN has been giving Egypt a yearly fee of three billion dollars so that it would stop the problems between Egypt and Israel.
Country: Republic of Egypt
Defining Drugs: a chemical substance such as a narcotic, that affects the central nervous system, causing changes on the behavior and often addiction.
Bearing in mind that drug trafficking is a major problem throughout the world according towww.google.com/drug trafficking and controlpentagon.NL,
Having considered that drugs cause the waste of money of nations worldwide,
Noting that the ANGA has had a tremendous effort that has proved to be helpful and efficient,
Deeply regretting the fact that the countries all around the world are not taking serious action towards drugs and drug trafficking.
1. Strongly condemns that drugs have resulted in destructive effects on individuals, families, communities and nations.
2. Recommends that people be educated about drugs and being aware of drugs by:
a) education of children from primary and secondary schools by means of special sections in classes,
b) by using film strips and pictures of careful explanations of the side effects of drugs,
c) year by year, information could be given to children through advisory sessions,
d) educating all people through the media and radio by means of information, advertising, magazine ads, and posters,
3. Urges all countries to send all captured drug dealers to a 7 years of jail punishment,
4. Further Requests all nations to secure all borders through sea, land, and air;
5. Requests the Ministry of Health and Interior of each country sponsor a national drug campaign through the mass media;
6. Fully believes that all nations will vote for this resolution.
Il salam 3alaikum, may peace be upon you.
Good morning honorable chair and fellow delegates, from the land of the River Nile, Egypt. Egypt has built a society that has remained constant for nearly 3000 years. The pyramids, the Sphinx, the tomb of the young king Tut are just a few attractions of my home, my country that interest and excite people from all around the world.
As you know drugs has been a major problem through out the whole world. People are not aware of how serious the problem of drugs is and how it is increasing everyday. Egypt hopes to solve this problem.