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India is a federal republic government type country. Its capital is New Delhi. India has 25 states and 7 union Territories. Its central government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. Its independence from the UK was 15th of August 1947. The country’s constitution was on 26th of January 1950. India has an independent government. India has two kinds of governments, The Federal government and the States government. The Federal government has a parliament that is located in the capital of India, which is New Delhi. This government consists of Lok Sabha, which is the house of people, and the Rajya Sabha, which is the council of the states. The prime minister is the head of the political party. The president is elected by the parliament and all states keep their president for five years. The parliament is made up of all the representatives from the states and territories from India. The federal government rules the nine territories throughout selected representatives. The federal government has large authority on the states government. All Indian states have a governor, a chief minister and a legislature made of one or two houses. The states government is organized in a way similar to the Federal government, and the president of India specifies the state governors.
India's nuclear tests in May 1998 spoiled American relations. The United States encouraged India to sign the full Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The US. also called for control in shot and nuclear testing and deployment in both India and Pakistan. However, India has yet to sign the CTBT. The US. approval on Indian unit involved in the nuclear industry and disagreement to international financial organization loans for non-humanitarian assistance projects in India remain sources of violence.
Since the 1962 there was a border conflict between India and China and continuing territorial/boundary disputes, Sino-Indian relations have improved slowly since 1988. Both countries have wanted to reduce tensions along the border, enlarge trade and cultural ties, and adjust relations
There are many natural resources in India. one of the most important is coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world).Others are iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromate, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land. The use of the arable land in India is 56%. Permanent crops are 1%. Permanent Pastures are 4%. Forests and woodland are found as 23%. All others are only 16%.
The Agricultural Products are wheat, rice, coarse grains, oilseeds, sugar, cotton, jute, tea. The industrial products are textiles, jute, processed food, steel, machinery, transport equipment, cement, aluminum, fertilizers, mining, petroleum, chemicals, computer software.
The Exports in India are $34 billion which consists of agricultural products, engineering goods, precious stones, cotton apparel and fabrics, handicrafts, tea. The Imports were $42 billion which consists petroleum, machinery and transport equipment, edible oils, fertilizer, jewelry, iron and steel. The Major trade partners are the US, EU, Russia, Japan, Iraq, Iran, central and eastern Europe.
The Green revolution began in the mid-1940s where researchers in Mexico developed generally modified, short-stemmed, disease-resistant wheats that were improved The improved seeds were active in improving Mexican wheat production and averting food shortage in India and Pakistan, earning the 1970 Nobel Peace Prize for American plant breeder Norman E. Borlaug, leader of the Mexican wheat team.
India manufactures and refines petroleum and produces many industrial chemicals, dyes, medicines, fertilizers, and pesticides. Petroleum accounts for about 50% of the yearly value of all the minerals mined in India. Petroleum is produced from wells in the Indian ocean off the coast from Bombay and from inland deposits in Assam. Even though there are a lot of natural resources poverty is widespread in India because of the huge population.
3- Cultural Factors:
India has various Ethnic groups and Religions. The Ethnic groups are Indo-Aryan (they (72%), Dravidian (25%), Mongoloid and other (3%). The religions are Hindu (80%), Muslim (14%), Christian (2.4%), Sikh (2%), Buddhist (0.7%), Jains (0.5%), other (0.4%). Religion in India has a very important position. Problems between Hindus and Muslims led to the division of India to two separate countries who are currently India and Pakistan. Other wars were caused in India because of the religions. That shows that because there are many religions, India was effected in many ways. There are problems and the varieties of religions do not get along very well.
Kashmir, a Himalayan region, is divided between India and Pakistan along an uneasy break in fighting line. The two countries have fought two wars over the territory since independence Pakistan and many Kashmiris want the United States to intervene to settle the conflict, which has caused two wars between India and Pakistan and has claimed at least 25,000 lives in 11 years of guerrilla insurgency.
India is located in Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan. India’s total area is 3,287,590 sq. km (land: 2,973,190 sq. km water: 314,400 sq. km). It is more than one third on the size of the United States. The countries that border India are Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, China, Nepal, Pakistan. India is the second largest country as a population in the world. The climate in India changes from Tropical in south to temperature in north. India has three types of seasons, the cold, the hot, and the rainy. The cold is located in the places where mountains are found. The snow falls during the cold season in the mountainous areas. The hot season is not very high in temperature. When it is a raining season it is from the middle of June till September.
6- Views on World problems:
India is and was always an active member of the United Nations and now requests an everlasting seat on the UN Security Council. India has a long tradition of participating in UN peacekeeping operations and international relations. India recently donated employees to UN operations in Somalia, Cambodia, Mozambique, Kuwait, Bosnia, Angola, and El Salvador.
India is a leader of the developing world and the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), India is now also looking for strengthening its conflicts with the United States, Japan, the European Union, Iran, China, and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. India is an active member of the South Asia Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation (I).
Most of India’s problems are from the neighboring countries around the border. Pakistan is one of India’s enemy. India still trusts Russia a feeling that is perhaps a remainder of the true friendship of Cold War days, but clearly not in the same way it once did, and New Delhi fears that weakness will push Russia into doing things that could drive India further away.
India has a huge economy. India's basic monetary unit is divided into 100 paise (43.06 rupees equal U.S.$1). More than a third of the population is too poor to be able to afford an enough diet. The country has a great number of exports (36.3 billion dollars). Some of the Exports are consisting of agricultural products, engineering goods, precious stones, cotton apparel and fabrics, handicrafts, tea.
Imports are 50.2 billion dollars. The imports of India are: crude oil and petroleum products, machinery, gems, fertilizer, and chemicals.
Socialism is A political and economic theory of social organizations which advocates that the community as a whole should own and control the means of production, distribution, and exchange. History had selected India as one of democracy’s and socialism leaders. Nehru played a significant part in allowing India to meet this challenge. He was active in making India get on upon the path of socialism. He wanted to achieve the objectives of socialism gradually within the democratic structure. He was one of the few who did not take democracy for granted but wanted to explain his idea and show how it could be brought into harmony with his beginning of socialism and how it could be realized.
The Indus Valley civilization was one of the oldest in the world. It goes back at least 5,000 years ago. Aryan tribes from the northwest invaded India about 1500 BC.; their union with the earlier people created traditional Indian culture. European traders beginning in the late 15th century followed Arab incursions starting in the 8th century and Turkish in 12th.
The British extended their power until, by the 1850s, they controlled India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. In 1857, a rebellion in north India led by disobedient Indian soldiers caused the British Parliament to move all political power from the East India Company to the Crown. Great Britain began managing most of India directly while controlling the rest through treaties with local rulers.
By the 19th century, Britain had assumed political control of virtually all Indian lands. Nonviolent resistance to British colonialism under Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU led to independence in 1947. After independence, the Congress Party, the party of Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, ruled India under the power first of Nehru and then his daughter and grandson, with the exclusion of two brief periods in the 1970s and 1980s.
The subcontinent was divided into the secular state of India and the smaller Muslim state of Pakistan. A third war between the two countries in 1971 resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. original concerns in India include the continuing argument with Pakistan over Kashmir, substantial overpopulation, environmental degradation (dreadful conditions), extensive poverty, and ethnic strife, all this despite impressive gains in economic investment and output.
The Hindu supporter of independence Bharatiya Janata Party (known as the BJP) is the party that had insistently sponsored India’s latest round of nuclear tests next to the Pakistani border., was toppled by the party of some of India’s poorest people. Recently most of the typical Indians are likely to be Hindu. There are a lot of violence and problems caused between Muslims and Hindus in India. There are many incidents happening recently they really shows the hate between these two groups. The BJP is Hindu and that’s why it is disliked particularly by Muslims. Congress leaders believe that if the BJP is on the decline, the Congress must be on the rise. The BJP’s leaders are Hindu nationalists. They believe that congress gave too much to the Muslim minority (which always votes congress), to the Sikhs and lower castes. The violence between Muslims and Hindus has softened a bit but whenever something happens like an outbreak of anti-Muslim violence, the BJP is suspected.
(2) POLICY STATEMENTS
1)Measures to ensure the rights of minorities within a country
India is a country that respects its minorities, but most of the problems related to minorities occur because of the difference in religion. Indian Home Minister L K Advani said that the government is firm to see that security is provided for all the country's minority communities. L K Advani also stated that it is the government's responsibility that all minorities, whether Christians or Muslims, should feel secure. All the state chief ministers will be meeting at August to discuss internal security, including attacks on minorities. The president also said recently that he asked for reports from the states of India on the violence against Christians. Christians make up about 2% of India's population, and over the past two years there have been a number of attacks on Christians and their property.
The minister also commented that after the recovery of attacks on Christians recently, it have been blamed on terrorist Hindu groups. In one incident in northern India earlier this month, a Roman Catholic priest was murdered when intruders broke into his house. The Pope has urged the Indian Government to bring an end to the attacks, saying the violence damaged the country's tradition of religious open-mindedness. According to an article stating that there were bombs and violent attacks on Christians and other religious minorities, it states that the community is being threatened with anonymous letters and telephone calls ordering citizens to stop Christian prayers. Anti-Christian slogans have been also painted on walls all over town. All these things are against human rights whether the distractions are toward Christians, Sikhs, Muslims, and other minorities
Because of all the incidents like this against Christians, Sikhs, Muslims, and other minorities, the United Nations must act. India is one of the largest recipients of American aid. The UN must aware India that the helps given by the United to states to India can be stopped until all people's rights are respected. India should start with the help of the UN in considering the rights of people especially the right of the minorities of the country. Congress should also allow (under international supervision) the Christians, Sikhs, and other minority nations under Indian rule to enjoy self-determination, as a democracy should. The kind of actions that India would support in the UN is all the actions that would help ensuring the rights of all minorities, and to decrease mainly the serious problems of minorities.
2) The Question of Palestine and the Peace process in the Middle East
Stressed Palestine expressed its wish wanting India to play a role in resolving and rescuing the Middle East crisis saying "we want a just equation" Arafat's special envoy Hani-Al-Hasan, who met Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee and brief him on the latest developments in the tense Mid-East region told reporters, "India has always been supportive of peace. Our discussions were very fruitful and important." Responding to a question that External Affairs Minister Jaswant Singh was trying a balancing act, the envoy said, "We would like India to play a role in the Mid-East. Politicians are generally balanced. We want a just equation. On the question of terrorism, the Palestinian diplomat sought to make out a clever difference on what India was facing in Kashmir and what was happening in West Bank saying "India is not an occupying power."
India is supporting the peace wanted in the middle east. The Government of India and UN should start on helping the Palestinian conflict. Helps can be given to Palestine in various ways. Obviously India is with the problem of Palestine, and India would (with the support of the UN) like to have a role in spreading peace in the middle east. The UN should act and put important plans in helping to stop the terror is happening in the Middle east and specifically in Palestine.
3) The Question of Drug usage, drug trafficking, and rehabilitation programs.
India is one of the world's largest producer of licit opium for the pharmaceutical trade, but an undetermined quantity of opium is diverted to illicit international drug markets. Recently, with the introduction of drugs like heroin, the problem has acquired new and frightening size. It is estimated that three to five million people are addicted to drugs, mainly heroin. India is a transit country for illicit narcotics produced in neighboring countries, and it’s also an illicit producer of hashish and methaqualone. There are some problems related to drugs in India. There are also rehabilitation centers for healing people to recover from the addiction of any kind of drugs. D.A.I.R.R.C ( Drug Abuse Information Rehabilitation & Research Center) is a registered charitable trust organization involved in drug demand reduction strategies ( Prevention & Treatment), since 1982. The Center of this organization is at Kushivali. It takes only 12 patients at a time, and is spread over 40,000 square feet of land. Rehabilitation lasts from four to nine months, depending on the diagnosis of the patient and concentration of drug abuse. Substance abusers / Chemical dependence approaching the center for treatment are Polydrug abusers, including Heroin ( 84%), Prescribed Medication abuse ( 9%), and others including Cocaine, Solvents etc. ( 7 %). This organization has a success rate of over 82 %. It helped many addicts in India. Whereas Pakistan is being used for both cultivating and trafficking illegal opium India is only being used as a transit route. Drug trafficking not only results in drug abuse, but also increases the production of arms, crime, money laundering and terrorism in society. Both India and Pakistan are affected by this danger. In 1997 the amount of heroin that was seized along the India Pakistan border alone was 640 kg, which reveals the seriousness of the problem.
Both the government of India and the UN should act toward this specific issue. Drugs and Drug Trafficking are two of the most dangerous problems any country can face. India should start having awareness of Drugs and should also have more rehabilitation centers. Drugs should be reduced. The government also should encourage the rehabilitation centers. Drugs are very dangerous and can cause serious problems to the Indian population. The UN should help the Indian government in taking a further step of starting on stopping drugs to strengthen the community of India.
4) The Question of International terrorism
The term "terrorism" means premeditated, intended, or planned, usually intended to influence an audience. The term "international terrorism" means terrorism involving the territory or the citizens of more than one country. India is the largest democracy in the world. And the USA has always shared a good relationship with India. India has been subjected to a lot of terrorist attacks. India should have a strong opinion on the question of international terrorism caused upon any country worldwide.
Obviously India should help out to stop international terrorism. The UN should also help India in following the rules and helping out in international terrorism. As a UN country India must cooperate with the UN in decreasing all problems worldwide related specifically to international terrorism. India also must stands and vote record during discussions on international terrorism. With the support and plans of India and other countries in the UN the problems of international terrorism would lessen. India would support military solutions to terrorism especially Kashmir.
Question of: Drugs
Defining: drugs are chemical substances such as narcotic or hallucinogen, that affects the central nervous system, Drugs causes to changes in behavior, and may lead to addiction,
Bringing to your attention: the increase of illegal drug trafficking to 25% since year 1988 worldwide,
Realizing: that the borders of India aren't so secure, and trafficking of drugs occur from surrounding countries such as Pakistan,
Noting with regret: Millions of people are dying and hospitalized as a result of drug increase,
Taking into account: that 3 to 5 million people in the republic of India are addicted to drugs that is brought up from neighbor countries,
Aware of: the increase of drugs nationally and worldwide, and the problems caused by drug trafficking,
Keeping in mind: HIV can be passed as a result of sharing drugs needles,
Condemning: the fact that legalized drugs can obviously show side effects,
Noting with appreciation: the continued efforts of the UN countries on the trials on reducing the problem of drugs and drug trafficking,
Congratulating: those nations that have enforced laws in stopping the usage of drugs,
Calling Upon: all the member states to take more useful actions into stopping the problem of drugs worldwide,
1)Draws the attention: to harms caused by increase drug trafficking and drugs;
2) Congratulates: Drug Abuse (CAODA) for promoting awareness and knowledge of the harmful consequences of abuse, and addiction to alcohol and other drugs, while developing and supporting wide-ranging, community-based prevention services;
3) Asks: the UN to identify and add a punishment for countries whom allow drug trafficking and drug problems in their country by:
a) adding fines if found anyone that is : 1)a drug addicts 2) drug trafficking,
b) ban use of drugs and apply a strong punishment on any person who is against the rules,
4) Urges: for all countries to secure their borders from the trafficking of drugs by:
a) securing land borders by national border guards,
b) securing sea borders by using radar,
5)suggests: all countries add more rehabilitation centers in their countries to help drug abusers return to normal conditions by:
a) add job training in the rehabilitation centers,
b) add special training and education for the drug abusers who committed crimes in the rehabilitation centers,
c) Add specialized experts in the rehabilitation centers to help the drug abusers to stop drug taking and go on in their lives;
6) Encourages: education on the awareness of harms of drugs by the following:
a) develop and make up new programs to aware such programs for educating people to realize the dangers of drugs
b) make a special drug awareness month where billboards on streets will recognize the harms of drugs and TV programs will show the harms of drugs;
7)Recommends: that countries should alert and aware people about the side effects of drugs by:
a) articles in magazines in newspapers : adding a special page on every and each magazine and newspaper on the alerting of all the dangers of drugs,
b) new campaigns encouraging people to stop taking drugs: talks, and warning programs in the encouragement of stopping drug abuse,
c) adding billboards on streets : particular billboards or posters on streets all around countries expressing pictures and words on the side effects of drugs,
d) advertisement on TV programs, and other sources: the advertisement would be like a small part and every program must put this advertisement in between breaks so people WOULD see the dangers of drugs;
8 Strongly affirms: the government of India, all the UN countries, and the UN should start working together to set more rehabilitation centers and awareness on drugs, and also be effective on rules of drug trafficking;
9 Expresses the hope: The United states nations with India should act as one body in solving this problem.
Today, the delegation of India, The seventh largest country in the world, the second most populous, is here standing to solve some of the existing problems that can occur to any country any place in this world. India was always a supporter for peace worldwide. Gandhi has taught each Indian and all of us want with peace we all survive. So we will always be supporters of world peace and serenity that would lead us all to the peace we are looking for.
Drugs are very dangerous substances that can never be useful. India is (unfortunately) one of the largest producers of illicit drugs. Problems caused by drugs are increasing day by day, not only in India but worldwide everywhere.
INDIA asks all countries to contribute in supporting India’s campaign in the prevention of drugs. Drugs have already killed many people, so we should all start saving the lives of our future generations. We should spread peace everywhere! As Ghandi said:
"Peace will not come out of a clash of arms but out of justice lived and done by unarmed nations in the face of odds."