Event: Pearl-MUN 2002, SC
Student: Zooman Al Mesbah
In 1999 the type of government changed from military to civilian rule. Nigeria took its independence on 1St. of October 1960 from the UK. The legal system in Nigeria is based on the English common law. Islamic Shariah law is being applied in the northern parts of the country were Muslims are found.
The executive branch consists of the president Olusegun Obasanjo who is also the head of the government. The president is elected by popular vote for no more than two-four year terms. The last election was held on the 27th February 1999. The legislative branch consists of:
a) Bicameral National Assembly, which consists of Senates (109 seats, three from each state and one from the Federal Capital Territory and members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms).
b) House of Representatives (360 seats, members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms).
The Judicial branch consists of the Supreme Court (judges appointed by the Provisional Ruling Council) and the Federal Court of Appeal (judges are appointed by the federal government on the advice of the Advisory Judicial Committee). There are three major parties found in Nigeria that try to have an effect on the country’s political structure.
Nigeria’s economy depends on the oil, but Nigeria suffered from the poor of management during the former military rulers. Nigeria’s government and president now try to improve the country’s economy. The largely subsistence agricultural sector has failed to keep up with rapid population growth, and Nigeria was one of the food exporters but Nigeria now need to import food for the growing population. Following the signing of an IMF stand-by agreement in August 2000, Nigeria received a debt-restructuring deal from the Paris Club and a $1 billion loan from the IMF. With these agreements and by selling oil, which is increasing in price will help the country’s economy to increase and push it by 4% between 2001-2002.
Nigeria’s GDP is estimated to be 117 billion $ for the year 2000. The GDP real growth rate is estimated to be 3.5% for the year 2000. Nigeria’s debts are estimated to be 32 billion $.
Nigeria has lots of agricultural products for example cocoa, peanuts, palm oil, corn, and rice. Nigeria also produces petroleum products. The USA is the major export partner with Nigeria. India, Brazil, Spain and France are also export partners with Nigeria. Nigeria import things like machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals from countries like the UK, Germany, the US, France, and China.
Nigeria’s population is 126,635,626 and it is the populous country in Africa. 50% of them are Muslims, 40% are Christians the remaining 10% are people with indigenous believes. There are lots of problems between Muslims and Christians in Nigeria. There are 250 different ethnic groups in Nigeria. English is the official language in Nigeria but there are other languages found in Nigeria like Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), and Fulani. 2.7 millions of Nigerians are effected by AIDS.
Army, Navy and Air Force are all branches of the military forces of Nigeria. Men of Nigeria can enter the military force when they are 18 years old. There are 17,201,367 men between the 18-49 that can serve in the military forces of Nigeria. But the employed men in the defense forces are about 76 thousand men. Some army troops can be sent for peacekeeping operations in Liberia, Yugoslavia, Angola, Rwanda, Somalia, and Sierra Leone. The Nigerian navy (7,000) is equipped with frigates, fast attack Pratt, convenes, and coastal patrol boats. The Nigerian air force (9,000) flies transport, trainer, helicopter, and fighter aircraft, but most are currently not operational. Nigeria also has pursued a policy of developing domestic training and military production capabilities. After the imposition of sanctions by many Western nations, Nigeria turned to China, Russia, North Korea, and India for the purchase of military equipment and training.
Nigeria’s Area is 923,768 sq. km. (356,700 sq. mi.) about the size of California, Nevada, and Arizona. Nigeria is found between Benin and Cameroon. The Gulf of Guinea borders Nigeria to the south. Nigeria’s capital city is Abuja. There are other important cities like Lagos Ibadan, Kano, and Enugu. Coastal swamps are found in the south and tropical forests, open woodlands, grasslands, and semidesert are found in the far north. The highest region is the Jos Plateau. Mountains are found between the borders of Nigeria and Cameroon. The climate varies in Nigeria, it’s equatorial in south, tropical in center, and arid in north
Nigeria has lots of natural resources that can make it a developed country. Nigeria has large amounts of petroleum, which is started to be used accurately by producing petroleum products. Nigeria suffered from the poor management during the time of the former president, but it started to work accurately by using the natural resources.
Nigeria has other natural resources like natural gas, tin, columbite, iron ore, coal, limestone, lead, and zinc that can be used accurately for the benefit of the country.
View on World Problems
Nigeria focused to relations with other African countries and to issues concerning fund and economic relations. Nigeria participates successfully in the Organization of African Unity (OAU), the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the Nonaligned Movement, and the United Nations.
In pursuing the goal of regional economic cooperation and development, Nigeria helped create ECOWAS, which seeks to harmonize trade and investment practices for its 16 West African member countries and ultimately to achieve a full customs union. Nigeria also has taken the lead in articulating the views of developing nations on the need for modification of the existing international economic order. Nigeria has played a central role in the ECOWAS efforts to end the civil war in Liberia and contributed the bulk of the ECOWAS peacekeeping forces sent there in 1990. Nigeria also has provided the bulk of troops for ECOMOG forces in Sierra Leone.
Nigeria has good relations now with its neighbors, but it has a problem with Cameroon on oil-rich Bakassi Peninsula is to be resolved by the International Court of Justice in The Hague. Nigeria released about 150 Cameroonian prisoners of war in late 1998.
Nigeria is also a member of other organizations like: Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), Organization of African Trade Union Unity (OATUU), Commonwealth, INTELSAT, Nonaligned Movement, several other West African bodies. The Babangida regime joined the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), though President-elect Obasanjo has indicated he might reconsider Nigeria's membership.
After Nigeria gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1960, tensions began to rise among the various ethnic groups. After two coups and much unrest, the Ibo-dominated eastern region attempted to secede and establish the Republic of Biafra. Civil war followed, from 1967 to 1970, and the Ibo were forced back into the republic after more than 1 million people died. In 1979 national elections were held under a new constitution and a representative civilian government was established. This government, however, lasted only until late 1983, when a military coup returned the army to power. Another coup occurred in the summer of 1985, and Major General Ibrahim Babangida became the nation’s new military leader. Transition from military to civilian rule was originally planned for 1989, but scheduled elections were postponed. State elections from two officially approved parties occurred in 1991. In preparation for democracy, the capital was officially changed from in December 1991. Full national presidential elections were scheduled for 1992, but they were not held until June 1993. Amid considerable controversy, Babangida refused to accept the outcome of the elections, which appeared to have been won by the prominent businessman Chief Moshood Abiola, and announced a new vote with fresh candidates for August. This election did not take place. An interim government was formed, and Babangida, under intense pressure from within the army, resigned from office. The civilian interim government lasted less than four months before the army, under General Sani Abacha, announced in November 1993 that it was taking power again. Despite strong opposition, party politics were again banned and the national and state assemblies were dissolved. Although Abacha announced in October 1995 that he would step down in favor of a civilian government in 1998, many observers are skeptical, citing broken pledges by earlier military rulers. General Abacha has created a questionable future for democracy in Nigeria. The Nigerian government executed Ken Saro-Wiwa and eight other men on 10 November 1995. Saro-Wiwa was a playwright and outspoken critic of the Nigerian government who was charged with inciting his followers to murder four pro-government members of the Ogoni ethnic group, of which Saro-Wiwa was also a member. International human rights groups said the charges against Saro-Wiwa were unfounded. They also reported that Saro-Wiwa’s trial was unfair and that he was denied an adequate defense. Abacha’s government drew heated criticism from many foreign governments, some of which withdrew their ambassadors from Nigeria in protest.
In 1998 the government had changed from military to civilian. Things in Nigeria are becoming better. The leader is thinking that his country may get out of OIC.
The Space Usage
Nigeria doesn’t have anything to deal with space or things that need lots of money and finance. Nigeria’s policies with other countries, is the thing that will determine its place in the meeting.
Nigeria tries to be in the United States side, because it wants to make sure that its petrol will continue to be shipped to the world. Nigeria will stand with any clause that will help the world. Nigeria will stand against any clause that supports spying and that raise tension and cause conflicts in the world.
The Sanctions on Iraq
Nigeria is an Islamic county like Iraq. Nigeria tries hard to help other Islamic country, but it will face problems to get what it wants. Nigeria’s policy will be similar to the United States policy.
Nigeria will stand with every clause that helps the Iraqis. Nigeria will stand against any clause that gives the chance for the Iraqi leader to do what he wants.
The Military Intervention
Nigeria thinks that the military intervention can do lots of things around the world. Nigeria thinks that the military intervention is needed to solve problems around the world.
Nigeria will stand with every clause that gives the right for military intervention. Nigeria will stand against every clause that tries to end military intervention.
The Question of Palestine
Nigeria knows and understands that this issue is the most important and significant in the world currently. Nigeria will stand with its brothers in Palestine. Nigeria will try hard to do something for Palestine in the Security Council.
Nigeria will stand with every clause that help the Palestinians and with every clause that gives them their rights back. Nigeria will try to be neutral in some cases so the United States will continue to be economic partners with Nigeria.
Security Council Clauses