Pakistan officially Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The head of state of Pakistan is a president, who is elected in a five years term by a college of deputies from the federal and provincial assemblies. The chief executive is the prime minister. The National Assembly has 217 seats, including 10 reserved for religious minority representatives. The Senate has 87 seats; two of the seats are for women the senators serve for a six-year term.
Political parties were to resume their activities in December 1985. The first proper elections after the ending of military rule were won by Pakistan Peopleís Party (PPP). The Pakistan Muslim League (PML) emerged as the main opposition party, and won the 1997 elections. In October 1999 the military led a bloodless coup and took control of the government.
Pakistanís resources are primarily agricultural. Mineral resources include salt, chromites, coal, gypsum, limestone, iron ore, sulpher, clay, graphite manganese, copper, oil, and natural gas, but many known mineral deposits, particularly iron ore and coal, are low grad. Oil was firs discovered in small quantities in 1915, more exploration in the 1980s revealed several new fields. Large natural gas fields were discovered in the 1950s on the boarder between Baluchistan and Punjab provinces.
As a Muslim nation, Pakistan is strongly influenced by the culture and traditions of Islam. Hindu and British influences, however, are widespread in the country.
The ethnic background of Pakistanís population is many and different mainly because it lies on an area that has been invaded since earliest times. The people come from such ethnic stocks as Dravidian, Indo-Aryan, Greek, Scythian, Hun, Arab, Mongol, Persian, Turkish, and Afghan.
Pakistan is a highly populated country, has a population about 141,145,344. 177 people per sq. km. About 36% of the people live in urban areas.
Islam is the faith of about 97% of the people. 77% of the Muslims are Sunni, and 23% are shies. Hinduism and Christianity from the leading minority religions. Also there are other religious groups such as Sikhs, Parsees, and a small number Buddhists.
The national language of Pakistan is Urdu, but not many are able to speak that language. Punjabi is probably the most widely spoken language. English is extensively used by educated people and is the official language of Pakistan.
About 43% of adult Pakistanis are educated. 81% of eligible children are enrolled is school. In 1997 Pakistan spent an estimated 2.7% of its gross national product on education.
Military service in Pakistan is voluntary. In 1998 the countryís armed forces had about 587,000 members, with 520,000 in the army, 45,000 in the air force, and 22,000 in the navy. As a percentage of government expenditure, Pakistanís spending on defense is a big percentage of its GNP. Arms imports in 1993 amounted to $430 million.
Pakistan is in southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, and its between India o the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China on the north. Pakistanís total area is 803,940 sq. km, 77,720 sq. km is land and 25,220 sq. km is water. The heights point is Mount Godwin-Austin it reaches 8,611 m, and the lowest point is the sea level along the coast. The climate is mostly hot, Pakistan is a dry desert.
Views of world problems:
Pakistan is a member of the UN, the Commonwealth of Nations, and the Colombo plan. Pakistan is a peaceful country, and it supports and stands by the truth. It has very good relations with most of the countries, but it has a nervous relationship with India. Pakistan threats allot of the other nations because of their nuclear weapons. The people of Pakistan rebel a lot because of the actions taken by the government that supports the United States and stand against other Muslim Nations.
Pakistan is a poor, heavily populated country. Pakistanís currency is a Pakistani rupee, and it doesnít have a strong value. The gross national product is estimated to be $61,451,000. The chief economic products of agriculture are sugar cane, wheat, rice, cotton, and of the fishing are sardines, shrimp, shark, and tuna. Some mining products such as petroleum, limestone, rock salt, coal and natural gas. Also some manufacturing products such as textiles, consumer goods, food products, cement, engineering goods and refined petroleum. 50% of the population works in agriculture and fishing. 30% work on trade and services. 20% work on manufacturing and industry.
Pakistanís major exports are cotton fibers, textile and fabrics, clothing, food leather and carpets. And itsí major imports are machinery, electrical equipment, petroleum and petroleum products and transport equipment. Pakistanís major trading partners are Japan, United States, United Kingdom, Germany, Saudi Arabia and France.
In 1858 the British government assumed direct control of India and much of Pakistan by 1900 the territory had been expanded to include modern Pakistan. In 1906 The All Indian Muslim league was found and their aim is to have an independent area in 1940 the feared the Hindu dominance of India, the Muslim league demanded a partition of India into Hindu and Muslim nations. The name Pakistan means the land of the pure in Urdu, was introduced to refer to the Muslim nation. In 1947 Pakistan gained its independence. There were a lot of arguments between India and Pakistan over Kashmir, and war happened between then in 1948 till 1949. In 1956 Pakistan became a republic. In 1971 there was a civil war in Pakistan and East Pakistan proclaimed its independence from Pakistan as the state of Bangladesh. More than 1 million people died in the civil war, which ended when India and Bangladesh defeated Pakistani forces.
In 1977 the military took control of the government, and Zia Ul-Haq was the leader. In 1988 Zia died in a plane crash, which made Benazir Bhutto as prime minister and becoming the first woman to lead an Islamic nation, but she was removed in 1990 by president Ghulman Ishaq Khan. But soon won the next election and she returned to the office. In 1994 tension over Kashmir soared again. And other countries tried to intervene to prevent a possible nuclear rivalry between Pakistan and India. In 1995 violence in Karachi erupted, resulting in the deaths of at least 290 people, over Bhuttoís condemnation of the Mhajor Qaumi Movement. In 1998 corruption charges filed against the Bhutto family. Shariíah or Islamic Law imposed throughout the country. In 1999 further nuclear tests happened. Benazir Bhutto and her husband Asif Ali Zardari found guilty of corruption. Conflict with India over Kashmir continued.
In 2002, Musharraf took over Pakistan in a coup.
1- Measures to ensure the rights of minorities within a country:
Pakistan is deeply committed to promoting respect for basic human rights. Pakistan is a member of the Commission on Human rights. It also supports the rights of minorities. Minorities are equal citizens and they should enjoy all fundamental rights. Minorities have the right to profess, practice and propagate their religion and establish, maintain and manage their religious institutions.
Pakistan is concentrating on giving the minorities their rights. Minorities are a group of people in a society whose members have different ethnic, racial, national, religious, political and other characters that makes them differ from the rest of the society. Minorities in Pakistan are considered like any other citizen, they donít want to treat them differently because they want to avoid rebellious acts and over through.
2- The question of Palestine and the Peace process in the Middle East:
Pakistan is a peace seeking country. As a member of the United Nations, Pakistan disapproves of war. Pakistan supports the absence of violence or other disturbance within a state, in other words peace.
Pakistan faces a dilemma with the problem of Palestine and Israel. It canít blindly support Palestine because the US and many European nations will stop the relations between them. It also can't support Israel because Pakistan is a Muslim country, also the gulf region will stop providing them with oil, and it has to give its full support to a sister Muslim country. So in conclusion Pakistan wants peace between Palestine and Israel.
3- The question of Drug usage, drug trafficking, and rehabilitation programs:
Drugs are substances that are illegal and sometimes addictive, it causes changes in human behavior. Drugs have a big affect on the people, it increases the crime, robbery and problems between the people. It also decreases the educated labor.
Pakistan suffers a lot from the drug problems. Researches and surveys have proved that there are about 1.5 million heroin addicts in Pakistan. Based on this survey drug abuse prevention programs were made. In Pakistan there are around 50 institutions that are doing treatment and rehabilitation for the drug addicts. The media has a big part in drug abuse prevention it has educated the people and informed them of the danger of drugs. Pakistan was a major drug producing nation of at one time. In 1979 the country produced 800 tons of opium. The major supply reduction program was initiated. The last crop reports say that this year 17 tons were produced, and hopefully in a couple of years we shall achieve zero growth.
4- The question of international terrorism:
Terrorism is an act of violence or the threat of violence especially bombing, kidnapping and assassination carried out for political purposes. There is no excuse for a terrorist, he is a criminal, because he kills the innocent.
There have been many acts of terrorism and bombing in the past few years, in many different parts of the world, and each has his own reason. There had been terrorism in India about the conflict of Kashmir. There has also been bombing in Israel about the problem with Palestine. Also the US had a few incidents. We the Pakistani government donít approve of any kind of terrorism, but we are trying our best to stop individual acts that originated from our country.
Question of: International Terrorism
Student: Saud Al Aujan
Defining international terrorism as "The unlawful use or threatened use of force or violence by a person or an organized group against people or property with the intention of intimidating or coercing societies or governments, often for ideological or political reasons,"
Aware of the constant increase in the number of international terrorism.
Bearing in mind that more than 3,000 people have been killed in the World Trade Center in New York, USA,
Believing that more than 400 people die and nearly 800 people wounded through 423 terrorist acts annually,
Recognizing that international terrorism cause nothing but harm, deaths, conflicts between nations and lose of money,
1. Confirms that the United Nation will try its best to stop international terrorism;
2. Declares that the UN will make a special organization that will specialize in stopping terrorism;
3. Emphasizes that all nations must increase security, and make hard strict punishments to those who are a part of terrorist group;
4. Draws the attention that according to almanac that 405 people die and 791 people wounded through 423 terrorist acts annually,
5. Further reminds that terrorism leads to:
A) Death of many innocent people,
B) Loss of money,
C) Massive destruction,
D) War between nations;
6. Congratulates countries such as the United States and other nations for increasing the security in the ports.
Good evening, al-salaamo alaykom wa rahmato alahi wa barakaataho, from the land of beautiful green mountains to the land of magnificent nature. From the land of the Indus Valley to the land of freedom. Pakistan welcomes all of the fellow delegates here in this assembly.
International terrorism conquers a big part of the worldís major issues. Many innocent people have been killed or harshly harmed from them; many families have suffered from their losses that were caused from terrorism. Terrorism had made a major threat to every person old or young, politically involved or not. In the recent few years terrorism proved that it caused nothing but harm.
Terrorism is a bad act of humanity, and Pakistan completely stands against it. Pakistan will try its best to illuminate international terrorism. Pakistan asks all countries to stand by her in this difficult situation and urges all countries to stop terrorism.