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The Russian Federation became an independent state in December 1991 as a result of the collapse of the USSR. Since independence, Russia has adopted a new constitution and system of government. Russia is a federal and presidential republic governed under a constitution that took effect in 1993. In the political system established by the 1993 constitution the legislative power is far weaker than the executive power. The Federal Assembly is Russia's bicameral national legislature. It is composed of an upper house, called the Council of the Federation, and a lower house, the State Duma. The Council of the Federation has 178 members—two representatives from each of the 89 administrative units that make up the Russian Federation. The local executive and legislative heads of each unit serve as the representatives for their unit. The State Duma has 450 members. Voters elect half of the Duma members by casting a vote for a specific party listed on the ballot. The other 225 Duma members are elected individually from electoral districts throughout the country. Each of Russia's 89 constituent units have at least one electoral district, some densely populated units have more than one.
Power is concentrated in the executive branch, which is headed by a president. He or she is directly elected by the people to a four-year term and cannot serve more than two consecutive terms. The president is head of state and serves as the commander-in-chief of the armed forces and chairs the Security Council, the central defense decision-making body. Together with the defense minister, the president has control of the nuclear launch codes. The president has the power to appoint the chairman (prime minister) of the government, subject to ratification by the State Duma or the parliament. The president is even entitled to dissolve the Duma and call for new elections. The highest judicial body is the Constitutional Court, composed of 19 judges who are appointed by the president and approved by the Council of the Federation. Since the late 1980s Russia has changed from a single-party, totalitarian state led by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) to a chaotic, factious, multiparty democracy. The CPSU has been replaced by hundreds of political groups, factions, movements, and parties that span a wide political spectrum, from monarchists to communists. The parties range in size from a few members to more than half a million members.
Russia contains the greatest reserves of mineral resources of any country in the world. It is especially rich in mineral fuels, containing the world’s largest natural gas reserves, second-largest coal reserves, and eighth-largest oil reserves. It is also among the world leaders in deposits of iron ore, asbestos, zinc, nickel, cobalt, diamonds, potassium, lead, gold, platinum, and uranium.
However, most such resources are located in remote and climactically unfavorable areas that are difficult to develop and far from Russian ports. Oil and gas exports continue to be the main source of hard currency, but declining energy prices have hit Russia hard. Russia is a leading producer and exporter of minerals, gold and all major fuels. The Russian fishing industry is the world's fourth-largest, behind Japan, the US. and China. Russia accounts for one-quarter of the world's production of fresh and frozen fish and about one-third of world output of canned fish.
Russia has one of the widest varieties of ethnic groups in the world, but ethnic Russians form the vast majority of the population. In 1991 the non-Russian population constituted only 18 percent of the total, with the largest minority, the Tatars, making up only 3.8% ,then Ukrainian 3%, the Chuvash 1.2%, the Bashkir 0.9%, the Byelorussian 0.8%, the Moldavian 0.7%, and other ethnic groups make up 8.1%. Thirty-two ethnic groups have their own administrative territories. Thousands of people have left ethnic administrative territories in recent years.
During most of the Soviet era religious expression was strictly discouraged and the Communist Party controlled religious institutions however in 1990 law granted Russians far more religious freedom. Since the dissolution of the USSR in 1991, religious following has increased and there has been a resurgence of traditional religions, particularly Orthodox Christianity. The only religions that are identified as Russia’s traditional religions Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Judaism. The law limits the activities of organizations that represent any other religious faith. Russia has an enormous cultural legacy, notably from the 19th century; its achievements in music, ballet, drama, literature, and film are particularly renowned. Russia has produced some of the most famous names in 19th and 20th century music, notably the composers Tchaikovsky and Stravinsky.
The USSR was a military superpower with a massive nuclear arsenal and millions of troops; in the 1980s the armed forces had more than 5 million members. Immediately after the dissolution of the USSR in 1991, the armed forces came under the military command of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), an organization comprising most of the former Soviet republics. In May 1992 Russia created its own military structure in response to the formation of separate armies by several CIS states, notably Ukraine. The CIS military command continued to function for another year, although its power was greatly reduced. It was finally abolished in June 1993 and most of its functions were transferred to the Russian military command. Under the new Russian military structure, an executive body known as the Security Council formulates defense policy. The Russian president appoints and dismisses members of the council and dominates its proceedings. Russia is a member in the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), and the Partnership for Peace.
In 1999 Russia had 1 million troops in the army, navy, air force, air defense force, and strategic rocket force (which controls the country's nuclear weapons). Since the collapse of the USSR all nuclear weapons of the former Soviet forces have been concentrated in Russia. Some have been destroyed, but most remain intact. Western governments have expressed concern over the safety of these weapons and the sale of weapons to unfriendly nations or terrorist movements. The USSR had established agreements with Western nations to limit armaments, and Russia inherited both the START I and the Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) agreements. The START II treaty is an additional agreement between the United States and Russia to significantly reduce nuclear arms. START II has been signed, but has not yet been ratified by Russia
Russia borders 12 countries. (North Korea, China, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Ukraine, Belarus, Latvia, Estonia, Finland, and Norway).In both total area and geographic extent Russia is the largest country in the world. With an area of 17,075,200 sq. km (6,592,800 sq. MI), Russia constitutes more than one-ninth of the world's land area and nearly twice the area of the United States or China. From north to south Russia extends more than 4,000 km (2,400 MI) Russia can be divided into three broad geographical regions: European Russia, consisting of the territory lying west of the Ural Mountains; Siberia, stretching east from the Urals almost to the Pacific Ocean; and Far Eastern Russia, including the extreme south-east and the Pacific coastal fringe. Russia contains complex geologic structures and surface formations. Very simply, however, the land mass consists of vast plains in the west and north, and a discontinuous belt of mountains and plateaus in the south and east.
View of World Problems:
Russia has taken important steps to become a full partner in the world's principal political groupings. On December 27, 1991, Russia assumed the seat formerly held by the Soviet Union in the UN Security Council. Russia also is a member the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and the North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACC). It signed the NATO Partnership for Peace initiative on June 22, 1994. On May 27, 1997, NATO and Russia signed the NATO-Russia Founding Act, which provides the basis for an enduring and robust partnership between the Alliance and Russia--one that can make an important contribution to European security architecture in the 21st century. On June 24, 1994, Russia and the European Union (EU) signed a partnership and cooperation agreement. Russia has a reputation of being against US policy.
Russia has played an important role in helping mediate international conflicts and has been particularly actively engaged in trying to promote a peace following the conflict in Kosovo. Russia is a co-sponsor of the Middle East peace process and supports UN and multilateral initiatives in the Persian Gulf, Cambodia, Angola, the former Yugoslavia, and Haiti. Russia is a founding member of the Contact Group and (since the Denver Summit in June 1997) a member of the G-8. In November 1998, Russia joined APEC. Russia has contributed troops to the NATO-led stabilization force in Bosnia and has affirmed its respect for international law and OSCE principles. It has accepted UN and OSCE involvement in instances of regional conflict in neighboring countries, including the dispatch of observers to Georgia, Moldova, Tajikistan, and Nagorno-Karabakh.
As in other former Soviet republics, Russia has experienced formidable economic difficulties since the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. The break-up of the USSR into 15 independent states destroyed important economic links that have been only partially replaced. As a result of this dislocation and of the government’s failure to implement a consistent reform program, output dropped by more than one third between 1990 and 1996. Real gross domestic product (GDP) declined by some 40 per cent during the same period, a much greater drop than occurred in the United States during the Great Depression of the 1930s. The value of Russia’s currency, the Ruble, dropped rapidly, from the highly artificial official rate of 0.6 Ruble per US$1 in 1988 to more than 1,000 Rubles per US$1 in 1993. Official unemployment was about 8 per cent, but real levels of unemployment and underemployment were much higher than this. In addition, the government had inherited both a large government deficit and a large foreign debt from the Soviet period. In the year 2000 the external debt reached $163 billion. The GDP per capita is $7,700. 59% of the GDP goes to services, 34% industry and 7% for agriculture. Russia is a member in the Arctic Council (AC), the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC), the Council of Europe (CE), and the Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS).
During the pre-Christian era the vast territory that became Russia was sparsely inhabited by groups of nomadic tribes, many of which were described by Greek and Roman writers. The largely unknown north, a region of extensive forests, was inhabited by tribes later known collectively as Slavs, the ancestors of the modern Russian people. At its greatest extent, in 1914, the Russian Empire included about 22 million sq. km (8.5 million sq. MI), an estimated one sixth of the land area of the Earth, divided into four general regions: Russia proper, comprising the easternmost part of Europe and including the Grand Duchy of Finland and most of Poland; the Caucuses; all of northern Asia, or Siberia; and Russian Central Asia, divided into the regions of the Steppes, in the south-west, and Russian Turkistan, in the south-east.
The defeat of the Russian Empire in World War I led to the seizure of power by the communists and the formation of the USSR. The brutal rule of Josef Stalin (1924-53) strengthened Russian dominance of the Soviet Union at a cost of tens of millions of lives. The Soviet economy and society stagnated in the following decades until General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev (1985-91) introduced glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize communism, but his initiatives inadvertently released forces that by December 1991 splintered the USSR into 15 independent republics. Since then, Russia has struggled in its efforts to build a democratic political system and market economy to replace the strict social, political, and economic controls of the communist period.
The Question of Space usage:
Rivalry, deception, espionage, hate, economic crisis and finally war. This is the future of our world, but fortunately it could be prevented. The key to saving the worlds future is the Anti-ballistic Missile treaty. However the US is trying to amend and even scrap the world’s key to prevent war and now it has publicly stated its intent to withdraw. The US has been trying to develop anti-satellite weapons and develop missile interceptors. By doing that the US is leading the world into economic crisis and war, this will not only undermine Russia’s nuclear deterrent another thing is that it would destroy the existing nuclear balance, creating a new arms race. If the US launched weapons into space, Russia would have to, and then China, India, Pakistan……All nations would want to keep up and that would cause economic problems to these nations it could end up leading to war. Russia even proposed the convening of an international conference in Moscow in 2001 on preventing the "militarization" of outer space.
Russia is against the "militarization" of space but not peaceful exploration of outer space; in fact Russia hopes to launch a successor to the recently dumped Mir space station and is trying to entice other nations to participate. And Russia is a key partner in the International Space Station, but unfortunately many see that project as US. driven.
The Question of sanctions against Iraq:
The UN has long been a symbol of peace in the world, however by not lifting the sanctions against Iraq the UN is not living up to its status. The sanctions created widespread unemployment, skyrocketing inflation, and severe shortages of previously imported commodities, including medicine, medical equipment, animal vaccines, farm machinery, electricity-generating equipment, and water purification supplies in Iraq. Russia does not understand how this is promoting peace and isolating Saddam Hussein, when it is only hurting the people of Iraq and not the leaders.
Russia has consistently blocked tougher sanctions and warned the United States against an attack. What gives the US the right to attack a whole nation because of its leader this goes against every principle of the UN, and the supposed principals of the US. Iraq has formally stated that it has destroyed all its weapons of mass destruction, so the sanctions should be terminated.
The Question of West Africa (Liberia):
Russia does not believe that economic sanction are needed anywhere in the world it affects innocent people, and does not solve anything so the use of sanctions to punish countries is not a way to promote peace, it is a way to increase poverty. Third World countries appeared to suffer the most from sanctions however Russia believes that at least there should be military presence in west Africa.
Since it was founded in 1816 by the American Colonization Society, Liberia has never felt the warmth of peace, it never had a stable economy, and how can there be UN sanctions on it? Russia is opposing sanctions against Liberia advocated by the United States and Britain.
The Russian Mafia unfortunately also has close relations with Liberia, and the Liberian borders, for the Russian Mafia are helping to fuel the civil war in Liberia by buying the illegally trafficked diamonds across the Liberian border.
The Question of Terrorism:
Terrorists of all kinds have existed since the begging of time. Terrorism is the threatening use of force and violence by someone or some organization against people with the intention of in societies, governments, and even for political reasons. Russia has contributed and is supporting the war on international terrorism but it does not want the war on international terrorism to be an excuse for countries such as the US to attack its enemies. In 1999 a Chechen terrorist group launched a spree of deadly apartment bombings in Moscow and two other Russian cities that killed nearly 300 people. And still the United States frequently criticized Russia for its handling of the Chechen conflict, saying its military actions in Chechnya has been harsh and that Moscow has disregarded the human rights of Chechens.
After the terrorist attacks in New York and Washington and after President Vladimir Putin's famous call to President George Bush the US. Department of State publicly acknowledged that Chechen "fighters for freedom" were linked with Osama bin Laden's group. It seemed that America, who itself became a target of terrorist attacks, finally began to understand Russia. The US never criticized Russia’s military use in Chechnya, since it was doing the same thing in Afghanistan. That did not last long ,only four months, until Americans won the war in Afghanistan. As soon as they won it, the value of the "strategic alliance" with Moscow immediately was forgotten. As before, terrorists are again divided into two categories bad and good ones, into those who fight America and those who fight for freedom or not America.
SECURITY COUNCIL CLAUSES
The Question of Space usage:
Resolved that all members of the UN should sign an anti-ballistic missile treaty which states:
A) No country has the right to shoot down a satellite of any kind of another nation,
B) No space-based weapon of any kind should be launched into space,
C) No missile defense program of any kind should be launched into space,
D) Space is not a territory belonging to any person, organization or nation.
Further Resolves the convening of an annual international UN conference in Moscow every two years on preventing the "militarization" of outer space where a representative of every nation that has a space program will be there, the issues to be discussed are:
A) Any new Space program or project the nation is going to launch.
B) A list of all the satellites that were launched into space by the government of this nation.
The Question of sanctions against Iraq:
Noting with regret that the sanctions on Iraq created widespread unemployment, skyrocketing inflation, and severe shortages of previously imported commodities, including medicine, medical equipment, animal vaccines, farm machinery, electricity-generating equipment, and water purification supplies in Iraq.
Resolved the UN should lift economic sanctions in Iraq since Iraq has formally stated that it has no weapons of mass destruction, the SC shall put the sanctions back if it suspects Iraq has weapons, and no weapon UN weapon inspectors should be sent to Iraq more than once a year.
The Question of West Africa (Liberia):
Alarmed by the extremely poor living conditions of Liberians
Noting that in last Liberian civil war the death toll was close to 220,000 people.
Resolves the UN shall launch a new program to help people who are suffering because of the civil war in Liberia and Sierra Leone, it will be launched as soon as this resolution is passed, and it would:
A) Send UN monitors that will be placed in the borders, air ports, and seaports of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Burkina Faso.
B) Ensure that all illegally trafficked diamonds found on the borders airports and seaports of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Burkina Faso be sold and the money will be used for:
1. Building civic buildings ( Hospitals, Schools and Clinics)
2. Hiring doctors, nurse and teachers
3. Buying food and clothes
C) Have the UNICEIF make sure that the money is being used properly.
The Question of Terrorism:
Defining terrorist sectors as a group of people lead by a terrorist organization trying to liberate a land that was never theirs by violence and unlawful ways;
Resolves the UN will not interfere with how a nation deals with terrorist sectors and terrorists of their nation unless the nation asks for its help;
A giant is never fooled by the deviousness of a terrorizing dwarf
Good morning honorable chair and fellow delegates.
Everyday the sun sets upon our world and it has always risen again but now we are doubtful. Darkness will overrun our world, darkness of terrorism, greed, death and famine. But fortunately OUR fate could be prevented by working together in the SC not working together and lead by one nation but leading our selves as one nation.
Russia is here today to discuss the important issue of international terrorism, unfortunately the issue is never realized by the world as an important issue until it strikes us were we never thought it would.
Chechnya, The lost boy. It cannot survive on its own or find the right path, it had to choose, to be lead by their mother who knows what is right for them or lead by a stranger, a terrorist, Osama bin Laden. Unfortunately the Chechens made the wrong choice….
the Chechen freedom fighters are a terrorist organization under the Al-Qaeda terrorist organization, Russia for years now is trying to liberate Chechnya from this evil. Russia does not know why it has been criticized for its military actions on Chechnya when the United States of America was backed up by the world when it used force to liberate Afghanistan.
The issue is not understood very well in the UN, for one country decides who is a terrorist and who is not. It is dividing them according to its own advantage.
Russia hopes that this session will, hopefully, take us one step closer to the essential aim of achieving peace.