Country: the United States,
Pearl MUN 2002, SC
Student: Hamad Al EssaLinks to other sites on the Web: Back to the 2001-2002 Team page
Government/ Political Structure:
The government of the United States is a federal republic in which there is a strong democratic tradition. The government is split into three main branches: The executive branch, which consists of the chief of state and the head of the government (Bush) and the Cabinet Members, which are approved by the senate. The legislative branch consists of Senate and the House of Representatives, and finally, the judicial branch is made up of the Supreme Court and all other courts. Any decision the president makes must pass a vote in congress, and the president has the right to veto anything brought up by congress. There are two main political parties, the Democratic Party and the Republican Party, and each has an equal number of seats in congress. Each state elects a representative for congress.
The US has a federal government. This means that two levels of the government control the same citizens and territory. For example, residents of the state of Texas must obey Texan laws, in addition to laws passed by congress. The US began as a confederation, but later evolved into a federal country with the constitution.
The US is abundant in many natural resources, including coal, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphates, uranium, bauxite, gold, iron, mercury, nickel, potash, silver, tungsten, zinc, petroleum, natural gas and timber. It is ranked 3rd in the world for the production of petroleum, however, due to great demand, the US must import oil in addition to using what is domestically produced. The ratio of production to imports as of 2000 is 2:3. So, for every 5 barrels of petrol the US consumes, 2 are of domestic production and 3 are imported. The US is the worldís largest producer of coal. 44% of the USís land mass is used for farming, and the major product in this field is tobacco. The US is a major exporter of food and agriculture, and its product are sold worldwide. Therefore, it does not export much food and relies on itself for that matter.
The United states is a country of many cultures, the most important being: white 83.5%, black 12.4%, Asian 3.3%, Amerindian (Native American) 0.8%. The national language of the US is American, with Spanish widely spoken by a large minority. Religions are Diverse in the US, ranging from Protestant (56%) and Roman Catholic (28%), to Jewish (2%), other (4%), and none (10%). So, 84% of the population is Christian, and 10% have no religion. In the past, there have been many clashes between blacks and whites, and blacks had to face severe racism.
Now, however, that issue has quieted down, and the most important disturbances have happened between Arabs and Muslims with other Americans in the September 11th aftermath, and that particular race has suffered racism and repeated violent attacks. The US is a country diverse in ethnic groups and religions that all come together to represent a single nation.
The US has the most powerful army in the world. The army is split up into 3 main branches: The Military, The Navy (including Marines and The Coast Guard), and the Air Force. It outweighs all its rivals in terms of conventional weapons, and makes use of modern technologies such as laser-guided missiles and SAM anti-Aircraft weaponry. It is better of than Russia in terms of Nuclear Arsenal, since US weapons are more accurate and reliable. The US Army is self-dependent and has no need for any collaboration, however it is part of many alliances including NATO. The number of males in service as of 2001 is 2,039,414.
The US also has strong weapon capabilities. It is possible, through the USís arsenal, to bomb almost anywhere with missiles deployed from aircraft and battleships. The US can also send ballistic missiles to locations in other continents using advanced satellite technology. The US is also currently developing a missile defense program.
Of the most advanced capabilities of the US army is its ability to use satellites. These satellites can be used to home in on targets across continents, and can detect ballistic missile launches within seconds, giving enough time to prepare proper defense and retaliation. The US has the largest and by far the best, most technologically advanced army in the world.
The US is located in North America, bordering Canada on the north and Mexico on the south. On the east, it borders North Atlantic Ocean, and on the west, the North Pacific Ocean. The total area of the US is 9,629,091 km2; 470,131 km2 of that total is water. Vast plains dominate the center of the country, while mountains are present in the west and low mountains and hills dominate the east.
Since throughout the center of the US no rugged topography exists, and the land is all flat and evened out, there are no natural borders or barriers to divide anything, so it does make sense as a single country. It is the worldís largest country in terms of size, and is half the size of Russia. The climate of the US is mostly temperate, however it is tropical in both Hawaii and Florida, and Arctic in Alaska. The tropical climate in Hawaii and Florida has greatly helped with the tourism industry, as these are the most visited areas.
The people of the US enjoy the worldís largest and most advanced economy, with budget revenues of $1.828 trillion and expenditures of $1.703 trillion. Therefore, the US does run a balanced budget, and is not in debt to any country. However, the US is in debt to itself. This pie chart explains to what parts the US exactly owes money: The US is in debt to itself, in these particular areas. Currently, the US owes around 6 trillion and 56 billion. Being in debt to oneís self is a serious problem and would not ensure a fair life for generations to come.
The United States Dollar (USD) is the worldís most stable and widely used currency, and itís symbol ($) is accepted as the international sign for money. The US economy is heavily industrial and agriculture gains much less in terms of economy. Service industries are important and generate 70% of the GNP. Building cars and trucks and producing computer components are big businesses in the US, with major trading partners including Canada, Japan and the EU. The US also heavily relies on Arab countries for crude oil, and nearly all its oil comes from there. The US yearly gains from exports about $776 billion, and is an active member of the World Trade Organization.
After the industrial era, dot-coms, telecommunications and other post-industrial business of this age dominated the US market. At the beginning, these businesses were hugely successful, but then their stocks went down, and many went bankrupt. In addition, the postindustrial era spawned many service-oriented companies, and these are Americaís main exports, services.
Views on World Problems:
The US is a country committed to world peace, and is takes part in exactly 75 worldwide organizations including the UN-SC and NATO. In the SC, the US is one of the five permanent members, and has veto powers. The US has proposed many resolutions, and demolished many others. In NATO, the US is the country that has the most active role, and has donated the greatest number of peacekeeping troops in comparison to other countries.
The US attempts to solve many of the problems facing our world today and take initiative on them, and is successful most of the time, as is clearly seen in the liberation of Kuwait in 1991, and freeing the Afghani people from the evil Taliban regime. The USís involvement in such problems are to carry out the UN and NATO objectives, while at the same time saving itís personal interests.
The US is on good terms with many nations, and its main enemies are Iraq, Libya and other Arabian Terrorist states, South Korea, and some Latin American countries. The US disagrees with most Arabian countries on the Palestine-Israel issue, and many see the US as an overpowered bigot and bully, which is the reason for their hate. Also, Europeans resent the US because they disagree on many major issues, such as Israel and Palestine, the death penalty and rights of cloning and stem cell use.
The main Allies of the US are the EU, Japan, Russia, China, Saudi Arabia, Canada and Egypt. The US is on good terms with all these countries, and is very active with them trade-wise. Japan, along with the EU, is one of the USís biggest trade partners, and a close ally of the US. The EU is the USís largest trade partner, and is one of the most helpful allies, and is accredited to sending many troops to help with the war on terror in Afghanistan. Concerning Arab states, maintaining a good relationship with them is vital, since they supply all of the USís crude oil, yet there has been slight tension over the past ten years regarding Palestine and Israel and now, the War On Terror.
The first inhabitants of the US were the Native Americans. Then, the Europeans arrived in the 1500ís. By the 1700ís, British settlers had established 13 colonies. In 1775, a revolutionary war broke out between Britain and the Colonies, and after the coloniesí victory the US was formed. In 1787, the constitution was formed, and in 1861 a civil war raged between southern states and northern states. The north won, bringing an end to slavery.
In the summer of 1914, war broke out pitting Germany, Austria and Hungary against the UK, France and Russia. The US did not intervene until after 3 years and repeated German submarine attacks, after discovering a telegraph in which Germany proposed to wage war on the US with Mexico. The American Expeditionary force of 4 million personnel arrived in France, just before Germany started the offensive, and considerably tipped the scale in the alliesí favor. With the USís manpower, the allies were able to defeat Germany, bringing an end to the First World War.
By the end of 1940, an alliance had formed between Germany, Italy and Japan; know as the Axis powers. These nations waged war on neighbors, and so began the Second World War. The US did not take part in anything until 1941, when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. The US waged war on Japan, and after that, the Germans declared war on the US, and by 1944, American manpower had reached about 12 million. The US ended the war by dropping two nuclear weapons on Japan.
From the debris of World War 2, the US and the USSR rose as the worldís power. Tension rose between the two nations. The US signed a treaty with 10 other countries, forming NATO, and pledged that an attack on one would be an attack on all. The Cold War was between the US and USSR, in which the US sought to prevent communism.
The US was and is currently active in many recent events. The US was a played a key role in the Gulf War, ending the inhumane Iraqi occupation of Kuwait. It has also played a vital role in ending the war in Somalia, and ending the war and massacres in Yugoslavia. And, after suffering devastating attacks on the World trade center, recently liberated the Afghani people from the evil and unjust rule of the Taliban, and is the leader in the coalition of the War on Terror.
Bushís new foreign policy is a catastrophe. It has allowed the Middle East crisis to get more dangerous, and put the Arab countries more in solidarity with Saddam Hussein. It has led to rising world tensions, and increased the tension between the US and its key allies with his missile defense system.
1. Rights of space Usage:
The US is a country that heavily relies on satellites for communications, reconnaissance and many other applications. By using satellites, the US is able to detect, within seconds, a ballistic missile launch or a nuclear explosion from anywhere in the world, and gives it enough time to prepare defense and a retaliatory strike. So, satellites are necessary for national security. In addition to gathering intelligence for ensuring world peace, satellites are also necessary for locating missing troops, and are essential in the preparation of a search and rescue mission.
The US firmly believes satellites should be launched freely and no restrictions should be put on this whatsoever, and firmly believes that any terrorist based country or any country that is a threat to world peace should not have access to such technology. In other words, the US believes that it is the only country that deserves to have full rights, along with Russia, since these are the only two countries that have adequate knowledge in this field. But, because Russia has a history of abusing such technology, and has repeatedly used it in the past to induce terror and cripple world peace, then Russia should not have any rights, so that leaves the US as the only country with full rights of space usage. The US regards space as itís territory, a field that it can use to itís own advantage.
2. Sanctions on Iraq:
The US sees Iraq as a country of terror, and believes Iraq has stocks of biological weapons and other weapons of mass destruction. Iraq is a threat to US interests and to world peace. Allowing Iraq freedom would be a threat to US interests in that region, further worsen the Middle East conflict and diminish world peace.
The US imposed trade sanctions on Iraq, buying from Iraq and selling to Iraq, goods, technology or services are outlawed, and firmly believes that they should not be lifted, as doing so would enable Iraq to buy weapons and disrupt world peace. However, if Iraq complies with UN weapons inspections, and successfully continues the oil for food program, the US will gladly oversee lifting these sanctions from Iraq, and end the suffering of its innocent people.
3. Fighting International Terrorism:
The US has greatly suffered at the hands of international terrorism. Last year, the world trade center was brought down and thousands were killed because of terrorism. In previous incidents, US embassies were detonated in many countries because of terrorism.
The US greatly opposes terrorism, and is the leader of the coalition on the war against terror. It has recently brought an end to the Taliban Regime in Afghanistan, and fully supports and would vote for anything that helps putting an end to terror, such as sever sanctions on terror supporting countries, and closing down terror funding charities and organizations. The US supports "blocking property and prohibiting transactions with persons who commit, threaten to commit, or support terrorism."
The basic US solution to terrorism is simple. First, the US defines all those that are terrorists, whether they are individuals or groups. Then, the US determines the source of funding for these groups, and where their assets are located, and attempts freeze them. After that, the US determines the location of these groups, and issues an ultimatum to the host country to hand them over, within a designated period of time. If the country complies, the US regards it as an ally and works with it to crack down on more terrorists, and if not, then regards it as a terrorist itself and launches military attacks on it. Some of the terrorist organizations on the USís list include the Abu-Sayaf Militant group, the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, Al- Qaeda and Hamas. Some of the countries known to support terrorists are Iraq, Iran, Libya and Afghanistan under the rule of the Taliban.
4. West Africa (Liberia):
The Sierra Leonean-Liberian nightmare spawned partly because of the US. The US is partly responsible for Charles Taylorís rise to power, who is the dictator that is behind this entire catastrophe. The Sierra Leonean-Liberian conflict is a threat to US interests in the region and an ultimate threat to world peace.
The US recognizes Liberiaís acts as an unjust and as of the end of 2001, outlawed all trade with RUF diamonds within the US. The US also recognizes Liberia as a source for RUF funding, and the main country in which illegal RUF diamonds are smuggled. Therefore, the US has imposed trade sanctions on Liberia which outlaws importing diamond to the US and trading them. Nothing, however, has been done on the USís part towards Charles Taylor and his regime. Therefore, the US will not propose a clause to end Taylorís regime, yet will not vote against one brought up by another country.
Security Council Clauses
1. Sanctions on Iraq:
!. Resolved: The UN will designate a team of weapons inspectors. This team is to:
A- Perform routine, monthly checks on all Iraqi military facilities, in addition to several surprise checks,
B- Present monthly reports to the SC after each inspection, reporting the findings,
C- After 2 years of successful inspections, sanctions on Iraq are to be lifted,
D- The inspectors are to come from any non-Arab, non-American countries wishing to cooperate.
2. West Africa (Liberia):
1 Calls on all countries to end economical and trade relations with the Liberian government through:
A-Imposing trade sanctions that outlaw the trading of illegally mined diamonds from Liberia,
B-Freezing all known Liberian financial assets and bank accounts,
2. Demands the immediate withdrawal of Liberian forces from Sierra Leone, overseen by a UN peacekeeping mission that:
A-Is made up of any countries wishing to participate, excluding Liberia and Sierra Leone,
B-Will escort Liberian troops out of Sierra Leone and back into Liberia,
C-Will stay in the region until a credible agreement is reached;
3. Urges Liberia and Sierra Leone to engage in peace talks in France.
3. Fighting International Terrorism:
1. Calls on all countries to assist in financially demobilizing terrorists through:
A-Imposing economical trade sanctions on all countries that support terrorism,
B- Blocking assets and properties of terrorists within the country,
C-Freezing bank accounts and transactions of terrorists within the country;
2. Calls on all countries to end the activities of terrorists through:
A-Designating all those that are terrorists,
B-Carefully studying the activities of all those designated,
C-End these activities after collecting sufficient evidence by means of force, such as arresting individuals and putting large groups and organizations under siege and air strikes.
4. Rights of space usage:
Bearing in mind that the US has recently dropped out of the Anti Ballistic Missile Treaty,
Recognizing the USís reason for dropping out of the treaty as efforts to minimize interference with itís missile defense program,
Bearing in mind the US will re-adopt the treaty after successful completion of itís missile defense program,
Taking into consideration that the US and many other countries heavily rely on satellites for gathering intelligence necessary for ensuring world peace,
1. Resolved nothing is to change.
Good evening, ladies and gentlemen. Good evening from the land of different cultures. Good evening from the land of diverse ethnic groups. Good evening from the land of justice, the land off opportunity. Good evening from the United States of America. We may speak different languages. We may have different religious beliefs. We may have different skins, yet we all unite under the Red, White and Blue. The US. would like to extend its hand in greeting to all 15 nations present here today, the honorable chairs and our most valued guests.
The US. would like to take this opportunity to address the issue of terrorism. War. Death. Rape. Murder. These are all images of our world today. These are all products of terrorism. After two buildings considered a national landmark toppled, after more than 3,000 came to their deaths, after many firemen met their dooms trying to save others, and after more than 10,000 children were left orphaned, the time has come to take decisive action. The US. urges all countries to take action to aid fighting international terrorism, today, in this session. Any country that unwillingly harbors and supports terrorists should ideally be considered a terrorist itself. Iraq, Iran and North Korea, an axis of evil, are a clear example of this. Terrorism is the plague of todayís nations. Terrorism is what has brought down civilizations in the past, and will bring down many more today. The US. hopes that by the end of todayís session, all of us here have taken sever, unanimous measures to aid in bringing and end to terrorism, so that we can ensure better lives for us today, and a better future for our children.
United we stand, yet divided we fall.