Event: SAIMUN 2002
Economic Development: Abdullah Bourhamah
Human Rights and Ambassador: Nada Al Abduljader
Political 1: Abdullah Al Asousi
Political 2: Ghazi Al SharhanLinks to other sites on the Web: Back to the SAIMUN page
Portugal is governed under a constitution promulgated in 1976 and revised in 1982. Although the constitution initially called for the creation of a "classless" state based on public ownership of land, natural resources, and the principal means of production, this socialist language was stricken in 1989. The right to strike and the right of assembly are guaranteed, and censorship and the death penalty are proscribed.
Portugal is a republic with a president, popularly elected to a five-year term, as head of state. The president of the republic appoints the prime minister, who is the country's chief administrative official. The prime minister presides over a cabinet of about 15 ministers. Legislative power is vested in a unicameral parliament, the 230-member Assembly of the Republic. Members of the assembly are elected under a system of proportional representation and serve four-year terms.The judicial system in Portugal is headed by the Supreme Court, which is made up of a president and 29 judges. Below the Supreme Court are courts of appeal and ordinary and special district courts.Local authority is vested in the district governors and district legislatures. Each district is further subdivided into parishes, each with an elected assembly and council.
The leading political parties in Portugal are the Socialist Party, the Social Democratic Party, the Social Democratic Center Party, and the Unitary Democratic Coalition, which includes many of the same parties that were once in the United People's Alliance. Running in coalition as the Democratic Alliance, the PSD and CDS together captured parliamentary majorities in the elections of 1979 and 1980. In 1983, however, with the Democratic Alliance dissolved, the PS swept into power in coalition with the PSD. The PSD led the vote in the parliamentary elections of 1985 and won clear majorities in 1987 and 1991, although its popularity declined in the mid-1990s and the PS returned to power in 1995.
The most valuable of Portugal's natural resources are its minerals. Much of this wealth was not developed until after World War II (1939-1945). Among the mineral resources are coal, copper, gold, iron ore, kaolin, tin, and wolframite, which is a source of tungsten. Although a substantial segment of the population supports itself by agriculture, the land is not particularly suited to this occupation. The plants and animals of Portugal are virtually identical with those of Spain. The most abundant trees are the evergreen oak, cork oak, poplar, and olive. Grapevines flourish in the arid soil, and port wine from Porto and Madeira wine from Madeira are world famous. Wild animals include the wolf, lynx, wildcat, fox, wild boar, wild goat, deer, and hare. Birdlife and insects abound. Portugal also has an abundance of waterpower resources in its rivers and mountain streams.
The Portuguese are a combination of several ethnic elements, principally Iberians, Romans, Visigoths, and latr Moors. The people still live in rural villages. Roman Catholicism is the faith of more than 94 percent of the Portuguese people. The constitution guarantees freedom of religion. There are some Protestant churches have been established. The official language of the country is Portuquese. Portuquese culture is closely related to Spanish culture and has been influenced by the three primary cultures from which it derives; the Latin, the Visigoth, and the Muslims.
Portugal, is a republic in southwestern Europe, situated in the western portion of the Iberian Peninsula, bounded on the north and east by Spain and on the south and west by the Atlantic Ocean. The Azores and the Madeira Islands in the Atlantic are autonomous regions of Portugal, considered integral parts of the republic. The total area of metropolitan Portugal, including the Azores and the Madeira Islands , is 92,345 sq km. The capital and largest city is Lisbon.
The climate varies according to elevation, and high temperatures occur only in the comparatively low regions of the south. The mean annual temperature north of the Douro River is about 10įC; between the Tajo and Douro, about 16įC; and in the valley of the Guadiana, about 18įC. Rainfall is heavy, particularly in the north.
Portugal remains the least developed nation in Western Europe. Although the Portuguese economy grew by 5.3 percent annually from 1965 to 1980, the economic growth rate slowed to less than 1 percent during the 1980s; in the period 1990-1999 the gross domestic product (GDP) grew at an annual average of 2.5 percent. The GDP in 1999 was $114 billion.
Agriculture, including forestry and fishing, engages 14 percent of the working population and accounts for 4 percent of the GDP. Chief crops and production figures for 2000 were vegetables such as tomatoes, fruit such as grapes and olives, root crops such as potatoes, and cereal grains such as maize and wheat. Portugal is one of the world's leading producers of wine and olive oil. Livestock numbered 1.2 million cattle, 5.8 million sheep, 2.3 million pigs, and 35 million poultry.
Forests cover 40 percent of Portugal's land area. The country is one of the largest producers of cork in the world; in the mid-1980s the annual output of cork products exceeded 301,400 metric tons. The roundwood harvest in 1999 amounted to 9 million cubic meters.
Commercial fishing is also important to the Portuguese economy. The fish catch in 1997 totaled 229,108 metric tons. One-quarter of the catch is typically sardines. Mineral production in Portugal in 1999 included 0 metric tons of coal, 99,500 metric tons of copper, and 3,000 metric tons of tin. Also extracted were smaller quantities of tungsten, kaolin, silver, and zinc. Mining of uranium deposits was begun in 1979.
Manufacturing is of increasing importance to the economy of Portugal, employing 36 percent of the labor force. Major manufactures include processed food; textiles; machinery; chemicals; wood, glass, and pottery items; refined petroleum; and building materials. Annual output in the mid-1980s included about 27,400 metric tons of processed sardines, 285,900 metric tons of refined sugar, 1.3 million metric tons of fertilizer, and 386,900 metric tons of steel ingots. An oil refinery and petrochemical complex opened south of Lisbon in 1979. Products of cottage industries, such as lace, pottery, and tiles, are world famous.
The unit of currency in Portugal is the escudo, consisting of 100 centavos, 188.18 escudos equal U.S. $1; 1999 average. Portugal and 11 other members of the European Union are in the process of changing over from their national currencies to the single currency of the EU, the euro. The euro began to be used on January 1, 1999, for electronic transfers and for accounting purposes. Euro coins and bills will be issued in 2002, at which time the Portuguese currency will cease to be legal tender.
In 1999 Portuguese imports totaled $38.5 billion and exports $23.9 billion. Principal imports typically are mineral fuels, machinery and transportation equipment, and food and livestock. Principal exports include clothing, textile yarns and fabrics, and wood and paper products. Leading purchasers of exports are Germany, Spain, France, the United Kingdom, The Netherlands, the United States, Italy, Belgium, and Sweden; chief sources for imports are Spain, Germany, France, Italy, the United Kingdom, and The Netherlands. Foreign exchange receipts from tourism, amounting to $2.5 billion in 1998, help compensate for the chronic trade deficit.
Portugal, a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), has modern, well-equipped armed forces. Military service is compulsory for male citizens for terms of 4 to 18 months. In 1the armed forces numbered 44,650 people; in addition to people serving in central staff posts there were 25,650 in the army, 11,600 in the navy, and 7,400 in the air force.
Armed forces: Total personnel on active duty, 58,000, of which 33,000 conscripts; army 32,700; navy, 15,300; air force, 10,300. Reserves 190,000.
Major Units: Army had six territorial commands with one composite brigade, three infantry brigades, and one special forces brigade; navy had three commands and 2,500 marines organized into three battakions; air force of one operational command of eighteen squadrons, including three attack squadrons.
Military Equipment: Army had about 130 tanks, 250 armored personnel carriers, variety of other combat vehicles; 300 pieces of towed artillery; forty-eight TOW missiles, forty-five Milan wire guided missiles, and seventeen, SAM missiles; and 240 recoilless launchers. Navy had three submarines, eleven frigates, and twenty-nine patrol and coastal boats. Air force had ten Alpha Jets, about seventy A-7 and A-7P Corsairs, and six Lockheed P-3B Orion maritime reconnaissance aircraft. Major transport aircraft included six C130H Hercules and fifty-two CASA C-212 planes of various types.
Views on World Problems:
Portugal is a member of the UN (United Nations), the EU (European Union), the Western Euopean Union (WEU), the Council of Europe (CE), and NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization). Portugal has a very warm relationship with the United States. It also has a neutral view toward most countries, especially the European and those of Latin America.
Portugal sees that the Middle East constitutes, for obvious reasons, a major concern for Europe. Although not anymore a feature of the east-west confrontation, the instability in the region represents a source of destabilization with effects in some European countriers, with important economic and political consequences, namely concering the spreading of terrorist activities. The question of Cyprus concerns Portugal too, which has implications inside NATO, permanent effects on the relations of the union with turkey and is perceived as a major stoppage for the future process of enlargement of the union. For Portugal, reality shows that the possible and most dangerous source of conflict remains in the conditions of poverty that widely affect the Mediterranean basin and are closely linked to strong demographic growth and migratory tensions. It sees that itís important to explore every possibility to promote the democratic values, the rule of law and the human rights, taking into account the specific conditions of each partner. "We should not take a global or even regional approach to these countries without stressing each oneís national identity and specific situation. We must not forget that, in most cases, we are dealing with nations of long and very respectable traditions, of which they are naturally proud, and thus are not prepared to accept a treatment under a mere north-south scheme." Ambassador of Portugal, Washington.
Up to the Middle Ages, the history of Portugal is inseparable from that of Spain. Present-day Portugal became a part of the Roman province of Lusitania in the 2nd century BC. In the 5th century AD control of the region passed to the Visigoths, and in the 8th century it was included in the area of Moorish Muslim conquest. In 997 the territory between the Douro and Minho rivers was retaken from the Moors by Bermudo II, king of Leon, and in 1064 the reconquest was completed as far south as present-day Coimbra by Ferdinand I, king of Castile and Le?n. The reconquered districts were then organized into a feudal county, composed of Spanish fiefs. Portugal later derived its name from the northernmost fief, the Comitatus Portaculenis, which extended around the old Roman seaport of Portus Cale .
In 1093 Henry of Burgundy came to the assistance of Castile when it was invaded by the Moors. In gratitude the King of Castile made Henry count of Portugal. On the death of Alfonso in 1109, Count Henry, and later his widow, Teresa, refused to continue feudal allegiance to Leon. He invaded Leon and began a series of peninsular wars, but with little success. In 1128 his son, Afonso Henriques, rebelled against his mother. In 1139 Afonso Henriques declared Portugal independent from the Spanish kingdom of Castile and Le?n and took the title Afonso I. Four years later, through the Treaty of Zamora, King Alfonso VII of Leon accepted Portugal's sovereignty and Afonso's position as king. Portugal was recognized as independent by the pope in 1179.
Afonso I, aided by the Templars and other military orders sworn to fight the Moors, extended the border of the new kingdom as far south as the Tajo River. His son Sancho I, who reigned from 1185 to 1211, encouraged Christians to settle in the reconquered area by establishing self-governing municipalities there. The Cistercian monks occupied the land and promoted efficient agricultural methods. In the late 12th century, the Almohads, an Islamic dynasty from North Africa, temporarily halted the Christians' southward movement, but after their defeat in 1212 at Las Navas de Tolosa in Castile the reconquest continued. King Afonso III, who reigned from 1248 to 1279, completed the expulsion of the Moors from the Algarve and moved the capital of Portugal from Coimbra to Lisbon. He also began the practice of governing with the aid of a Cortes, which included members of the nobility, the clergy, and the citizens, and he increased the power of the monarchy at the expense of the church. His son Diniz, called the Farmer King because of his encouragement of agriculture, founded the University of Coimbra, the nation's first university, and was responsible for the development of the Portuguese navy. In 1294 he signed a commercial treaty with England, beginning a sequence of alliances between the two countries. Diniz's successor, Afonso IV, joined with Alfonso XI of Castile to win a major victory over the Moors at the Battle of the Salado River in 1340.
In this period the royal houses of Castile and Portugal frequently intermarried, repeatedly raising the possibility that one of the kingdoms might be absorbed by the other. After the death of Ferdinand I, the last of the legitimate descendants of Henry of Burgundy, his illegitimate half brother John I secured the Portuguese throne in 1385, after two years of civil war. His branch of the Burgundian line became known as the house of Aviz. John's reign was one of the most notable in Portuguese history. He successfully defended the kingdom against Castilian attack and in 1385 defeated Castile decisively in the Battle of Aljubarrota. In 1386 England and Portugal allied themselves permanently by the Treaty of Windsor. The greatest fame of John's reign, however, rests on the work done under the direction of his son Henry the Navigator, prince of Portugal, in exploring the African coast for an eastward route to the Indies. A century of exploration and conquest began, which made Portugal one of the greatest colonial powers in the world. In 1418 and 1419 Portuguese navigators explored Madeira and in 1427 discovered the Azores. A successful Portuguese military campaign in Morocco resulted in the capture of Ceuta in 1415. Madeira and the Azores rapidly became important centers of sugar production, and the capture of Ceuta gave Portugal a foothold in Africa, providing the impetus for further exploration of the African coast. Using the caravel, a new type of light sailing vessel especially adapted for Atlantic voyages, Portuguese mariners sailed as far south as Cape Verde in 1444, and by 1460 they had reached Sierra Leone. Meanwhile, John I's successors, King Duarte and Afonso V, sent further expeditions to Morocco, capturing the cities of Tangier and Arzila.
Under King Manuel I, Portuguese power reached its height. From 1497 to 1499 Vasco da Gama made the first voyage to India following the route discovered by Dias and inaugurated a lucrative trade in spices and other luxuries between Europe and South Asia. Led by Afonso de Albuquerque, the Portuguese occupied Goa, India, in 1510; Malacca in 1511; the Moluccas from 1512 to 1514; and Hormuz Island in the Persian Gulf in 1515. During the same period they opened up trade with China and established relations with Ethiopia. As other Portuguese kings had done, Manuel dreamed of uniting Portugal and Spain under his rule and successively married two daughters of King Ferdinand V and Queen Isabella I. Under pressure from his Spanish relations, he followed their example by expelling Jews and Muslims from his domains in 1497, thus depriving Portugal of much of its middle class. His son, John III, promoted the settlement of Brazil and in 1536 introduced the Inquisition into Portugal to enforce religious uniformity. By the the died in 1557, Portugal had begun to decline as a political and commercial power. This trend continued under King Sebastian, who was killed during another expedition against Morocco in 1578. On the death of his successor, King Henry, in 1580, the Aviz dynasty came to an end.
Issue #1: The question of rapid urbanization in the developing world.
Portugal believes that without adequate financially viable capability, this issue would be very critical to development and economic growth. The definition of rapid urbanization is " the change from a pastoral to an municipal state and happening and the meaning of the word rapid is " in great speed."
Portugal is facing very little problems on this issue but believes that developed countries should help the developing countries who in need of economic aid. Rapid urbanization affects these countries extremely, which makes them slow down economically.
Issue #2: The question of an international response to natural disasters.
Portugal believes that destruction of natural disasters is devastating. Portugal may not have that many natural disasters but occasionally, a flood or tornado will come around. Portugal considers the fact the humans play a drastic role in the effect of the environment which may cause some of these devastating disasters. But most of the natural disasters that occur in the world are not in our power to control. Some countries around the world suffer greatly to after effects of natural disasters, which will cost the country a great amount of money to repair the damage. Also people would loose their jobs because of the massive the destruction the disaster has caused the company would not have enough money to pay for the repairs. So Portugal urges all countries with capable incomes to help these developing nations in their time of grief.
Issue #3: The question of the elimination of the debt of lesser economically developed nations.
In 1997, Portugalís external debt was $13.1 billion with an economic aid of $271 million. Debt was such a problem in that year that about 15% of Portugalís income came from the debt service, which made Portugal in a very bad position financially. Portugal announced to raise the taxes on agricultural products, but that caused massive complication between the government and the people, so then they decided to return the taxes back to normal.
Portugal critically needs its debt to be eliminated so it can progress in developing and economic growth. Portugal would go for any resolution eliminating debt in the lesser economically developed nations.
Issue #4: The question of economic co-operation between nations.
Portugal is for economic co-operation since this will bring them one step forward in economic growth and development. Currently; the nations reaction to economic disasters is not doing much. Portugal believes that economic co-operation between nations is the only elucidation for global economic growth. Portugal believes that nations need to realize the vitality of this issue by intensification their alliance and mutual aid with each other.
Committee: Environment and Ecology
Delegate: Maryam al-Hamad
1- The Question of Global Warming
Global warming has been linked to the growing trend of climatic extremes in the Mediterranean. Last year's drought was the worst for 150 years, and this year's temperatures in Portugal are already on average 2C to 5C above normal. 'Portugal is burning right now because it is so dry,' says Professor Eugenio Sequeira, a climate expert at Lisbon's New University. Portugal is trying hard to decrease the effects of global warming because it is causing a decrease in Portugalís economy.
2- The Question of Genetically Modified Crops:
Until recently consumer awareness of the issues of genetically modified foods and crops has been very low in Portugal. However, GM crops are now being grown in Portugal, and foods containing genetically modified maize are already on the shelves of certain shops there. Sixty-three percent of the Portuguese public says they want genetically modified food to be compulsorily labeled.
Meanwhile, Portuguese consumer groups, conservationists and farmers have formed a new organization to stop their cultivation in the country. Portugalís government is trying to stop selling GM crops, since GM ingredients have already been sitting on the shelves of local food stores for some time in products such as sausages, Soya steaks, chocolate biscuits and tortilla chips. This shows how Portugalís people do not fully agree on growing GM crops, and the goevernment is trying to slowly clarify to their people that GM crops are unnecessary and are only using up the countrys economy. "If this is not stopped now, consumers will end up paying the price," said Margarida da Silva of the environmental group, Quercus.
3-The Question of Desertification and Drought:
Desertification and drought are two of the most serious problems, affecting 1/6 of the world population and jeopardizing a surface equal to 3,6 millions of hectares. Desertification has strong implications in both natural ecosystems and human communities. Portugal, being a country on the North of the Mediterranean has specific and natural characteristics that make its ecosystems highly vulnerable to human impact and to natural processes, which may induce environmental problems, such as land degradation and desertification.
In Portugal, there are many areas affected by desertification. In those regions the basic natural resources, such as soil, water and vegetation became scarce and degraded, due to human impact and to high climatic variability. The worst affected areas are where intensive agricultural practices, overgrazing, deforestation, and specific geological and climatic conditions appear at one place.
4-The Questions of Endangered Marine Species
An endangered animal or plant is a species that is considered in immediate danger of becoming extinct. The population number of the endangered marine species is very low in Portugal and needs active protection to survive. Killing endangered marine species and the importation of their meat, tusks, blubbers, or other products is not allowed.
Extinction has happened throughout history, but in modern times the rate has increased dramatically. There is a link between the increase in the extinction rate and the growth in human population. The worldwide human population was 1 billion in 1600, 1.5 billion 100 years ago, and is over 6 billion today. At the same time, the species extinction rate has increased to one species a day. If this continues, it will cause a dramatic drop in the diversity of life on our planet, which will most certainly have serious effects. Marine mammals in Portugal that are on the endangered list include sea otters, manatees, Guadalupe fur seals, monk seals, fin, , right and bowhead whales.
Human Rights Committee
1. The question of human rightsí violations in China.
Portugal condemns all of Chinaís human rights violation. China is known to use torture to force people to confess to crimes that they may not have committed. The government has made laws limiting the number of children families are allowed to have. They are also known to impose long prison terms for those who disagree politically, and China also does not allow people, especially critics of the government, to leave the country. These kinds of abuses are not new in China. Furthermore, China continues to violate the rights of woman and children. Portugal sees that it is necessary to solve this terrible problem of human rights violations, for we believe that giving a person his/her rights will result to a more peaceful developing world.
2. The question of the death penalty.
Portugal was the 1st country who abolished the death penalty on ordinary crimes and that was in 1976. Portugal believes that using death penalty to punish criminals is extremely inhumane. We also believe that life is a gift from the almighty God, and that no person has the right to take it except God. Portugal also believes that as long as the death penalty is maintained, the risk of executing the innocent can never be eliminated. Therefore, Portugal condemns all countries that use the death penalty as a law, and we hope that all countries, like us, would abolish the death penalty.
3. The question of Asylum Seekers, Refugees and Displaced Persons.
Portugal grants Asylums for most Asylum seeker in Portugal. Also, Portugal has granted refugees either citizenship or Asylums for the past 10 years. Almost 20,000 refugees to Portugal were welcomed in Portugal. Portugal sees it necessary to help those in need when the power is to do so is present. Portugal believes that the majority of Asylum seeker, Refugees, or displaced persons have the right to live peacefully. Therefore, Portugal is in favor of Asylum seekers, refugees, and displaced person. Portugal urges all countries to welcome these people.
4. The question of child labor and child soldiers.
According to the United Nations, an adult is defines as any person of the age of 15 or above. Portugal has taken that into consideration. Therefore, Portugal sees that thereís no harm for 15 years old and above to work or/and be soldiers. However, Portugal condemns all countries that use children (i.e. those below the age of 15) in child labor or child soldiers.
First Political: Abdullah Al-Asousi
1. The question of a global commitment to combat terrorism.
The Portuguese Government conveys its most vivid repulse and condemnation of the attacks perpetrated today against the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, that caused a number of innocent victims still to be determined. The Portuguese Government expresses its solidarity to the US Government and to the families of the victims. The Portuguese Government supports all the efforts, aimed at the full analysis of responsibility for these terrorist actions. As stated by the President in his letter to President Bush, Portugal is willing to help by "unconditional solidarity". The Government of Portugal supports all efforts "aimed at the full analysis of responsibility" for the terrorist attacks in the United States September 11". As it will be stated later in the Question of Palestine, Portugal condemns the recent weapon smuggling to Palestine. Portugal also condemns any terrorist attack in any part of the world. It believes that citizens should be evaded from any political or whatsoever conflict. Therefore, Portugal has always been and is continuing to help in any form of opposing terrorism. Never the less, it would support and even submit resolutions on opposing terrorism.
2. The question of Palestine.
Although widely thought of in the Islamic world, Portugal along with it EU partners are NOT standing with Israel against Palestine. However, it would not allow any terrorist attacks from Islamic Palestinian Militias on Israel. Noticing the increasing tensions in the region, Portugal asks both the PNA and Israel to retain peace and stability in the region. Portugal, standing with the policy, condemns the recent smuggling of weapons to the PNA. It again asks the PNA to stop any terrorist attacks and both the PNA and Israel to go back to negotiations. Therefore, Portugal would support resolutions that will lead to the stability in the Middle-eastern region.
3. The question of the integration of the disabled into society.
Portugal has always been known for it's equality between all people in the society, as it says in its constitution, either men or women, physically "normal" or disabled, black or white. The question of the integration of the disabled into the society is an issue that much concerns Portugal, since it has been well know for its pled for Human Rights. That's why it's guided by the Universal Human Rights Declaration, especially articles 1, 2, and 3. Portugal believes that the disabled people should be treated like normal people; go to their schools, play with their kids, or even have better facilities. Portugal will NOT allow any disrespect for any disable person whatsoever and it will support any resolution that will make disabled people feel happy of their lives.
Forum: Economic Development
Delegate: Abdullah Bourahmah
Question Of: An international response to natural disasters
Defining international as of, relating to, or involving two or more nations,
Defining natural disaster as an occurrence causing widespread destruction and distress produced by nature,
Deeply Concerned about the effect of natural disasters on any nation who is currently suffering from natural disasters,
Fully aware of the fact that industrialization has a huge impact on current natural disasters,
Noting with regret that nations around the world do not think that this issue is an important one,
Deeply aware that nations are suffering from the after affects of natural disasters around the world and cannot do anything about it,
1- Notes that meteorologists around the world can predict most or even all natural disasters with the right equipment and right income;
2- Noting with Regret that the issues around the response of natural disasters has not been debated for some time around the world;
3- Draws the attention to the increase of natural disasters due to industrializations and other human activities that would affect the Earthís atmosphere;
4- Congratulates some nations who are trying to help themselves or other nations in the prediction of natural disasters;
5- Further Resolves that any nation willing to help o form an international natural disaster prevention committee called The International Natural Disaster Agency (INDA), that would try its best to predict and prevent natural disasters in all countries especially developing nations;
6- Further Proclaims that INDA will:
a) Send a high technological satellite into orbit which would send back signals to the headquarters, and inform them of any disaster that would happen,
b) The Main Headquarters will consist of:
i) Top of the line systems which would predict and warn the area of an upcoming disasters, so that the area would be prepared,
ii) Highly trained meteorologists who have at least a 10 year experience in the prediction of natural disasters,
iii) a ground satellite dish which would receive signals from the orbital satellite,
c) have branches in places close to nations who have a high percentage of natural disasters and also have:
i) a direct cable line to the headquarters, which would rally the information at maximum speed,
ii) field meteorologists that would landscape the surroundings of the nation to help predict even more,
7- Encourages all nations willing to help INDA to place at least a 2% tariff in its highest imports, to help fund INDA;
8- Urges the IMF for financial support.
Delegate: Maryam Al-Hamad
Forum: Environmental Committee
Issue: The Question of Global Warming
Defining global warming as the gradual warming of the earthís atmosphere caused by the concentration of gases, especially carbon dioxide methane, and nitrous oxide, that absorb heat from the sun causing a depletion,
Deeply disturbed that since the beginning of the industrial revolution, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide have increased nearly 30%, methane concentrations have more than doubled, and nitrous oxide concentrations have risen by about 15%,
Congratulates all countries taking part and putting an effort in the treat of The Kyoto Protocol concerning the effects of global warming,
Fully alarmed that the rising global temperatures are expected to raise sea level, change precipitation, affect human health, animals, and many types of ecosystems,
Alarmed by the United States for refusing to sign the treaty of global warming passed by The Kyoto Protocol,
Recalling that the emissions of greenhouse gases per person have increased about 3.4% between 1990 and 1997. Most of these emissions, about 82%, are from burning fossil fuels to generate electricity and power our cars. The remaining emissions are from methane from wastes in our landfills, raising livestock, natural gas pipelines, and coal, as well as from industrial chemicals and other sources.
1. Notes that some countries are taking action today to reduce, avoid, and to better understand the risks associated with climate change by:
a. Preparing greenhouse gas inventories.
b. Pursuing programs and policies that will result in greenhouse gas emission reductions.
2. Urges that all countries taking part in The Kyoto Protocol should try limit and/or reduce emissions of greenhouse gases through the recovery and use in waste management, as well as in the production, transport and distribution of energy.
3. Encourages all nations to research and investigate the causes and effects of global warming and start working on reducing the amount of emissions to promote energy efficiency from large corporations to small families by:
a. Building new buses, trains, and subways that will reduce the number of cars in a region therefore, reducing the emissions of gases harming the environment.
b. Supporting the idea of using advanced fuel efficiency for all vehicles and decrease the use of older, less efficient fuels;
4. Recommends the use of natural sources of energy which offer nonpolluting, economical, and durable alternatives for general electricity instead of the burning of fuels like, wind, solar, and water generator;
5. Further recommends that countries start educating their children on how to be energy saving by advertising on radio and television the ways children can help such as:
a. Turning off cooling ventilators when not in use and keeping them under shaded areas where they will cause less harm,
b. Building fences or planting trees around the houses to try and lower the amount of sunlight reaching the ventilators,
c. Increasing the use of windows, doors and balconies instead of air conditioning,
d. Applying drapes and blinds on windows to lower the amount of sunlight reaching vents inside houses,
6. Reminds all nations that by abiding to such enforcements, they will not only be helping themselves and the people all around the world, but will also be helping their countries economy and environment;
7. Calls upon governments of all countries to enforce a law that states that all factories and industrial plants try and lower the amount of fuels they release into the atmosphere by:
a. Filtering the smoke and fuel leaving the factories,
b. Applying scrubbers on the pipes that release such emissions that affect the atmosphere so that it can lower the amount of additional wastes to the atmosphere,
8. Urges the governments of all nations to help in put some effort in moving towards cleaner methods of producing energy and to continue funding for the research for new sources of non-polluting energy,
9. Fully Believes that all countries will put all their efforts in making this world a place free of the threats of global warming, helping ensure the safety of the generations to come.
First political: issue: The question of a global commitment to combat terrorism
Guided by the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation among States in Accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and the International Covenants on Human Rights,
Recalling the Declaration on the Occasion of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the United Nations, as well as the Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism, adopted by the General Assembly at its fiftieth and forty-ninth sessions, respectively, and the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action adopted in June 1993 by the World Conference on Human Rights (A/CONF.157/23),
Recalling further General Assembly resolutions 48/122 of 20 December 1993, 49/185 of 23 December 1994, 50/186 of 22 December 1995 and 52/133 of 12 December 1997, 1999/27 of 26 April 1999,and resolution 54/109 of 9 December 1999, in which the Assembly adopted the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism,
Defining terrorism as the use or advocate of intimidation , violence etc. for political uses" (The Cassell Concise dictionary),
Convinced that terrorism, in all its forms and manifestations, wherever and by whomever committed, can never be justified in any instance, including as a means to promote and protect human rights,
Bearing in mind that the most essential and basic human right is the right to life,
Bearing in mind further that terrorism in many cases poses a severe challenge to democracy, civil society and the rule of law,
Profoundly deploring the large number of innocent persons, including women, children and the elderly, killed, massacred and maimed by terrorists in indiscriminate and random acts of violence and terror, which cannot be justified under any circumstances,
Alarmed in particular at the possibility that terrorist groups may exploit new technologies to facilitate acts of terrorism which may cause massive damage, including huge loss of human life,
Reminding that all conventions formed by the U.N. where the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 14 December 1973, the International Convention against the Taking of Hostages, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 17 December 1979, the International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 15 December 1997, and the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 9 December 1999,
Alarmed by the fact that the previous conventions were all made before the 11/9 attack and they are not sufficient nor eligible to deal with the upcoming terrorism actions or even with Al Qaeda terrorism group,
Declaring that the current terrorist situation in Afghanistan concerning Al Qaeda is perfectly being dealt with, however it will be more convenient if more than one country joined in the military action,
1. Condemns all acts, methods and practices of terrorism, regardless of their motivation, in all their forms and manifestations, wherever and by whomever committed, as acts aimed at the destruction of human rights, fundamental freedoms and democracy, threatening the territorial integrity and security of States, destabilizing constituted Governments, undermining the rule of law and having adverse consequences for the economic and social development of the State;
2. Condemns the violations of the right to live free from fear and of the right to life, liberty and security caused by terrorism;
3. Urges States to fulfill their obligations under the Charter of the United Nations and other provisions of international law, in strict conformity with international law, including human rights standards, to prevent, combat and eliminate terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, wherever and by whomever committed;
4. Also urges the international community to enhance cooperation at the regional and international levels in the fight against terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, in accordance with relevant international instruments, including those relating to human rights, with the aim of eradicating it;
5. Strongly urges, because of the last preambulatory clause, the formation of the Terrorism in Future Aspects Convention (TFAC), to meet in Brussels, Belgium, that will discuss all necessary measures to deal with terrorism including:
a) finding solutions to eradicate Al Qaeda members world wide, since they don't have a single country,
b) choosing the nest locations to track down terrorists and terrorists groups,
c) forming a coalition that involves all TFAC members, including military coalition, as well as any other terrorism-related issue;
7. Strongly believes that a one country, or fast made decision, for the future of terrorism will not be sufficient to deal with global terrorism, thus the need to have all SC members, EU members, the past coalition countries, and 10 other elected countries by the TFAC members to join the TFAC, and having the elections each 2 years, which means that the meetings will not stop after one terrorist group is eradicated.
POLITICAL 2: Ghazi Al Sharhan
Delegate: Ghazi Al-Sharhan
Committee: Second Political
Issue: The Question of Organized Crime
Defines "Organized Crime" as any act that is punishable by law done in an organized planned way by an individual or a group of people,
Aware of the reasons that forced the US. government to launch this "Great War" against Terrorism and Terrorist-Supporting States,
Reminding that Somaliaís fledgling government had set up a committee to combat terrorism and arrested several suspects, but its efforts were being hampered by a lack of resources,
1. Asks the USís help in decreasing the rates of "Organized Crime" in terrorist-adopting states of the world, or in states that have a difficulty in dealing with criminals, if the United Nationís General Assembly consider it necessary for the US to do so, by:
A-Sending troops that will monitor several areas of the host nation, especially the cities or villages that represent the home community of these criminals,
B-Organizing special courses that will be offered to this nationís police and military personnel,
C-Providing necessary resources for the regarded nation to improve its efforts in resisting these criminals,
D-Leading a media war against these criminals and their attitude and sensibility;
2. Declares that the nations that are chosen in the Operative Clause #1 will comply with all the details of that same clause, including its sub-clauses, and if it doesnít, then:
A-This nation will be under Economic Sanctions and the United Nationís General Assembly will determine the details of these sanctions as it regards appropriate for this particular nation, depending on its Economic status;
3. Purposes that the US will demand the governments of all countries or regions that are considered terrorist-adopting states or states that have a difficulty in dealing with criminals, according to clause #1, to place a multitude of armed inspection points, as the US feels necessary, throughout the whole country or region and these inspection points will be responsible for:
A-Searching vehicles or persons for any weapons,
B-Promoting safety and stability in their region,
C-Preparing reports about: all seized weapons, any arrests, the rate of security in their region, any needs or changes that have to be studied,
D. Handing all reports mentioned above to the Pentagon, and sending a copy to the UN to be used as a reference for further research.
Portugal's Opening Speech
Mr. Secretary-General, Honorable president, esteemed delegates, Good Morning,
Greetings from the land of wide plains and grazing flock. Greetings from the land of great minds and great deeds and great history.
Ladies and Gentlemen, Portugal would like to warmly welcome all members States to this General Assembly session of the year 2002. We hope we keep this year going on with peace and consent. It has come to our attention that worldwide terrorism is destroying our worlds. Terrorism is not acceptable to us, not to any human being living on this planet.
In light of this, we strongly admonish and warn those nations that conduct these acts of terrorism, even if they do so by other means. Last September, we were startled and shocked about the explosion of the World Trade Center Twin Towers in New York City. WE do not wish to accuse any nation of being responsible for this terrorist attack in which thousands of lives were destroyed, but we certainly request follow up to this dilemma. In support of our brother Americans, we demand revenge, but not in the form of bloody terrorism, but through trials. Ladies and Gentlemen, we cannot simply stand and watch as people are being killed. We demand action.
OPENING SPEECH # 2
Ladies and Gentlemen, Respectful Delegates, and honorable judge,
I'd like to start my speech with congratulating the EU member countries for the consolidation of the "euro" in the financial markets, whose dynamism will benefit more than 350 millions of consumers in 2002.
(For some) of its long, rich history, Portugal was a world power. It had colonized many countries all over the globe, some of which still have castles and sites still remembered. Although it was one of the world's strongest powers in history and colonized many countries, Portugal was none for its justification and peace.
Going from this principle, Portugal strives for peace on every place of this world. Portugal was deeply hurt when the horrible terrorist attacks happened on the 11th of September in New York which caused thousands of innocent deaths. Portugal strongly believes that terrorism is never and will never be a way to solve problems or even have an ideology heard.
Therefore, Portugal will not tolerate with terrorists nor would it allow short-term solutions. By that, we mean that there should be an international convention that should decide how to deal with terrorism after this current Al Qaeda eradication. Portugal encourages international cooperation in fighting terrorism to get the best agreeable solution.