Event: SAIMUN 2002
HESSA BADER, Disarmament/AMBASSADOR
ZOOMAN AL MESBAH, Ecology and Environment
LATIFA BIN ESSA, Health/VICE-AMBASSADOR
MOHAMMED AL ESSA, Human Rights
ABDULRAHMAN AL SHATTI, First PoliticalLinks to other sites on the Web: Back to the SAIMUN page
Somalia was created when two territories, the British, and the Italian, merged. Since, Somalia's development was hindered by Somali inhabited areas of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Djibouti. Somalia was declared a socialist state by Siad Barre year 1970. Barre sprouted relations with the former USSR. In 1991, however, Barre was overthrown by opposing clans of Somalia, who thought the act of ousting would help the country, when indeed, it had created chaos. They've failed to agree on a replacement and created havoc, lawlessness, and warfare, and this was followed by the disintegration of the British protection of Somalia's land and declared independence in May of 1991. Although not recognized by any government, this entity has maintained a stable existence, aided by the overwhelming dominance of the ruling clan and economic infrastructure left behind by British, Russian, and American military assistance programs.
Abdulkassim Salad Hassan was later appointed president in a conference in Djibouti by clan elders and senior figures. Abdulkassim announced a new government in October 2000 in Arta, Djibouti, which was attended by a broad representation of Somali clans. Some warlords and people from the breakaway Somali land still resist and fight for control, and Abdulkassim and his government have yet to overcome them.
Currently, however, Somalia's government is classified parliamentary, and it's capital is Mogadishu. There are 18 regions: Awdal, Bakool, Banaa, Bari, Bay, Galguduud, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe, Jubbada Hoose, Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag, Shabeellaha Dhexe, Shabeellaha Hoose, Sool, Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed. In July 1st, 1960, Somalia gained it's full independence and wrote it's constitution in 25th of August, 1979, and got presidential approval in 23rd of September, 1979. Later, after the creation of the Transitional National Government that was formed in October 2000, Somalia mandated to create a new constitution and held elections within 3 years. Somalia's head of government is Ali Khalifa Galaydh, who was appointed president on the 8th of August, 2000, only 5 days after the creation of the "People's Assembly" or the "Golaha Shacbiga" (Somalia's legislative branch). This does now, however, interfere with the presidency of Abdulkassim Salad Hassan, who is the chief of state.
Somalia, nowadays, is not rich in its natural resources. Millions of livestock population, lands, and one of the longest coasts in Africa and huge mineral deposits were stored in this country once. Unfortunately, every valuable item in this country has been destroyed due to the civil war that is taking place.
As time passes on there are not many natural resources in Somalia. The grasslands are suitable for grazing livestock. Some crops are grown on the fertile land in the Juba and Shebeli valleys -- about 15% of the land is considered arable. And therefore, most of Somaliaís income is from the grasslands and livestock.
The second most significant source for Somaliaís is the fruit banana. It a major source to the income of Somalia.
Many significant mineral resources, however, include deposits include of uranium, copper, gypsum, iron, marble, manganese and tin
The population of Somalia, which is 7,488,773, contains few ethnic groups. The Hamitic stock and associated clans who constitute 85% of the population and the Bantu who account for 14%. Other minorities include Arabs, Europeans, Indians and Pakistanis. The Somali make up 85%, the Bantu, and the Arabs 30,000. The ethic groups in Somalia get along with each other and no problems have been present.
The dominant religion in Somalia is Islam, since the origin of Somali culture is from Islamic tradition and from their ancestors. 99.8% of the population in Somalia is Sunni Muslims.
Somali, Arabic, English, Italian Boni, Boon, Dabarre, Garre, Jiiddu, Maay, Mushungulu, Oromo, Borana-Arsi-Guji, Swahili and Tunni are all languages spoken in Somalia. Of the Somali dialects, the most widely used is Common Somali, a term applied to several sub-dialects, the speakers of which can understand each other easily. Common Somali is spoken in most of Somalia and in adjacent territories (Ethiopia, Kenya, and Djibouti), and is used by broadcasting stations in Somalia and in Somali-language broadcasts originating outside the country.
Somalia's public telecommunications system was completely demolished and dismantled by the civil war faction, and all relief organizations currently depend on their own private systems. Recently, local cellular telephone systems have been established in Mogadishu and in several other population centers. The international connections are available from Mogadishu by satellite connections.
The Somali National Army is currently being reformed under the interim government. Many clans and factions have independent militias, and the Somaliland and Puntland regional governments maintain their own security and police forces.
The male manpower availability varies between the ages of 15-49. Currently, 1,825,302 were estimated to be in the military, as issued in year 2000, but only 1,011,400 were announces actually fit for military service. No females are admitted into military unless during severe crisis.
Somalia is located on the east coast of Africa in a bond north the equator. It is also known as the HORN of Africa. It includes Italyís previous Trust Territory of Somalia and the previous British Protectorate of Somalia. The coastline extends 3,025 kilometers. The northern part of the country is hilly, while the central and southern areas are flat. The Juba and the Shebelle Rivers rise in Ethiopia and flow south across the country toward the Indian Ocean. The Shebelle, however, does not reach the sea. The climate of Somalia is a year-round hot climate, mainly desert, seasonal heavy rainy winds, and irregular rainfall.
Somalia ranks near the bottom in terms of life expectancy, per capita income and child mortality rate and one of the world's poorest countries, with few natural resources. Moreover, much of the economy has been devastated by the civil war. Agriculture is the most important sector, with livestock accounting for about 50% of GDP and about 65% of export earnings. Crop production generates only 10% of GDP and employs about 20% of the work force. Due to fragile environment, vagaries of the weather (both drought and flooding), famine frequently occurs resulting to persistent food insecurity among its population. After livestock, bananas are the principal exports followed by fish myrrh, hides and skins. Sugar, sorghum, corn, and fish are produced mainly for the internal market. Miningís contribution to the GDP is insignificant despite substantial deposits.
The unit of currency is the Somali shilling, consisting of 100 centesimi (3900 shillings equal U.S.$1), issued by the Central Bank of Somalia in 1960. Somalia is a member of the Islamic Development Bank and the African Development Bank. The chief exports in Somalia are livestock and bananas. Other exports include meat, fish, leather and wood. The principal imports are foodstuffs, chemicals, machinery, textiles and petroleum. Major trading partners in are the United States, Italy, Germany, Kenya, Great Britain, Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Persian Gulf countries.
Views on World Problems:
Somalia has two international disputes recognized globally. One is over the Ogaden and versus Ethiopia. Two is the Provisional Administrative Line, which also includes the southern half of the boundary with Ethiopia.
The drought of 1974 and 1975 brought a huge influx of refugees from Ogaden, Ethiopia. Most were nomads and needed to somewhat adjust to the Somali conditions of resettlement. The government ran three large centers in the south for them, and despite the attempts at restricting the entry of refugees, there were still some half a million refugees in Somalia by 1985. By 1989, the UNHCR (United Nations High Commission for Refugees) began to seal operations in Somalia, arguing that relations had improved between Somalia and Ethiopia, and it was therefore safe for refugees to return. Those who remained with the approval of the government were given Somali citizenship. The rest left back to Ethiopia.
On the issue of terror and Americaís hopeless war in ending terror, Somalia was accused of holding terrorist bases and accused of currently deploying tactics that support such terrorist acts. Currently, the US and Somalia are discussing some form of peacekeeping standard that will be maintained in both countries in all aspects. According to the US, Somalia is a terrorist state. According to the US, everyone but the US is a terrorist, and Somalia disapproves of this view since it is biased. However, Somaliaís "governing body" is currently discussing peace and hoping to maintain relations with a super power such as the US.
Somalia has relations with Gulf countries that are sending financial support to Somalia. Somalia is considered to be a lonesome country because of the current situation with the US and its threats to hit Somalia, especially that Somalia is now an easier target that Iraq and other presumably terrorist nations, according to the US.
Somalia was founded during the seventh century by Kereishite immigrants from Yemen. Somalia started when Koreishite immigrants from Yemen found Somalia during the seventh century. During the 15th and 16th centuries Portuguese traders landed in present Somali territory and ruled several coastal towns. The sultan of Zanzibar took control of these towns and its surrounding territory.
In the 19th century the British East India Company's desire for unrestricted harbor facilities led to the conclusion of treaties with the sultan of Tajura as early as 1840. After that the British controlled north Somalia after treaties with various Somali chiefs who were guaranteed British protection. In 1885 Italy signed treaties to protect Somalia, but this lead Italy to benefit from Somalia. All these incidents were on the beginning of Somaliaís history. After that, Somalia went to a stage where it is important for the world. In the 19th century British rule was challenged through attacks led by the Islamic nationalist leader Mohamed Abdullah. He was defeated by the British military, but he stays a popular figure in Somalia. The colonials possessed the coastlines and areas close.
Following Italy's declaration of war on the United Kingdom in June 1940, British then took control of Somalia. Under the British control Somalia started self-government by establishing local courts and other things. Then things started to change in Somalia becoming an independent country on the 1st of July 1960. Somalia has internal problems between the military forces.
USA interfered and tries to solve the problems in Somalia. Not only the internal problems are found, Somalia has problems with Ethiopia because of lands. That was Somaliaís history, which is full of incidents.
Delegation of Somalia
Disarmament: Hessa Bader Saled (Ambassador)
Issue#1: The question of land mines.
The major developments led to the mine problem in Somalia; the Ogaden War with Ethiopia (1978-1988) and the civil war erupted in 1991. In both event conflicting parties used mine-fields in large scaled to defend their countries. With the absence of mine field map, financial resources, and expertise, the mine problem in Somalia became so complex and very dangerous. An international assistance in facing this problem is badly needed. Among which is the Mine Awareness Program implemented by the UN in Somalia aiming to train refugees to deal with land mines. It is hoped that this program becomes more comprehensive to cover all of the Somali land. Somalia is a strong supporter of world efforts and treaties in the area of land mine elimination, and supports the Ottawa Convention of 18 September, 1997 on anti-personnel mines.
Issue#2: The question of the production and trade if small arms and light weapons.
The Somali Transitional Government (TNG) stands firmly against trade and production of small arms and light weapons. Since the war clans in Somalia are insisting on war to rip Somali land to their grasps and rule, such arms are fatal and will cause instability because they will largely be the reason for massive increases in the already ongoing spill of blood, something Somalia cannot afford to have. The civil war may grow so large, that Somalia would be in ferocious war with itself [AGAIN!], and that, Somalia does not need. Such war will give those clans the opportunity to destroy many homes and neighborhoods. As of January 1999, with the collapse of the central government and the eruption of the civil war, Somali National Army and all related military and security forces , and clan and tribal militias became dominant forces.
The production and trade of small arms and light weapons is the main source strengthening clan militias and, accordingly, the central government. Somalia is, therefore, supports international agreements that forbid small arms traffic and regulates its production under the supervision of the government.
Issue#3: The question of the peaceful and safe use of outer space.
Somaliaís outer space is the property of all humanity and it should not, therefore, be used in international conflicts or as an arena for global was systems. For Somalia, outer space should be kept safe and be used for peaceful purposes (such as research). The Somali government, on this principle, supports the "Partial Test Ban Treaty" August, 1963, that bans nuclear weapon testing in the atmosphere and in outer space. Somalia also adheres to the "Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and other Celestial Bodies", 27 January, 1967.
The Somali government encourages UN efforts in reaching a world treaty that bans all types of military use of outer space and develop world cooperation in the area of scientific exploration in outer space.
Issue#4: The question of the development, manufacturing, and proliferation of new types of weapons of mass destruction.
The Somali Transitional Government (TNG) stands firmly against the development, manufacturing, and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Having suffered from instability and civil war, the TNG views the manufacturing and proliferation of these weapons as a major threat not only to Somalia, but to all underdeveloped countries. Its concern on this issue is granted and growing since is lacks control over the various warring clans and parties and over its boundaries as well, which give terrorist groups, local or international, the opportunity to work with these clans and parties to develop such weapons or use its territories to manufacture them. To deal with this issue, the TNG control of the country should be enhanced by international support and should be provided with expertise to supervise and prevent warring clans from clashes and tactics from obtaining mass destruction weaponry.
Ecology and Environment: Zooman al Ė Mesbah
Issue#1: The question of global warming.
As other African countries, Somalia suffers from the negative effects of global warming. Temperatures in Somalia are increasing caused by global warming. Somalia suffers from floods, at least 448 people are reported dead as a result of flooding in Somalia. Hundreds of thousands are left homeless after more than a month of heavy rainfall on 1997. Global warming is causing draughts in Somalia, which is really effecting it. All of these things are caused by global warming that changes the way nature works. Somalia really suffers from global warming. Somalia tries to have a way to reduce the effects of global warming.
Somalia signed treaties with other countries suffered from global warming to solve the problem. Global warming cause the Somali government to ask for financial support for helping itself. Somalia is a poor country, so it really hard for it to solve the problem of global warming, which is caused by the entire world. Somalia will need to take great steps to sole this global problem. Somalia needs financial supports and environmental helps, without interfering with its policies.
Issue#2: The question of genetically modified crops.
Somalia is a very poor country that lacks a lot of things. Somaliaís economy depends on agriculture. Somalia lacks new equipment and chemicals used in agriculture. Genetically modified crops are not found in Somalia, but found in rich countries. Genetically modified crops have lots of side effects on humansí heaths. Lots of countries are trying to stand against genetically modified crops.
Somalia is a poor country, so it economical state will determine its policy. Somalia will definitely stand against any resolution that supports genetically modified crops. Somalia depends on agriculture, so the countries that have genetically modified crops will compete with Somalia in the market of agriculture. Somalia doesnít want anything to stand against its only money resource, so it will stand against genetically modified crops. Somaliaís economic state determined its policy towards this issue. So, Somalia will stand with every resolution that stands against genetically modified crops.
3. The question of desertification and drought.
Yes, desertification and drought are widely found in Somalia. Global warming and poverty are the main reasons for the creation of such problem. The UNDP said that it will aid the reduction of desertification and drought in Somalia specifically, which is the clearing of land along riverbanks to create a wider area for agriculture, which is changing the course of rivers and eroding nutrient-rich soil.
Most of the Somali people work in agriculture and desertification and drought are negatively effecting them. Somalia eventually needs help towards this issue, because itís suffering from it. Somalia is trying hard to contain the effects of desertification and drought. Most of the Somali people lost their works in agriculture because of this problem. Somali government is trying to get financial supports for its citizens. The Somali government signed treaties with other countries to cooperate together to reduce global warming, the main reason for desertification and drought. Itís a hard work for the Somali government but itís trying to solve the problem. Somalia will stand with every resolution that helps it with this issue without interfering to the countryís policies.
4. The question of endangered marine species.
Somalia is a country that lays on marine ecosystems. Somalia was known in the past for the many kinds of marine species that are found near its coasts. In the last few years some species became extinct due to pollution and environmental problems. Also there are until now some endangered species. Lots of Somali citizens work in fishing, and itís is really hard for them to work with some extinct species and others which are endangered. So, these fishermen will be harmed from the extinction of some endangered species. Due to its location near the sea, Somalia is concerned in the problem of having endangered marine species. Somalia wants and wants but it canít. This is the truth; Somalia canít get anything it wants. Things are going the opposite of what it wants in all areas. Somali people depend on fishing, but itís hard now. Somalia gets help and thatís it. The problem of endangered species will need a global cooperation. Somalia will be with any resolution that helps it without interfering to its policy.
Health and Youth : Latifa Bin Essa
Issue#1: The question of the prevention and spread of HIV/Aids in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Somalia regards the issue of the question of the prevention and spread of HIV/Aids in Sub-Saharan Africa as a very serious issue that is in need to be discussed. Somalia is proud to say that the numbers of people with HIV/Aids in Somalia are few compared to its neighboring brother countries. Somalia believes that the few rates of people of HIV/Aids are a result of the strong Islamic faith that forbids such actions and pleasures.
Somalia is very concerned about the increase of HIV/Aids in its neighboring countries and at the world as a whole. However, since Somaliaís neighbors are the ones most infected with HIV/Aids, Somalia believes the UN should help with economic aid and border restrictions because the sole reason of sexual pleasure in Somaliaís neighboring countries is the need of money. Somalia also believes that border restrictions are the most needed to prevent the spread of HIV/Aids.
Issue#2: The question of the legalization of voluntary euthanasia.
Voluntary euthanasia is defined as the act or practice of ending the life of an individual suffering from a terminal illness or an incurable condition, as by lethal injections or the suspension of extraordinary medical treatment. Somalia firmly believes that voluntary euthanasia should not be legalized.
The Islamic faith in Somalia forbids actions such as voluntary euthanasia completely. According to the Islamic faith, only Allah almighty has the supreme power to either grant or take a life away. No doctor, individual, or any human being makes the decision to terminate a life, even if that individual was making that decision for his/herself. If an individual is suffering from an incurable illness, it is because Allah willed him to be that way, and what Allah wills must not be gone against.
Somalia believes that the UN should definitely not legalize voluntary euthanasia. If other religions believe that it is okay to legalize voluntary euthanasia, then it is by their choice. Somalia however, strongly believes that voluntary euthanasia should not be legalized.
Issue#3: The question of the international illicit trafficking of human organs
Somalia believes that the international illicit trafficking of human organs is inhuman and unethical. Somalia wishes to point out that undeveloped countries only sell their human organs because of economical difficulties. Somalia strongly wishes for extreme measures to be taken to stop once and for all the illicit trafficking of human organs.
Somalia believes that the UN should carefully restrict borders between countries for it is at the borders that trafficking mostly takes place. Somalia believes that the UN should also provide with economic aid with underdeveloped countries for it is their need of financial assistance that forces them to sell their organs.
4) The question of the protection of children from all forms of sexual exploitation
Somalia firmly believes that the protection of children from all forms of sexual exploitation depends on the country itself. The UN should and must not intervene with another countries cultural and traditional practices of all sorts. Somalia however, firmly believes that prostitution should be protected from children because it is neither cultural nor traditional. Somaliaís Islamic faith forbids and abhors actions such as prostitution, and therefore Somalia firmly believes that all practices that are traditional are not of concern to anyone except that specific country and that prostitution is not one of them.
Somalia believes that the UN should work at stopping or at least reducing prostitution that takes place in countries. Prostitution is not cultural, nor is it traditional, and that is why Somalia is so opposed to it.
Human Rights: Mohammed Bin Essa
Issue#1: The question of human rightsí violations in China.
Somalia is a highly restricted country that has nothing to do with the issue "The question of human rightsí violations in China". Somalia is a neutral country that does not want to go against China or against the United Stated or the United Kingdom.
Somalia thinks that every person must gets its right whether itís a man or a women, each and every person should get its right, although Somalia did not give all her citizens their rights but the government is working on it. And what Somalia believes that it should follow godís rules because they are Muslims, and do what god told them to do, Muslims does not want to go against anyone therefore it should stand back against this situation
Issue#2: The question of "the death penalty"
As for Somalia, it uses "death penalty," because Somalia thinks that every person who is proven that he or she is guilty should be punished according to the crime that they made. Somalia is a strict country in punishing the criminals, and that Somalia firmly beliefs that all actions towards crime should be based on the teachings of the Koran and what the holy prophet Mohammed has advised to do in each circumstance.
Somalia thinks what should be done is that each and every country should use "death penalty" according to the crime that they played. And what Somalia thinks should be done is to either lay strict laws on crimes that deserve death penalty, such as the murder of another individual or to just emphasize that each country lay its own laws according to itsí religion.
Issue # 3: The question of Asylum Seekers, Refugees and Displaced Persons.
Somalia has a territorial conflict with Ethiopia and the refugees, therefore Somalia believes that this issue is of importance and needs to be discuss.
Somalia thinks that ever country should get whis their property, and what they worked hard for to get. And Somalia thinks that Ethiopia should and must give Somalia back her land that she took during the war and refugee moment.
Issue#4: The question of "child labor and child soldiers."
Somalia firmly believes that this issue is in no need to be concerned about. The issue of the question of child labor and child soldiers is not as serious as other issues that are in need to be discussed. And because Somalia is a undeveloped country in need of economic aid, there is no right for individuals of developed countries to simply condemn Somalia or itsí citizens for the need of child labor and child soldiers. Without the child labors, how will a family with no father be able to support itself? How will the child, itself, in the streets survive? Child soldiers are a must in Somalia because of itsí recent and still going territory conflicts in Ethiopia. Without the children soldiers to defend their country, then who will?
Somalia firmly stands and believes that the UN, if wanting to help with the issue of child labor and soldiers, to give economic aid and assistance, because it is the only way for children to stop working if they have money. As for the child soldiers; Somalia firmly believes that the UN should not be concerned with that issue because it is the absolute right of a country to choose itsí soldiers, children and not, and for the UN to act upon the countryís beliefs would be interfering in the countryís issue.
First Political: Abdulrahman Al Shatti
Issue #1: The question of a global commitment to combat terrorism.
Somalia believes that the disputed areas with Ethiopia should be part of Somalia and the Ethiopia should not claim these lands. Somalia has citizens in the Somaliland whom Ethiopia had previously in history discarded of as refugees and made them dependent on Somalia. Somalia has taken those people, helped them, and gave all willing the Somali citizenship. Somali people were dominant on that area, therefore the historic claim should move to Somalia. Those people were given a choice to either join Somalia or go back to Ethiopia after the Ethiopian crisis, and they chose to stay. Minorities only refused and insisted stubbornly that this land must be a part of Somalia. The people of Somalila have voted overwhelmingly in favor of a new constitution that declares the independence of their state. Somalia believes that it has rights for taking the Somaliland since it has its citizens and name. Somalia will support any resolution that will help the Somaliland be part of Somalia and go harshly against any resolution that donít give Somalia its right for reviving its land.
The prime minister of Somalia warned the UN Security Council that his country could break up and become a home for terrorist organization if it is not given more international support. Although Somalia has been the recipient of generous caring aid, it needed more money, help and support to build a functioning police fore and state security equipment. Somalia is a clear example of a country which will fight to meet the high standards the UNSC is challenging in its push to reduce global terrorism.
Issue#2: The question of Palestine.
Somalia supports the INDEPENDENCE of Palestine. The Arabs and the Muslims have the right to claim Palestine, and Somalia respects that. It is true that Somalia hadnít voiced voted on this issue, it is, however, politically and financially dependent on Arab nations and cannot, and will not, risk these relations.
Issue #3: The question of the integration of the disabled into society.
Somalia does not have a problem with integration of the disabled into society, since there are so many of them. So many people are disabled because of Somaliaís civil crisis. What Somalia is hoping for is strengthening the relations and in medical capabilities in order to be able to save what can be saved. The society is poor, and therefore, medical ability is even worse.
Delegation of Somalia
Hessa Saleh: Ambassador
Issue: Illegal Trafficking in Weapons
Recalling resolution #9 of the 9th UN Congress on the Prevention of Crime and Treatment of offenders that regulates firearms usage for purposes of crime prevention and safety of public and on the treatment of crime and offenders,
Recalling section IV of resolution 1995/27 of July 24th and itís follow-up resolutions on the 24th of July, 1996 1996/28,
Bearing in Mind the need FOR full implementation of those resolutions,
Mindful of the Secretary Generalís report on measures to regulate firearms; E/CN.15/1997/4 and Corr.1,
Taking Note of the contents of the draft UN International Study on regulation of Firearms, which was prepared and made public by the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division of the Secretariat,
Bearing in Mind that freedom of crime-fear is fundamental to international cooperation and to the development of member states and that international illicit trafficking and criminal misuses of firearms have a harmful effect on the security of each member state, and endangers the well being of the people and social growth and economic development,
Aware of the desperation for improved cooperation and exchange of data and information as such for law enforcement purposes as well as for cooperative action to fight illicit trafficking of firearms
Appreciating the work of regional organizations such as the Organization of American States (OAS), which initiated in November 1997 the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, and Other Related Materials,
Congratulating the OAS for the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission, which developed the Model Regulations for the Control of International Movement of Firearms and Their Parts and Components, and Ammunition,
Noting with appreciation the European Councilís public ectives of firearm regulations,
Bearing in Mind the report of the UN Panel of Governmental Experts on Small Arms and itís relevant recommendations contained in the text, in particular the related text to achieving effective control of firearms in the peace-building process in order to prevent their entry to illicit marketing sites,
Congratulating the results of the UN International Study on Firearm Regulation, and the Government of Australia, Canada, and Japan to intergovernmental organizations, and to the institutes of the UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Program network for contributing, without the need of obligation or assignment, financially and in favor of the study,
Applauding the Government of Slovenia for hosting a regional workshop on firearm regulation in Europe in September 1997,
Noting with appreciation to the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania for acting as host to the regional workshop on firearm regulation in Africa, held in Arush in November 1997,
Also Noting with appreciation the Government of Brazilís action, hosting a regional workshop on firearm regulation in the Americas in Sao Paolo, December 1997,
Also Noting with appreciation the government of Indiaís action in hosting a regional workshop on firearm regulation in Asia in New Delhi, January 1998,
Bearing in Mind the General Assemblyís resolution 52/85 on the 12th of December 1997,
Taking Note on UN resolution A/RES/53/111 against Transitional Organized Crime,
1. Applauds the results of the United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation and expresses its appreciation to the member states previously named that participated in that initiative, and expresses its hope the all other member states participate and start hosting such initiatives;
2. Recommends that all member states work towards the elaboration of an international instrument to combat the illicit manufacturing and trafficking of firearms, their parts, and their components, and their ammunition within the context of a UN convention against transitional organizes crime;
3. Invites member states to take into account, as appropriate, the views of interested non-governmental organizations and other interested parties;
4. Recommends bearing in mind (< wrong phrase) the relevant and appropriate contexts of the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, as well as other existing international instruments as such;
5. Resolves the creation of the ad HOC committee on the elaboration of a comprehensive international convention against transitional organized crime:
A. to be established by the General Assembly,
B. holds discussions around the elaboration of an international instrument to combat the illicit manufacturing and trafficking in firearms, their parts, or components, and ammunition, including effective methods of identifying and tracing firearms,
C. establishment and development of current import and export and in-transit licensing of similar authorization regime for all international commercial transfer of firearms, parts, and components, and ammunition, to prevent their diversion for criminal misuse;
6. Invites intergovernmental organizations such as the International Criminal Organization to provide the Secretary General with proposals, suggestions, views, and reports worth reporting regarding possibilities of contributions towards cooperation in order to strengthen the ability of law enforcement officials to fight illicit trafficking and criminal misuse of firearms;
7. Requests the Secretary General to report information reported to the Secretary General as addressed in Clause 6 to the UNís Security Council in order to call upon an emergency situation in the UN central in New York;
8. Further Requests that the Secretary General prepares the report referred to in Clause 7 using existing or budget-surplus resources available to the General Secretariatís office.
Delegate: Latifa Ben- Essa
Question of: The question of the prevention and spread of HIV/Aids in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Committee: Health and Youth
Defining AIDS as "acquired immune deficiency syndrome in which certain cells of the bodyís immune system are destroyed by a virus, and the patient acquires a life-threatening disease,"
Defining HIV as "human immunodeficiency virus; a viral infection that gradually destroys the immune system,"
Defining UNAIDS as "the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS cosponsored by seven UN organizations-UNICEF (UN Childrenís Fund), UNDP (UN Development Program), UNDCP (UN Drug Control Program), UNFPA (UN Populations Fund), UNESCO (UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), WHO (World Health Organization) and the World Bank, which includes a Geneva-based secretariat and the seven co-sponsors working with governments, civil society, other international organizations, communities and people living with AIDS,"
Gravely concerned that despite continued improved efforts by UNAIDS, HIV/Aids is still a challenge to the world,
Noting with deep concern that at the end of 2000, 38.1 million people worldwide were living with HIV/AIDS, 90 per cent in developing countries and 75 per cent in Sub-Saharan Africa, according to statistics at the UN-UNAIDS discussion,
Noting with grave concern that Africa is currently the worst-affected region, where HIV/AIDS threatens development, life expectancy imposes a devastating economic burden,
Taking into consideration the fact that in Asia 6,800,000; in Latin America, 2,400,000; in North America 960,000; in North Africa and the Middle East 700,000; in Western Europe 750,000; East Asia and the Pacific 840,000; in Eastern Europe and Central China 900,000; and in South and South East Asia, 7,800,000 people were infected by HIV/ Aids at the end of 2000 according to the UN-UNAIDS Statistics 2000,
Realizing that, according to UNAIDS World Aids Campaign 2001 "both a vaccine and a cure remain indefinable, and there are no quick technological `fixes' to prevent new infections or the consequence from the millions of infections to date,"
Further realizing that according to UNAIDS 1999 figures, "it would cost sub-Saharan countries between 9% and 67% of GDP to provide a cocktail of three anti-Aids drugs (triple combination therapy) to all people with HIV,"
Questioning South Africaís president Thabo Mbeki disputing the link between HIV and AIDS, implying that the disease in Africa was somehow different to that in the West and his attempts to justify making cuts in the special AIDS fund of 125-million rand ($14-million) that has been set aside by the government,
Observing that the increasingly alarming rate of the spread of HIV/Aids in countries and especially Sub-Saharan Africa is for several reasons:
a) Lack of education and awareness about HIV/Aids, its risks, and dangers in certain areas in the world,
b) The high cost of primary health care systems that are the basis for prevention and care such as AZT Prophylaxis, which is a drug, used to treat HIV infection and to prevent transmission of HIV from a pregnant woman to her child,
c) Increased rate of prostitution throughout the world,
d) Extreme poverty;
Expressing its appreciation towards the largest donors to UNAIDS-The United States, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Norway, and Denmark,
1. Calls upon all countries to take effective and efficient measures to support and provide all help necessary to protect all humans against HIV/Aids and prevention from unhealthy sexual interactions;
2. Resolves that the UN create a special branch to the organization UNAIDS which is to be called UNAIDS AFRICA that focuses on research, education, awareness, prevention, reduction and medical care and treatment of HIV/Aids in Sub Saharan Africa which certifies the goals in Sub Saharan Africa:
a) Research and studies by hiring Aids/HIV experts to :
1. Study the sub Saharan Africa regions,
2. Determine the percentile of Sub- Saharan Africans living with HIV/Aids and the increasing number,
3. The impact of HIV/Aids in sub Saharan Africa,
b. Experts will have complete interaction between officials from UNAIDS AFRICA and the people of Sub- Saharan Africa.
- This communication will propose settled meetings to discuss current situations of HIV/Aids in sub Saharan Africa in the UNAIDS AFRICA office which will:
-Meet every 6 months in Nigeria in the Capital Abuja where the main UNAIDS AFRICA office will be established,
-Hold the research and study experts and the 15 UNAIDS AFRICA officials that must include 5 sub Saharan officials;
b) Creating anonymous HIV testing sites, needle exchanges and condom distribution programs delivered through public health units and community clinics in a culturally and religiously acceptable way that will be funded by the UNAIDS AFRICA sub organization of UNAIDS which will include 5 experts in HIV/AIDS and handling patients in each program. These programs will be built in countries in sub-Saharan Africa that have 10% or more of the total population living with HIV/Aids,
c) Promotion of appropriate prevention education, including sex and gender education in a religious manner that will educate people about the harms, dangers, and risks of unhealthy sexual contact and change the views of individuals that clearly seek sexual pleasure in no moral way,
d) Strengthen primary health care systems as a basis for prevention and care, and ensure free access to inclusive care and available medical and scientific techniques free of charge,
-AZT is to be made available free of charge in a substantial and significant percentage to accommodate the needs of humans in sub Saharan Africa;
3. Further requests member countries and the United Nations financially aid the organization UNAIDS AFRICA since Africa is the region with the highest percentage of people with HIV/Aids and to increase the annual budget of UNAIDS;
4. Draws the attention to debt and external debt problems that have significantly undermined the capability of many developing countries such as sub-Saharan Africa to finance the fight against HIV/Aids;
5. Urges the developed countries to forgive the debts of the least developed countries struggling with the growing epidemic of HIV/AIDS;
6. Expresses its hope that the significant problem of HIV/Aids, with international help and cooperation, decreases.
Student: Mohammed Al-Essa
Forum: Human Rights
Defining death as, " eternal sleep."
Defining penalty as, "A punishment established by law or authority for a crime or offense", "The disadvantage or painful consequences resulting from an action or condition: neglected his health and paid the penalty,"
Keeping in mind that in the 1960s brought challenges to the fundamental legality of the death penalty,
Alarmed that during 2000, at least 1,457 prisoners were executed in 27 countries and 3,058 people were sentenced to death in 65 countries. These figures include only cases known to Official pardon International; the true figures are certainly higher,
Noting With Regret that in August 2000, the UN Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights resolved that the execution of people who were under the age of 18 at the time of the crime "is opposing to usual international law,"
Aware of the ACLU (American Civil Liberties Union Foundation) believes that capital punishment violates the Legal prohibitions on cruel and unusual punishment and equal protection of the laws,
Declaring "Johnson's (President of Mexico) comments came on the opening day of the legislature's 30-day session and represented his strongest remarks on whether he would support an end to the death penalty and replace it with a sentence of life imprisonment without chance of parole,
Emphasizing that a review of death penalty judgments over a 23-year period found a national error rate of 68 %. In a matter of life and death,
Congratulating the majority of people that are against the death penalty, according to the recent survey,
Drawing the attention that 68 countries and territories have abolished the death penalty for all crimes,
1. Calls upon all member states to take effective measures to certify that the death penalty not be taken in a light-hearted manner, but as a very serious, grave, and final punishment that is in need to be reconsidered;
2. Urges all nations to help reduce the use of death penalty due to certain unfair justifications that might occur and due so at an error rate of 68%;
3. Condemns certain countries who are not rethinking to extent at the death penalty in public is unsafe for human being and no backing;
4. Resolves that the countries go through certain steps before considering death penalty to certain crimes. The steps will include:
A) Trials; to investigate and have evidential support that the defendant is guilty,
B) A certain time period to question the actual extent of the crime,
C) Further conferences between government official and the law to certify if in fact the death penalty is the ONLY solution,
D) Accord the crime to the religion of the individual or country to finalize the death penalty action should be taken;
5. Further resolves that the UN further convince countries with harsh death penalty to reconsider.
Delegate: Abdulrahman Al Shatti
Committee: First Political
Issue: The Question of Palestine
Noting that according to the Arab net the British took Palestine from Ottomans, with the help of Arabs after World War I in 1917-18,
Noting that Arab did that because British promised the independence after the World War I,
Noting that according to the PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization) in 1917 Balfour Declaration, Britain promised, in return for Jewish help to give them a "nation home" in Palestine,
Noting that Balfour Declaration letter stated the British governmentís support for "the establishment in Palestine of a nation home for the Jewish people,"
Announcing that the aim of British was to win the support of Jews not only in this nation but also in neutral nations such as the United States,
Bearing in mind that 1922 and 1984 British were bringing Jews that had facilities and that could fight into Palestine and decided to make Palestine a place for Jewish,
Also Noting that the British were in a difficult situation because of their promise to Arabs so they left Palestine and behind them were the prepared Jewish fighting the people of Palestine to invade their country,
Taking Note that after Jews took a large piece of Palestine they formed a nation called "Israel" and straight away most European countries and America agreed that Israel is an existing nation and they divided Palestine 3\4 of the land was Israel and 1\4 was to Palestine,
Keeping in mind that according to resolution 194 until now Israel refuses to allow the Palestinians refuges to go back to their homes and Israel is also bringing Russian an European Jews instead of allowing the refuges to come back,
Noting that Israel refuses to implement many resolutions that concerns Palestine refuges and land,
Congratulating resolution 242 the world of territory by war should end and the world need to work for just lasting peace in which each area can live in security.
1. Resolves that international community has to recognize the existing violence that is being presented by both Palestinians and Israelis, and that there is a need to establish peace both parties that are, indeed, willing to establish;
2. Deeply concerned that peace in the Middle East cannot be done without solving the Palestinians-Israeli conflict and this will ensure world wide stability;
3. Taking into consideration the importance of resolving such conflict quickly the world should interfere and enforce a resolution of establishing two states with international recognized boundaries;
4. Further resolves that Jerusalem should be divided into two parts, the Islamic part goes to Palestine and the other part goes to Israel;
5. Further resolves that the other solution is to make Jerusalem an international city under the protection of the UN;
6. Recognizes that Jewish came from no specific nation and have to go back leaving Palestine alone and Independent;
7. Calls upon the International community to recognize the conflict and to enforce a solution as done in: Kuwait-Iraq conflict and East Timor in Indonesia;
8. Declares that all international parties (USA, UK, Europe, or Arabs) should leave the two Israelis and Palestinians face each other and who ever wins takes control of everything and puts and enforces his own condition.
The sun sets. You can see that literally, and you can see that figuratively. The sun sets upon the Horn of Africa. As you might know, the setting of the night. Some people live to see the night, some the setting of the sunÖ the wave of the cloak uncovering reality from a star spangled fantasy created by the Great Satan. Numbing, darkness. Like deafness. Only worse. you listen to Satan talking words you can cut with a knife. So thick. Unpure. Like a smokerís breath. doesnít it just joke you? making you feel the blood in your veins being coughed up and onto the paper of blue and white astral bodies, scattered upon to cover what can be covered of weaknesses. This disoriented pictureÖreminds you of what? Rather. Of who?
Letís all point a finger here. Just one. Letís look at that banner, all of us. Waving like a king upon successful corruption. Dignity had forbidden pointing fingers towards anything. Rather, anyone. But thisÖ "thing", letís call it, corrupted dignity. Corrupted civilization. Created chaos. Fear. TerrorÖ
And now, the Horn of Africa, of which the sun is setting upon, is being accused.
Delegates. That sun is NOT that pure.