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Egypt’s country name in conventional long form is the Arab Republic of Egypt, in conventional short form, and in local short form it’s called Misr. Egypt was formally known as the United Arab Republic because it united with Syria, and finally in local long form it is called Jumhuriyat Misr Al-Arabiyah.
Egypt’s capital city is Cairo, and its government type is republic. 28th of February 1992, a day where ever Egyptians face lit up with happiness and joy, on this day Egypt had declared its independence form the United Kingdom. Egypt’s national holiday is on the 25th of July, which is the revolution day, which took place in 1952.
Egypt’s legal system is based on the constitution of 11 September 1971. Egypt’s government is split into three branches the executive, legislative, and judiciary branches.
The executive branch consists of the Chief of state, which is President Hosni Mubarak, the head of government, which Prime Minister Atef Mohammed Abeid which is appointed by the president and the cabinet, which is also appointed by the president. The president, which is the head of state, is nominated by two-thirds majority of the people’s assembly (Majlis Al-Shaab) and elected by a referendum. Currently, the president is Husni Mubarak who was re-elected for a fourth six-year term in 1999. The prime minister heads the council of ministers. In addition, the president is responsible for appointing and dismissing ministers, if a motion of no confidence takes place the assembly can require a minister to resign.
The legislative branch is represented in the peoples assembly also known as Majlis Al-Shaab which consists of 454 seats, 444 of them are directly elected members while the other 10 are appointed by the president, members of Majlis al-Shaab serve for a 5 year term. The advisory council or Majlis Al-Shura, which consists of 264 seats, 176 of them are directly elected members while the president appoints the other 88. Finally the Judiciary branch, the judiciary branch is exercised in the Supreme Constitutional Court.
The main political parties in Egypt are the National Democratic Party (NDP), which is the ruling party, the Socialist Labor Party (SLP) which was suspended since May 2000, the Socialist Liberal Party, the New Wafd Party, the National Progressive Party and the Democratic Masterist Party. Egypt is a very politically stable country for its president has been re-elected for a fourth six-year term.
Egypt has a wide variety of natural resources, the main natural resources found in Egypt are petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead and last but not least zinc. In addition, Egypt produces various agriculture products such as cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables, cattle, water buffalo, sheep, and goats. Egypt exports crude oil, petroleum products, cotton, textiles, metal products and chemicals to other nations. While it imports machinery equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, wood products and fuels from other nations. Egypt’s exports are $7.1 billion according to the 2001 est. while its imports are $164 billion. Egypt export partners are the EU 43%, UK 3.2%, US 15%, Middle East 11%, and Asian countries 9% according to the 2000 EST. Its import partners are the EU 36%, US 18%, Asian countries 13%, and the Middle East 6%.
Unfortunately, Egypt is not a very self-sufficient country for its imports are much higher than its exports.
Egypt has a population of approximately 63,575,100 according to the 2996 est. About 88% of the population lives in the Nile valley, which constitutes less than 4% of the total area. Egypt’s population is growing rapidly, in 1996 it was estimated that the growth rate was at a relatively high 2%. Also in 1996 the average life expectancy was 59.5 years for men and 63.5 years for women.
The official religion in Egypt, which shape 90% of all Egyptians, is Islam. 7% of the population belongs to the Coptic Church, a Christian denomination, which is the largest religious minority. The Greek orthodox, Roman Catholics, Armenian and several Protestant churches make up 3% of the population. Egypt has a small Jewish community.
The national and official language spoken in Egypt is the Arabic language. Berber is spoken in a few villages in the western oases. The second common languages spoken among the educated are the French and English languages.
The Ministry of Culture directs cultural activities in Egypt. Various cultural facilities are found in Egypt such as the Pocket Theater, The Opera House and the National Symphony. Folk dancing has been a growing interest sine the early 1960s and two national dance groups perform it. As we all know, Egypt is the principal film making country in the Arab world which has a state operated cinema corporation and numerous private film companies. Among the many outstanding museums found in Cairo stands the Museum of Egyptian Antiquities which houses a huge amazing collection of relics and artifacts from every period of ancient Egypt. Egypt enjoys a very rich and varied heritage as well as Egyptian art and architecture and finally Egyptian literature.
In Egypt men between the ages of 18 and 30 may be conscripted for up to 36 months of military service. In 1997 the total strength of the defense forces was about 450,000 of them 320,000 were conscripts. The army with approximately 320,000 personnel consists of seven mechanized infantry divisions, four armored divisions, one infantry division, the Republican Guard, and about 23 other separate brigades. The naval is made up of about 20,000 personnel. It is estimated that the air force personnel are about 30,000 and the air defense command numbers about 80,000. While the paramilitary forces total about 230,000. In addition, in 1990 Egypt sent troops to Saudi Arabia after Iraq overran Kuwait.
From 1955 to 1972 Egypt relied primarily on the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and other communist countries for military aid. Egypt has developed close ties with the United States, particularly after the United States helped facilitate the 1979 treaty with Israel. Egypt receives substantial military and economic aid from the United States.
Egypt is a country located in Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea between Libya and the Gaza strip. The area of Egypt’s land is 995,450 sq. km, while the area of its water is 6,000 sq. km and the total are of Egypt land and water is 1,001,450 sq. km. the lowest point in Egypt is the Qattara Depression 133m while the highest point is Mount Catherine 2,629m.
Except for modest amounts of rainfall along the Mediterranean coast, precipitation ranges from minimal to non existent. Mild winters occur from November to April, while hot summers take place from May to October. Egypt’s topography consists of four major regions which are the Nile valley and Delta where approximately 99% of the population lives, Western desert, Eastern desert and last but not least the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt’s total land boundaries are 2,665 km, the Gaza strip 11 km, Israel 266 km, Libya 1,115 and Sudan 1n273 km.
Views on World Problems
Egypt plays a very important role in the world, for it played a leading role in Arab opposition to Israel, participating in war against Israel in 1948-19049, 1956, 1967 and 1973 and spearheading an Arab economic embargo against the Jewish State in 1979. However, it became the first Arab state to sign a peace treaty with Israel. More recently, the Egyptian government developed close ties with the United States and that happened after the United States helped facilitate the 1979 treaty with Israel. Since then Egypt receives economic and military aid from the United States. Currently, Egypt does not have any enemies and hopefully it will not, Egypt has close ties and cooperates with all countries east and west north and south.
Egypt is a member of several blocs and groupings such as the United Nations and its specialized agencies, the Organization of African Unity, and Nonaligned Movement. In addition Egypt is a founding member of the League of Arab States (Arab League), which its headquarters were located in Cairo until Egypt signed a peace treaty with Israel in March 1979. The Arab League expelled Egypt and moved its headquarters
In 1990 the Arab League headquarters scheduled to return to Cairo. Moreover Egypt is also a member in ABEDA, ACC, ACCT, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, BSEC (observer), CAEU, CCC, EBRD, ECA, ESCWA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUC, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OSCE (partner), PCA, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNTAET, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
The Egyptian pound of 100 piastres is the monetary unit of Egypt. The Central Bank of Egypt was set up in 1961. The central bank controls government banking, commercial banks, and the issue of notes by the National bank Over 200 domestic and foreign banks operate in the country. Egypt is one of the countries having a large structural trade deficit, which in 2001 stood at $8.8 billion. Exports, which continue to be dominated by oil and cotton, fell slightly in 2001 to $7.03 billion from $ 7.06 billion in 2000, but imports declined sharply to $15.8 billion in 2001 from $17.6 billion in 2000. Because of moderately strong services and current transfers revenue, the 20001 current-account deficit fell to 0.15% of GDP (Gross Domestic Period), from 1% of GDP in 2000. It was estimated that in the year of 2000 the external debt of Egypt was $29.5 billion. Egypt depends economically on several countries such as the United States, the European Union, Asian countries and Arab countries. Egypt is a member of the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organization, and OPEC and many more organizations.
It is known that Egypt has the oldest continuously existing civilization in the world. Most researchers believe that the Egyptian kingdom was first unified in 3100 BC. Egypt maintained its independence and unity for many centuries thereafter. Although, it did suffer disunity now and then and experienced brief periods of foreign ruling by the Semitic Hyksos in the 17th and 16th century BC, the Assyrians in the 7th century BC, and the Persians in the 6th and 5th century BC, before the arrival of the Macedonian conqueror Alexander the great in 332 BC. Egypt was made a part of Alexander’s huge empire.
After his death in 323 BC Alexander’s empire broke up and one of his generals Ptolemy took over the ruling of Egypt, and in 305 BC he assumed the title of king. Ptolemy founded the Ptolemaic dynasty. Under these rulers Egypt became a center of the vast region surrounding the Mediterranean basin and the Middle East. From Alexander’s conquest until then 1st century the Greek culture was spread among all Egypt. The Romans conquered Egypt in 30 BC. The Romans were ruling Egypt as a province of their empire for the next several centuries.
Egypt was one of the first countries to be exposed to Christianity, for it became predominately Christian by the end of the 3rd century AD. When the Roman Empire divided in 395 Egypt was included in the Eastern Roman Empire, which was later called the Byzantine Empire. A bitter religious dispute over the nature of Christ took place by the 5th century, a policy known as Monophysitism had developed in Eastern Church. This dispute pitted the Coptic Church as well as Egypt’s indigenous Christian body and other Middle Eastern Christians against the Byzantine rulers. The Byzantine rule was weakened by the conflict in Egypt, which helped clear the way to the conquest of Egypt by an Arab army in 641. An overwhelming majority of Egyptians welcomed the Arab conquerors as liberators from foreign taxation and religious persecution.
1. Food security and effects increasing agricultural production.
Our world today is facing a great challenge, which is supplying food, fiber and industrial raw material for a continuously growing world population without affecting future productivity of natural resources or harming the environment. Many countries are suffering from the lack of agricultural production, or it might be a country that has a limited arable land base united with a constantly growing population like Egypt.
Egypt is situated on a land of 7.4 acres, which has to feed 60 million people. If the agricultural land was to be increased to 14 million it would only please (FEED?) 50% of the current population. Reasonable calculations indicate that by the year of 200 the population is predicted to reach 75 million and expand to about 110 million in the year of 2025. The outcome of this phenomenon on Egypt’s agricultural sector is that it will undergo a problem, of availability of arable land. However, Egypt does play a role in standing by its allies to help them through this problem, Egypt is supplying Tanzania with expertise in irrigated agriculture. Tanzania’s land under cultivation is mostly rain fed. Egyptians are working very closely with Tanzanian farmers on irrigation, plant and soil fertilization, marketing, cooperatives, countrified credit and finance, seed production, agricultural agreements and last but not least crop and animal production.
2. Economics of tourism and government incentives for foreign investment in large-scale construction projects to attract foreign visitors.
Tourism is an acceptable source of currency from abroad. Profits from tourism can be increased without in major expenses. A portion of world tourism places a positive value on travel within developing nations.
According to the data released in June 2002 by the secretariat of WTO, international tourist arrivals amount of to 693 million in 2001 (-0.6% compared to 2000) due to the weakening economics of major tourism generating markets and the impact of the terrorist attacks of September 11. Most affected regions were South Asia –6.3%, America –5.9%, Middle East –0.6%.
Egypt’s international tourism receipts decreased by 45.4% in 1998 compared 1997. Egypt is one of those countries in the world in which tourism is a substantial share of overall economic activity. Tourism is Egypt’s second largest foreign exchange earner and Egypt accounts for 50% of all tourist arrivals to Africa and Middle East. The Egyptian-US President’s Council held a meeting in Washington in June of 2002 discussing the development of the tourist sector, so that in future sharp effects would be held to tackle this issue and increase tourism.
3. Spurring trade bloc integration and closer regional economic ties.
Poverty reduction is urgently needed in our world today and mostly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Many in Africa are aggressively implementing economic reforms within countries and regions, including tax reduction through the creation of free trade areas, with the hope of spurring growth.
Egypt is a member of the African Economic Community (AEC), which aims to promote the economic, social and cultural development and integration of African economies. The basic goal of the AEC is to pursue trade liberalization through the formation and merging of free trade areas and economic unions at the sub-regional and the regional levels until they finally create an African Common Market.
Egypt has begun to make more progress recently on key investment reforms, with recent passage of new IPR, export promotion reforms, could help spur Egypt’s inactive economy still in the depression with likely GDP (Gross Domestic Period) growth of just 1.5-2% in 2002.
4. Action paper/ presentation: Review of the ethics of Globalization and the role of NGOs
Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) participate crucially in the international system they supply valuable inf. and ideas, support efficiently for positive change, and usually increase responsibility and authority of the global governance process. NGOs are very important to the United Nations, the secretary general refers to NGOs as the " indispensable partners" he stated that NGOs are partners in " the process of deliberation and policy creation" also the "implementation of policies"
Egypt thinks that the UN must open it doors to NGOs partnership. In addition this partnership should be based on real practice and point of view not public speaking and imagery. Egos can bring to the global policy making process a crucially important voice that broadens the policy discussion, resulting in improved and more genuine decisions.
Delegate: Sarah Al- Dalali
The Question of: Food security and effects increasing agricultural production.
Defining "Food" as a nourishment and the right that every human being living on earth should be provided with,
Deeply Disturbed that today in India 3 out of every 5 infants are born underweight and too skinny and a third of the nations people live below poverty line,
Adding that food insecurity is caused by: A) Low productivity in agriculture, usually caused by policy, institution and technological constraints, B) High seasonal and year to year inconsistency in food supplies, often the outcome of unreliable rainfall and insufficient water to crop and livestock production, C) Lack of off-farm employment opportunities, contributing in low incomes in urban and rural areas,
Noting with regret that 78% of the malnourished children in the developing world live in Asia,
Congratulates the FAO and other organizations concerning food insecurity for all efforts paid to tackle this issue,
1. Resolves the establishment of the Agricultural Production and Food Security Organization (APFSO) that will take place in Geneva, Switzerland and will meet once a year, consisting of 50 seats for volunteers from all continents, scientist, planting experts and professors majoring in agriculture;
2. Further resolves that the APFSO would exercise the following procedures: A) The APFSO would take maximum benefits from rivers, meaning that countries that are situated on rivers would all be given a fair quantity of water according to its needs avoiding any disputes to happen between countries because of water, so that each country would have enough water, B) Help countries that are not financially capable to build damns if needed, C) Monitor countries suffering from food insecurity and lack of agricultural production;
3. Urges all nations supporting this issue and the formation of this organization to take their position in the APFSO;
4. Encourages all countries concerning food insecurity and lack of agricultural production to allow the APFSO to send experts yearly to evaluate the progression of agricultural production;
5. Further invites that all nations participate in funding the APFSO to help tackle this worldwide poverty;
6. Further reminds that the APFSO would set up educational campaigns to educate farmers on how to get maximum benefits of agricultural land by advertisements, seminars, curses, and competitions;
7. Strongly urges all nations suffering from this poverty to put proper regulations so that agricultural land would not be decreased and built on;
8. Asks the UN to assist the APFSO in anyway possible;
When people are asked about Egypt, they immediately think about antiquities well that’s wrong! Egypt offers a lot more. Egypt is a prime location to see our wonderful heritage from the ancient world including pyramids and breathtaking temples. It is also part of the holy land where many religious monuments take place. Egypt also offers one of the most unique diving spots in the world called (Raas Mohammed).
Then again, one may choose to simply relax on the amazing Red Sea and the Sinai coasts or enjoy the high culture of Cairo including grand operas and its exhilarating night life. One may even leisurely float down the Egyptian Nile on a luxurious riverboat. And this my friends is one of the reasons that Egypt is referred to as the mother of the world!
Aside from all that Egypt unfortunately suffers from the lack of agricultural production and food insecurity. Egypt has an ever-growing population living on its land but it does not have enough food and agricultural production to provide its citizens. Therefore, Egypt is standing in front of you today urging the world to wake up, our children are in danger and thousands of people are dying due to lack of food and agricultural production.