1. Political Structure:
Iraq is officially named The Republic of Iraq or Al-Jumhuriah Al-Iraqia in Arabic (Iraq’s offical language). The chief of state is President Saddam Hussien, and the Vice-Presidents are Taha Maruf and Taha Ramadan. Elections are held every 7 years by a two-thirds majority. Iraq consists of 18 provinces: Al Anbar, Al Basrah, Al Muthana, Al Qadisyah,, An Najaf, Arbil, As Sulaymaniyah, At Ta’mim, Babil, Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Qar, Diyala, Karbala’, Maysan, Ninawa, Salah ad Din, Wasit. The legal judical system of Iraq is based on Islamic Law and Islamic Share’a. Iraq has one political party which is the Ba’th Party leaded by President Saddam Hussien. Iraq has a National Assembly or Majlis Al-Watani (250 seats).
2. Natural Resources:
The natural resources of Iraq are mostly mineral. Iraq is rich with oil and natural gas. There are important deposits of Sulphur and phosphates in Iraq, and a small deposit of salt and gypsum. The land and soil of Iraq is split into two kinds. One is rich with clay and humus which is used for construction. The other kind lacks clay and humus for agriculture.
Iraq is rich due to the oil and natural gas that it owns. Iraq could not use its money freely or sell the oil alone because there are sanctions on Iraq and the UN sells Iraq’s oil for humanitarian aid. Iraq is also rich with water, with two fresh water rivers flowing through it. Iraq could make use of these rivers for drinking water, electricity and agriculture.
3. Cultural Factor:
Iraq’s population is 24,001,816 (2002), and the population density is 53 people per km² (137 per mile²). The official language in Iraq is Arabic, and Kurdish is widely spoken (official in Kurdish regions) as well as Assyrian and Armenian. The population’s religions are divided into 97% Muslims (60%Shi’a- 37% Sunni), Christians and other minority religions 3%, a small minority of Jews are still present in Iraq (about 2,000 person). The Iraqi ethnic groups are mainly Arab 80%, Kurdish 15% and Turkoman and Assyrians 5%.
The cultural heritage of Iraq is primarily Arabic, although long before the advent of Islam in the 7th century AD the area known as Mesopotamia was the center of the Babylonian and Assyrian civilizations. The Arabian influence is represented today in much of the surviving antiquities, including the Kadhimain Mosque, the Abbasid Palace, and the Shrine of Samarra. Iraq is known for producing fine handicrafts, including rugs and carpets.
The Iraqi military branches into the army, republican guard, navy, air force, air defense force, border guard force, and fedayeen Saddam. The military age in Iraq is 18 years old; all the military consists of males. The military manpower availability is 3,430,847 (armed forces 429,000 active and 650,000 reserves, air force 35,000, and navy 2,000). The military manpower fit for service is 3,430,819. The military budget is $1.3 billion.
There is mounting concern in the West that the government is stockpiling weapons of mass destruction, including chemical, biological, ballistic, and nuclear weapons; there were well-substantiated reports of the use of chemical weapons against the Kurds. According to UN and the International Atomic Energy Agency reports, Iraq does not have and nuclear or biological weapons. Biological weapons were used in the past by Iraq against the Kurds and neighboring countries.
The capital of Iraq is Baghdad. Iraq is located in the Middle East, north of the Arabian Gulf, bordered by Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Syria, and Iran. Iraq’s geographical coordinates are 33 00 North and 44 00 East. Iraq’s area of land is 432,162 square kilometers, area of water is 4,910 square kilometers, which totals to 437,072 square kilometers. The length of the Iraqi coastline is 58 kilometers. The terrain of Iraq is mostly broad plains, reedy marshes along at the east, large flood areas in the south and mountains in the north northeastern part of Iraq. The lowest point in Iraq is the Arabian Gulf (0 meters), and the highest is Mount Haji Ibrahim (3,600 meters). The natural hazards that occur in Iraq are dust storms, sandstorms, and floods.
Tigris and the Euphrates rivers flow through Iraq from the northwest to the southeast. They meet together to form the river Shatt Al Arab, which pours into the Arabian Gulf. Leveled terrains separate the Tigris and the Euphrates, which are fertile and good for agriculture. The mountain of Iraq is the high Zagros mountain, with the high peak of Haji Ibrahim on it.
Iraq is mostly plains, with large numbers of fertile land since the fertile crescent passes through it and the rivers Tigris and the Euphrates. Iraq is cool in the winter and hot and dry in the summer.
6. Views of World Problems:
Iraq is a member of these international organizations: UN, Arab League, OPEC, and Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC). After the Iranian-Iraqi War and the Arabian Gulf War, relations between Iraq and the world are bad. There are bad relations with neighbor Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, but the Iraqi-Saudi relations are getting better both politically and economically. Currently Saudi Arabia opened the borders with Iraq for economical trade where Saudi products will be sold in Iraq and Iraqi products will be sold in Saudi Arabia. Relations with other Arabian countries are good. Relations with Turkey are hostile due to the Tigris and the Euphrates. Relations with Syria which were bad after the Gulf War are getting better and are improving.
Kuwaiti-Iraqi relations are still bad, Kuwait want their prisoners, which are over 600, back, where Iraq claims that it doesn’t have any prisoners. Recently Iraq apologized to Kuwait and the Kuwaiti people for the invasion of their country. Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait is because the US Army were based in Kuwait and they were going to invade Iraq, so Iraq invaded Kuwait for its own protection. Also Iraq invaded Kuwait to protect the Iraqi-Southern oil wells from western oil companies.
Relations with the US are very unstable. The US does not have any political representation in Iraq, but it has a sector in the Polish Embassy in Baghdad. The US considers Iraq an enemy and a threat to the region and its neighbors. Relations with Iran are stable, after the war there were talks and negotiations between the two sides, disputes over the Kurds and Shatt Al Arab are still present.
Iraq’s economy is mostly dominated by oil and oil production, which provides 95% of the economy. Iraq’s industrial products are petroleum, chemicals, textiles, construction materials and food processing. Iraq’s agricultural products are wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, cotton, cattle and sheep. Iraq’s exports total $15.8 billion and the imports total in $11 billion. Iraq exports crude oil, and imports food, medicine and manufactures. Iraq’s export partners are US 46.2%, Italy 12.2%, France 9.6%, and Spain 8.6%. Iraq’s import partners are France 22.5%, Australia 22%, China 5.8%, and Russia 5.8%.
Iraq’s depts. total in $62.2 billion, it owes Russia and many other countries. Iraq receives $327.5 million as economical aid. The sanctions and embargo on Iraq is hurting Iraq widely. First of all it is not getting a lot of money from the petroleum, and Iraq is not getting necessary aid and equipment.
The Byzantine invaded Ctesiphon in AD 627 and expanded their empire. For the lack of leadership, the area was easily concord by the Muslims and Islam in637 and it was the capital of the Muslim Empire. In 747 a revolt began in the name of the Abbasid family and the family ruled the empire. Baghdad in 762 became the capital of the Islamic Empire. Rule Mongol Iraq fragmented into provincial administrations subject to the Mongol Il-Khans based in Azerbaijan; Baghdad itself was now in decline.
Ottoman rule initially brought peace, good government, and some resurgence of settled agriculture for Iraq. In 19th century Britain and Germany became rivals in the commercial development of the Mesopotamian area. The British promised the Arabs of independence when they revolt on the Turks. In June 1916 an uprising occurred in the Hejaz, led by Faisal al-Husein, later Faisal I, first King of Iraq. A new state was established with Arabia on the south and Turkey on the north.
In June 1930 a treaty between Britain and Iraq. In 1931 the exploitation of the oil reserves in Iraq advanced. Iraq broke off diplomatic relations with Germany early in September 1939. In 1942 Iraq became an important for British and American forces operating in the Middle East and for the trans-shipment of arms to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). The where talks aboute Transjordan (later Jordan) and Iraq become united. Immediately following the declaration of independence by Israel in May 1948, the armies of Iraq and Transjordan invaded the new state. On May 11, 1949 Iraqi units continued to fight Israelis in Palestine. Transjordanian troops replaced the Iraqi units in this area. On February 24, 1955 Iraq and Turkey signed a treaty. The UAR overthrow the Iraqi government. Iraq declared war on Israel in 1967 and it sent its troops and closed pipelines to the western countries.
Tension between Iraq and Iran increased during 1979 because Iranian Kurds threatened to spill over into Iraq. Because of the dispute over Shatt Al Arab and the Kurds spill over, the Iran-Iraq War began. After a ceasefire with Iran came into effect on August 20, 1988, the Iraqi government again moved to suppress the Kurdish insurgency. In 1990 Iraq revived a long-standing territorial dispute with Kuwait, its ally during the war with Iran, claiming that overproduction of oil by Kuwait was injuring Iraq’s economy. Iraqi troops invaded Kuwait on August 2 and rapidly took over the country.
When Iraq failed to comply, the war to free Kuwait started. The Gulf War proved disastrous for Iraq, which was forced out of Kuwait in about six weeks. In 1992 Iraq was pressured to eliminate its remaining weapons of mass destruction; meanwhile, UN economic sanctions remained in effect. The regime of Saddam Hussein continued its efforts to crush internal resistance in 1994 which were the Kurds and the Marsh Arabs in the South. In May 1996 the UN supervised sales of Iraqi oil to pay for humanitarian supplies. Iraqi government supported one Kurdish party the Kurdish Democratic Party (KDP), against its rival, the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK). At the end of January 1998 a Western naval task force with massive firepower gathered in the Gulf region to apply pressure on Saddam Hussein to end Iraq’s obstruction of weapons inspections. On February 18, 1998, Kofi Annan signed an agreement with Saddam that allowed UN weapons inspectors unconditional access to all the disputed sites. In the four years following the Gulf War, the UN found no evidence of biological weapons stocks. In April 1998, the International Atomic Energy Agency reported that Iraq had 'satisfactorily completed its undertaking to produce a consolidated version of its full, final, and complete declaration of its clandestine nuclear program.
1. Prevention and spread of the deadly disease of Ebola, Marburg Virus, and Smallpox, including international scientific cooperation to expedite the search for vaccines and measures to insure the world wide availability of affordable patent medications, and address the social and economic costs of epidemic breakouts.
Defining deadly diseases as a condition that results in medically significant symptoms in a human which may be fatal. Iraq is currently lacking the cure and the vaccines of the Ebola, Marburg Virus, and Smallpox diseases. Iraq is lacking the necessary cure because of the sanctions. The sanctions are enabling Iraq of getting the cure, Iraqi people and children are dieing because of the lack of the cure.
Iraq suggests that international scientific corporation expands, and the sharing of technology increases between nations. Iraq is also with reducing the price of vaccines making it affordable because most of the Iraqi people are poor and can’t afford proper and necessary cures.
2. Human rights and welfare of indigenous people, including promoting their status within countries and building a network to assure that human rights are not abridged and cultural contribution are acknowledged.
Indigenous people are defined as the people who occupy a region at the time of its contact with colonial powers or the outside world. The indigenous people of Iraq are the Arabs, they still control and conquer Iraq. The Arabs have their human rights and welfare. Building a network and promoting their status is not necessary and is not needed.
3. ACTION PAPER Review of economic sanctions as a means of compulsion imposed upon countries to encourage or punish domestic activities.
Defining economical sanctions as official permission or approval for a course of action. Iraq currently is put under sanctions. Iraq and the Iraqi people are suffering from these sanctions. The Iraqi economy is suffering by getting worse, the people of Iraq are dieing for the lack of medicine. Iraq has been punished enough for the activities it has done.
Assembly: GA A
Issue: Prevention and spread of the deadly disease of Ebola, Marburg Virus, and Smallpox, including international scientific cooperation to expedite the search for vaccines and measures to insure the world wide availability of affordable patent medications, and address the social and economic costs of epidemic breakouts.
Defining disease as "a condition that results in medically significant symptoms in a human,"
Defining deadly as "able or likely to cause death,"
Aware of that according to the UN that the Ebola virus kill 90% of the people that are infected in an outbreak in Zaire,
Bearing In Mind that according to the BBC that in 1999 at least 52 person died in Uganda from the Marburg Virus within 48 hours,
Recognizing that according to the Oxford Textbook of Clinical Hepatology 117 person in Sudan and 280 person in Zaire died from the Ebola virus,
Believing that according to the World Health Organization (WHO) there are over 1000 deaths around the world since the discovery of the Ebola virus,
Applauding the acts of the World Health Organization (WHO) of trying to eliminate the viruses and control the outbreaks,
1) Resolves the formation of a UN sub-organization called the United Nations Aid and Disease Prevention Organization (UNADPO), the headquarter of this organization will be decided as soon as this resolution is passed by the GA,
2) Further Resolves that the members of UNADPO will be scientists and scientific labs of any UN member country and any UN member country, the meetings should be held in the headquarters every 6 months,
3) Notes that the UNADPO’s main goal is to prevent breakouts of deadly disease and insure affordable medicine,
4) Declares that the UNADPO will take actions toward the patent as follows: A. Reduce the medicine patent period, B. Reduce the price of the certificate of using a patented medicine,
5) Emphasizes that any member of the UNADPO that discovers a cure will receive a generous reward and every right for that cure will be owned by the UNADPO,
6) Affirms that the UNADPO will give low interest loans that will last long to members to be used for buying cures and preventing disease, the UNADPO should get the money from the World Bank because it supports reconstruction and benefiting projects through: A. Members who needs the loan file for the loan in the amount that they want and the reason for that loan, B. The UNADPO will authorizes this loan, C. The UNADPO will send agents to the country with loan to make sure that the money is going to the cause of the loan, D.Violators of the rules put out by the UNADPO will face consequences decided by the UNADPO,
7) Declares that the UNADPO will help any member with a breakout through: A. Send scientists and a team upon any breakout in any member to help control the breakout, B. Send free medicine,
8) Notes that the UNADPO will send free medicine in small quantities to any member that needs this cure urgently.