Libya

Libya

Student: Mishal Al Rashoud

Event: AISMUN 2003




 

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The Libyan National Anthem


Libya:

Allahu Akbar (God is Greatest)
Latin Transliteration
Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar
Allahu Akbar Fauqua Kaidi Lmutadi
Alla hu Lilmazlumi Hairumu ayidi
(repeat previous two lines)

Ana Bilyaqini Wabissilahi Saaftadi
Baladi Wanuru Lhaqqi Yastau Fi Yadi
Qulu Mai, Qulu Mai
Allahu Allahu Allahu Akbar
Allahu Fauqua Lmutadi!

Ya Hadihi Ddunya Atilli Wa Smai
Gaisu Laadi Gaa Yabgi Masrai
Bilhaqqi Saufa Fasaufa Afnihi Mai
Qulu Mai Lwailu Lilmustamiri
Wa Llahu Fauqa Lgadiri Lmutagabbiri
Allahu Akbaru Ya Biladi Kabbiri M
Wahudi Binasiyati Lmugiri Wadammiri.


English Translation

God is greatest! (repeat)

He is above the plots of the aggressors,
And He is the best helper of the oppressed.
With faith and with weapons
I shall defend my country,
And the light of truth will shine in my hand.
Sing with me! (repeat)
God is greatest!

(repeat) God, God, God is greatest!
God is above the aggressors.
O World, look up and listen!
The enemy's army is coming,
Wishing to destroy me.

With truth and with my gun
I shall repulse him.
And should I be killed,
I would kill him with me.
Sing with me--
Woe to the Imperialists!

And God is above the treacherous tyrant.
God is greatest!
Therefore glorify Him, O my country,
And seize the forehead of the tyrant
And destroy him!
(repeat previous two lines)



Country Profile

Libya






 

Political Structure:

Al Jamahiriya Al Arabia Libya is divided into 25 municipalities: Ajdabiya, Al 'Aziziyah, Al Fatih, Al Jabal al Akhdar, Al Jufrah, Al Khums, Al Kufrah, An Nuqat al Khams, Ash Shati', Awbari, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi, Darnah, Ghadamis, Gharyan, Misratah, Murzuq, Sabha, Sawfajjin, Surt, Tarabulus, Tarhunah, Tubruq, Yafran, Zlitan;

Legal System: Libya legal system follows both Italian civil law system and Islamic law. It also has separate religious courts. Libya has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction.

Executive Branch: Revolutionary Leader Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-Qadhafi poses as the Chief of Sate, yet he has no official title. He holds most of the power since he implements the political system which is a mix between Socialism and Islam.

The last elections were held in March 2000. The National elections come indirectly through a ladder of people's committees. The head of government is elected by the General People's Congress.

The General People's Committee was recognized by the General People's Congress.
Legislative Branch: General People's Congress;
Judicial Branch: Supreme Court;

There are no political pressure groups except maybe some diverse Arab nationalist movements with insignificant memberships may be running secretly.

 

Natural Resources:

Libya mostly depends on its oil sector; however it does have numerous other resources such as: olives, dates, citrus, vegetables, peanuts, soybeans, cattle, wheat, and barley. Unproductive resources have caused shortages in basic foods and goods. The non oil sector has extended from only agriculture products to producing petrochemicals, iron, steel, and aluminum. Agriculture is limited to very few parts of Libya because of the harsh weather conditions. Only two uplands in the north, the Jabal Nafusah and the Jabal Akhdar and the Jaffara Plain which the between Jabal Nafusah and the sea receive enough rainfall to make agriculture possible.



Cultural Factors:

Libya has a population of 5,368,585 of which 662,669 are non-nationals, mostly other Africans residing in Libya. 97% of Libya is made up of Berbers and Arabs, the remaining 3% are Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, and Tunisians. 97% of Libya are Sunni Muslims. There is not much discrimination between Berbers and Arabs because there are many intermarriages between the two groups and thus very few people of pure blood.



Defense:

Libya’s has four military branches and they are: Armed Peoples on Duty (Army), Navy, Air and Air Defense Command. The Libyan military manpower availability is 1,503,647. The military age in Libya is at 17. The military manpower fit for service is 1,503,647 males from ages 15-49. The military manpower reaching military age annually is 61,694. The Libyan military has a budget of $1.3 billion.

Since sanctions were suspended against Libya, Libya has been talking to Russia about improving its MiG-21s and MiG-25s while also expressing an interest in MiG-29s, MiG-31s and long-range SAMs. Most of Libya’s military aircraft are in storage. The Air Force has many bases including the ex-US Wheeler AFB which is close to the Algerian border. Libya could defend itself from a US attack since it did receive lots of military equipment from the former Soviet Union.

 

Geography:

Libya is predominately desert with 90% of the country receiving an average annual rainfall of less than 50 mm (2 inches). Libya’s location is in Southern Africa bordering the Mediterranean Sea. Libya lies between Egypt and Tunisia. The geographic coordinates of Libya are 25 00 N, 17 00 E. The total are of Libya is 1,759,540 sq. km, of that 0 sq. km is water. Libya’s total land boundaries are 4,348 km. Libya borders Algeria 982 km, Chad 1,055 km, Egypt 1,115 km, Niger 354 km, Sudan 383 km, and Tunisia 459 km. Libya’s coastline is 1,770 km. Libya’s climate is dry and its terrain is mostly desolate, flat to rising and falling plains, plateaus, and depressions. Its lowest point is Sabkhat Ghuzayyil -47 m, and its highest point is Bikku Bitti 2,267 m.



Views on World Problems:

Libya has strong views and strong opinions. It pulled out of the Arab League because it says that it takes no or weak actions and cannot deal with the current issues. Colonel Muammar Gaddafi says about the Egypt-Israeli peace treaty "It is a big step backward. I love peace. We all love peace. It is because of our love for peace that we oppose what is going on in the White House right now. This event will compound the problem of the Middle East. I expect that the Palestinian people will strengthen their resistance against the Israelis and that the Egyptian government will take an unfriendly and aggressive attitude toward the Arabs. At the same time, there will be an increase in the Arabs' unfriendly feelings toward Americans." He also said "There are also the seeds of revolution in Egypt. The masses in the streets are ready for revolution, and this agreement will make it come sooner."

Colonel Gaddafi also said on US. arms sales to Egypt "While making propaganda about peace, the US. is increasing the danger of war."

Colonel Gaddafi view on a just Middle East peace "Peace will not be realized unless the Palestinian people have been returned to Palestine and Arab unity has been reestablished. That means that all foreigners must leave Palestine and return to their countries of origin. Only Palestinian Jews should stay in Palestine, as citizens of a secular state where they would live with Palestinian Arabs and Palestinian Christians. Israel is a colonialist-imperialist phenomenon. There is no such thing as an Israeli people. Before 1948, world geography knew of no state such as Israel. Israel is the result of an invasion, of aggression."

Colonel Gaddafi also said that he does not consider the Irish Republican Army as terrorist in his quote "The Irish struggle for independence is a just struggle. We don't consider the Irish fight for freedom to be terrorism."

It was also said by Colonel Gaddafi that his reputation as a backer of terrorists was made up to use against him and that there was no proof to back up those charges.

International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CAEU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OAU, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO;

Libya does not have an embassy in the US; this is because the US has suspended all embassy activities.

 

Economy:

Libya’s oil sector is its primary export earnings and it makes up one-quarter of the GDP. Libya has one of the highest per capita GDPs in Africa as a result of high oil revenues and a small population. The harsh climate and poor soil conditions limit agriculture, so Libya imports 75% of its food. When the UN suspended sanctions on Libya this greatly boosted its economy. Since Colonel Gaddafi came into power progress has been made in agricultural and industrial development, but Libya has also become heavily dependent on foreign manpower.

GDP: $40 billion GDP real growth rate: 3% GDP per capita: $7,600
GDP - composition by sector: Agriculture: 7% Industry: 47% Services: 46% Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, and cement.
Budget: Revenues: $9.3 billion Expenditures: $9.2 billion, including capital expenditures
Agriculture products: wheat, barley, olives, , citrus, vegetables, peanuts, soybeans and cattle;
Exports commodities: crude oil, refined petroleum products;
Ex-partners: Italy 42%, Germany 19%, Spain 13%, Turkey 6%, France 4%, Switzerland 3%, and Tunisia 2%;
Import commodities: machinery, transport equipment, food, manufactured goods;
Import Partners: Italy 25%, Germany 10%, UK 8%, France 7%, Tunisia 7%, South Korea 4%;
Debt External: %4.7 billion
Economic aid recipient: $7 million

 

History:

In ancient times Libya was in rule of the Romans and enjoyed considerable prosperity. In the 7th century Libya was concurred by the Arabs. Later, in the 16th century Libya came under Ottoman rule. In 1912 the country became an Italian colony. Libya became independence 1951. At that time it had few known natural resources, and uneducated, extremely poor population and was one of the poorest countries in the world. In 1959 oil was discovered and with the development of this important industry conditions improved greatly, especially in the fields of health, housing, and education.

Colonel Muammar Abu Minyar al-Qadhafi took power in 1969 and made his own political system, which is a combination of Socialism and Islam. He thinks of himself as a revolutionary leader so he used oil funds to encourage his idea outside of Libya. He supported subversives and terrorists overseas to speed up the end of Marxism and capitalism. Libyan military quests failed. The invasion of Chad by Libya was ended in 1987. Libya support for terrorists decreased after the UN imposed sanctions in 1992. however theses sanctions were suspended in April 1999.

 

 



Policy Statements ECOSOC


Issue #1: Food security and effects increasing agricultural production.

Libya is for increasing agricultural production, however agriculture is limited to only a few parts of Libya due to harsh weather conditions. These locations are being used as the major agriculture sources in Libya. So, Libya would like to find a solution that not only deals with starting agriculture, but keeping it going throughout the harsh weather conditions. Another major issue is obtaining water for growing, this is a problem Libya deals with. However Libya is better off supplying its population with food than other Arab countries due to its small population. However the sanctions that were opposed on Libya affected the ability to have a steady food supply, but ever since they were lifted Libya has been recovering.

 

 


Issue # 2: Economics of tourism and government incentives for foreign investment in large scale construction projects to attract foreign visitors.

Both the Libyan government and Libyan private sector have been taking steps to attract a greater number of tourists to the country. Over 300 Libyan both public and private travel agencies and businesses have been involved in making a more tourist friendly country. Libya has targeted around 3 million tourists from around the world in the next five years. Numerous integrated investment projects will be incorporated for the sake of tourism. Libya thinks that every country should concentrate on tourism since it is a good source of income. Also, all countries should take advantage of their tourist attracting sites. Ever since the embargo was lifted off of Libya tourism has increased, mostly for the desert, and will continue to do so. Libya also encourages all other African countries to do so, this way it not only helps Libya but all of Africa.

 

 

Issue # 3: Spurring trade bloc integration and closer regional economic ties.

Libya has tried and is still trying to boost economic ties with other countries. In 1970 Colonel Qadhafi had talks with Egypt and Sudan about how to achieve some form of unity and has never stopped talking about it since. In 1971 the federation of Libya, Egypt, and Syria was formed however later failed. Libya’s ultimate goal is to achieve the union of the Arab Nation. There have been numerous organizations formed however most have failed. Libya calls upon all Arab countries to come together and form a strong economic and military powered organization. The only way to achieve anything is for Arab countries to stand together.

Libya has created the African Union (AU) in order to replace the Organization of African Union (OAU). This is an organization were Libya can express its opinion without being criticized by other countries. This organization is much more effective than its predecessor.

 

 

Resolution

 

Delegate: Mishal Al Rashoud

Country: Libya

Forum: ECOSOC

Issue: Economics of tourism and government incentives for foreign investment in large scale construction projects to attract foreign visitors.

Defining tourism as the business of organizing tours and attracting tourists for an income,

Noting with deep concern that many tourists refrain from going to countries such as those in the Middle East and Africa, because of stereotypes and rumors of terrorism,

Bearing in mind that many countries have natural wonders and historic sites that would attract tourists, however they do not market them,

Aware of the fact that many people do not travel to certain countries because of travel complications such as visas,

Noting with appreciation all organizations that encourage and market tourism,

1. Urges all governments willing to attract tourists to try and smooth the process of travel to their countries by:
A. Easing restrictions on issuing tourist visas,
B. Facilitating airport, port, and land border traffic by, reducing airport and navigational fees, reducing port fees, and simplifying procedures at land borders;

2. Resolves that the WTO (World Tourism Organization) help any willing countries with archaeological or ecological sites or any other tourist attractions by opening them to the public in order to attract tourists;

3. Further Resolves that the WTO help in marketing tourist attractions through magazine adds, TV. commercials, brochures, international tourism fairs, and establishing websites;

4. Strongly Urges all governments willing to attract foreign investors for tourist attractions in the country to encourage them by:
A. Making all investment projects tax free,
B. Easing the process of transferring funds to and from the country,
C. Allowing foreign investors to initiate investment projects without mandatory local partnership;

5. Asks that all willing governments of countries that suffer from stereotypes and rumors about terrorism and extremism, with the help of the UN and the WTO, initiate extensive public relations campaigns to project a true and positive image of their countries and people through:
A. Producing television and radio documentaries,
B. Electing prominent spokespersons for international speaking tours,
C. Inviting politicians as well as private groups such as students, journalists, travel agents, and artists to visit the country and learn about it firsthand;

6- Hopes that all countries share the view that this resolution will boost:
A. International tourism, as well as foster the meeting of different cultures
B. Exchange of ideas thus promoting better understanding and goodwill amongst the people of the world.

 

 

 

 

Opening Speech

 

Bismallah Al Rahman Al Raheem. "Libya is now a state of no oppressed, or deceived or wronged, no master and no slave; but free brothers in a society over which, god willing, shall flutter the banner of brotherhood and equality." These were the words of the esteemed and honorable mentor of the people, Colonel Muammar Al Qadhafi on the glorious morning of September the 1st 1969, the date of the revolution. Ever since then, our state has been known as Al Jamahiriya Al Arabia Al Libya,

A state without a government, where the power belongs to the people as it truly should. We have no ruling class, no exploitation, and no injustice, striving to create the perfect state, the Jamahiriya. Libya generously seeks to spread the enlightenment it has achieved worldwide. It has helped counter the effects of colonialism and imperialism, and has aided those in need in achieving freedom and independence. It has pursued its goal of creating regional unity, establishing the African Union and working as a driving force behind the Arab League. Unfortunately, Libya has been ruthlessly and falsely labeled as a terrorist state, becoming a victim of sanctions and bombings from those that seek to harm it. Today, Libya is working to remove this false stereotype erected by the will of imperialism, and continue working for a better world for all.

 

Thank You