Malaysia

Malaysia

Student: Abdullah Al Bourhamah

Event: AISMUN 2003




 

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The Malaysian National Anthem


Malaysia:

Negara Ku (My Country)

Original Bahasa Malaysia Words
Negara ku, tanah tumpahnya darah ku
Rakyat hidup bersatu dan maju
Rahmat bahagia, Tuhan kurniakan
Raja kita selamat bertakhta M
(repeat previous two lines)


English Translation

My country, my native land

The people living united and progressive
May God bestow blessing and happiness
May our Ruler have a successful reign
(repeat previous two lines)

Country Profile

Malaysia






Political Structure

Malaysia is a federal parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch. It received independence on August 31, 1957. Malaysia, what is now peninsular Malaysia, became independent in 1957. In 1963 Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore formed Malaysia. Singapore became an independent country in 1965.

The constitution was established in 1957. There are 13 states and the federal territory, which also called the capital city. Each state has an assembly and government headed by a chief minister. Nine of these states have hereditary rulers; generally titled "Sultans," while the remaining four have prearranged governors in equivalent positions.

Executive:

The executive branch which is ruled by Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin ibn Almarhum Tuanku Syed Putra Jamalullail, which is also called the "Paramount Ruler," who is head of state and customarily referred to as the king and has ceremonial duties. The second in power is the Deputy Paramount Ruler, Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin ibn Almarhum Al-Sultan Mahmud Al-Muktafi Billah Shah.The next in line is the Prime Minister, Mahathir bin Mohammed which controls the government and the cabinet.

Legislative Branch:

Malaysia has a bicameral parliament, consisting of a 69-member Senate (26 elected by the 13 state assemblies, 43 appointed by the king on the Prime Minister's recommendation) and 192-members from the House of Representatives (elected from single-member districts).

Judicial:

This includes the Federal Court, Court of Appeals, High Courts, Magistrate's Courts, Session's Courts, and Juvenile Courts. Syariah Courts hear cases on certain matters involving Muslims only.

Political parties:

Barisan Nasional (National Front)--a coalition comprising the United Malays National Organization (UMNO) and 13 other parties, most of which are ethnically based; Democratic Action Party (DAP); Parti Se-Islam Malaysia (PAS); Parti Bersatu Sabah (PBS); Parti Keadilan. There are more than 30 registered political parties, including the foregoing, not all of which are represented in the federal parliament. The king Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin ibni Almarhum Tuanku Syed Putra Jamalullail holds the power.

 

Economy

After a decade of 8% average GDP growth, the Malaysian economy—severely hit by the regional financial crisis—declined 7% in 1998. Malaysia will likely remain in recession for the first half of 1999; official statistics continue to show anemic exports, and some private financial analysts forecast a further drop in GDP of 1% in 1999. Prime Minister MAHATHIR has imposed capital controls to protect the local currency while cutting interest rates to stimulate the economy. Kuala Lumpur also announced an expansionary budget for 1999 to combat rising unemployment. Malaysia continues to seek funding from domestic and international sources to help finance its budget deficit and re-capitalize its weakened banking sector.

The GDP- purchasing power parity—$215.4 billion (1998 est.). The GDP’s—real growth rate: -7% (1998 est.). The GDP—per capita: purchasing power parity—$10,300 (1998 est.). The GDP is composed by three main sectors. These sectors are agriculture, services, and industry. The Largest sector id the industry taking up to 46%, then comes the services sector taking 41%, and agriculture taking 13% in 1997. The population below poverty is 15.5% since 1989. The inflation rate in 1998 was 5.3% and the labor force is 8.398 million in 1996. The unemployment rate is 2.6% in 1996. The budget’s revenue is $22.6 billion, while the expenditures were $22 billion in 1996 including capital expenditures of $5.3 billion. The exports- partners are: US 21%, Singapore 20%, Japan 12%, Hong Kong 5%, UK 4%, Thailand 4%, Germany 3% (1995), while the imports partners are: Japan 27%, US 16%, Singapore 12%, Taiwan 5%, Germany 4%, South Korea 4% (1995). The external debt was $39.8 billion in 1998. Malaysia is a recipient of an economic aid worth $125 million in 1995. Now Malaysia I trying hardly to pay back it’s loans and is improving economically.

 

Natural resources

Malaysia's most valuable mineral resources, however, are its reserves of petroleum and natural gas. The major fields are all offshore, off the east coast of the peninsula and off Sarawak. Malaysia also has large reserves of coal, peat, and wood, and it has considerable hydroelectric potential. Malaysia is rich in mineral resources. The major metallic ores are tin, bauxite (aluminum), copper, and iron. A host of minor ores found within the country includes manganese, antimony, mercury, and gold. The production of tin formed one of the main economic pillars upon which the country's development effort has been built. It is found largely in alluvial deposits along the western slopes of the Main Range in Peninsular Malaysia, with smaller deposits on the east coast of the peninsula.

Malaysia's chief trading partners are Japan, Singapore, and the United States. Such newly industrialized Asian countries as South Korea and Taiwan account for a growing share of trade. Malaysia is a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), and trade with other ASEAN nations (outside of that with member Singapore) also is increasing.

 

 

Cultural factors

The Malay is Malaysia's largest ethnic group, accounting for over half the population and the national language. Almost all Malays are Muslims, though Islam here is less extreme than in the Middle East. The Chinese traded with Malaysia for centuries, and then settled in number during the 19th century and form about 35% of the population. Indians had been visiting Malaysia for over 2,000 years, but did not settle until the 19th century. Today 10% of Malaysia is Indian. The oldest inhabitants of Malaysia are its tribal peoples but account for about 5 percent of the total population. Thankfully these group live along cooperatively.

  The Malay Peninsula, situated at one of the great maritime crossroads of the world, has long been the meeting place of peoples from other parts of Asia. As a result, the population shows the ethnographic complexity typical of Southeast Asia as a whole. In general, there are four groups of people, given in the order of their appearance on the peninsula: the Orang Asli (aborigines), the Malays, the Chinese, and the South Asians. In addition, there are small numbers of Europeans, Americans, Eurasians, Arabs, and Thai.



Defense

The main aim of the Malaysian armed forces is defending the sovereignty and strategic interests of the nation. The Malaysian arm forces are branched into Malaysian Army, Royal Malaysian Navy, Royal Malaysian Air Force, Royal Malaysian Police Force, Marine Police, and Sarawak Border Scouts. The military manpower age is 21. The military manpower availability is for males age 15-49: are 5,526,555, the one’s reaching military age annually 183,928, and the one’s fitting for military service from males age 15-49: are 3,349,066 (1999 est.). The military expenditures were $2.1 billion in 1998, and this takes up 2.1% of the Malaysia’s GDP.

 

Geography

Malaysia’s climate is tropical, annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons. The coastal plains rising to hills and mountains. The natural resources are tin, petroleum, timber, copper, iron ore, natural gas, and bauxite.

 Malaysia is located Southeastern Asia, peninsula and northern one-third of the island of Borneo, bordering Indonesia and the South China Sea, south of Vietnam. The total area of Malaysia is 329,750 sq. km. The land area is 328,550 sq. km and the water area is 1,200 sq. km. The total land boundaries are 2,669 km and it borders the countries of Brunei 381 km, Indonesia 1,782 km, and Thailand 506 km. Malaysia has a coastline border of 4,675 km (Peninsular Malaysia 2, 068 km, East Malaysia 2,607 km).

 

Views on world problems

Malaysia is also a very cooperative member of the UN. It has involved with the UN in the military basis very cooperatively. It has involved in the crisis of Congo, Namibia, Cambodia, Somalia, and Bosnia. Malaysian army officers have also served in Angola, Mozambique, and Western Sahara, Chad and along the Iran/Iraq border-monitoring UN supervised cease-fires.

Disputes—international: involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; Philippines have not fully revoked claim to Sabah State; two islands in dispute with Singapore; two islands in dispute with Indonesia.

Illicit drugs: transit point for some illicit drugs going to Western markets; drug trafficking prosecuted vigorously and carries severe penalties. It executes drug dealers.

 


History

In the 1980s, Dr. Mohammed Mahathir succeeded Datuk Hussein as prime minister. Mahathir instituted economic reforms that would transform Malaysia into one of the so-called Asian Tigers. Throughout the 1990s, Mahathir embarked on a massive project to build a new capital from scratch in an attempt to bypass congested Kuala Lumpur.

Beginning in 1997 and continuing through the next year, Malaysia suffered from the Asian currency crisis, with the Malaysian ringgit plummeting. Mahathir blamed foreign market speculators for the crisis, and many of his ambitious building projects had to be placed on hold as a result of the economic downturn.

In Sept. 1998 Prime Minister Mahathir bin Mohammed sacked his heir apparent, Anwar Ibrahim, from his posts as deputy prime minister and finance minister, after a disagreement over how to deal with the country's economic problems. In defiance, Anwar launched a reform movement attacking the government. The prime minister then jailed Anwar, who was beaten and charged with trumped-up corruption and sex crimes. In April 1999, after the longest trial in Malaysian history, Ibrahim was sentenced to an unexpectedly severe six-year jail sentence. Protests followed in Malaysia and international condemnation was swift. Another trial followed, this time for sodomy, and from the various rulings of the Malaysian courts, it became clear that the judicial system was in the hands of the government.

Instead of following the economic prescriptions of the International Monetary Fund and World Bank, the prime minister went his own way, opting for fixed exchange rates and capital controls. In late 1999, Malaysia was on the road to economic recovery and it appeared Mahathir's measures were working.

 

 

Policy Statements

1. Control of racism and incitement to violence and anarchy on the Internet.

Malaysia believes that the Internet should be totally censored and filtered due to the total freedom of speech. Malaysia defines "Press freedom as that you do anything that you like. You tell lies, you abuse people, and you urge people to kill each other, that are press freedom. We don't like that kind of press freedom."*

Malaysia also believes that the Internet would provoke people to terrorism as the Internet contains several sites to create homemade bombs, torture methods, and other terror causing techniques. The Internet also contains several sites that attack Muslims and other Arab/Muslim countries due to non-governmental organizations. These Internet websites contain provocative material that Malaysia would like to censor through out the whole world. Lastly Malaysia believes that the Internet is also an educational tool to gain knowledge but people cannot achieve this due to other persuasive websites.

*Quoted from the Malaysian Prime Minister Datuk Seri Dr. Mahathir Mohammed




2. Biodiversity and protection, conservation and reintroduction of endangered and threatened species of flora and fauna, including implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity and Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES).

Malaysia believes that the biodiversity and protection of any living organism should be respected. Malaysia as being a highly biodiverse country hopes that nations around the world can solve a problem of endangered species of flora and fauna. Malaysia also hopes that nations work together to help the Convention on Biological Diversity and Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), in any way possible.

 

 

 

 

 

Resolution

FORUM: General Assembly B

QUESTION OF: Control of racism and incitement to violence and anarchy on the Internet.

DELEGATION: Malaysia

DELEGATE: Abdullah Bourhamah

Defines incitement as needed encouragement or a means of arousing or stirring to action,

Criticizing the world especially the superpowers and developed countries for paying little attention to the problem of censorship of the Internet,

Noting with regret that there are currently over 12 million pornography websites, 7.5 million anarchic websites, 5.2 million racist/prejudice websites, and 2.7 hacking helper websites,

Recognizing with appreciation that most Muslim countries censor what they can of the Internet, which includes: pornography and some hacking websites,

countries such as the United States of America, and most European countries for producing these websites and allowing them to be made,

 

1. Condemns all nations that do not censor material on the Internet which have no educational purpose,

2. Aware of the fact that the Internet is becoming a necessity to people around the world,

3. Resolves that the Internet would not be disconnected but would be censored within these conditions:
A) pornography, voyeur, and many other similar erotic materials would be totally censored from the Internet, because:
i) minors have access to view these useless materials when they are not mature enough to view them, and that it is too hard to control them from viewing them with present conditions of the Internet,
ii) they would arouse the sexual manner of men and women, which would lead to rape, molestation, sexual harassment, and exploitation of children,
iii) it goes against most religious values and beliefs, and it is totally humanly immoral,
iv) they have no educational purpose, no importance, and cause trouble,
B) materials that deal with anarchy and violence would also be totally censored from the Internet, because:
i) they would lead to violence in the community and cause chaos,
ii) they would teach teenagers, young adults, and even mature adults, to construct plastic explosives, napalm, dynamite, and other destructive devices,
iii) would also lead to murder, assault, manslaughter, and many more horrific acts,
iv) undermines the moral teachings and values of parents and the society,
C) any websites that contain racist, prejudice, and abusive remarks about ethnicity, culture or religion would be censored because:
i) it would cause psychological damage to the person, who is being targeted,
ii) it would eventually lead to ethnical grouping (separatism) which would cause, social or economic conflict between these ethnical groups, riots and gang fights,
iii) a person’s religion and culture should be respected with no questions asked unless this culture or religion harms the society and/or environment,
D) that all websites containing hacking and/or viral programs would be censored because:
i) viruses corrupt and destroy computer systems,
ii) hackers enter a company’s database and embezzle material or transfer money from one bank account to another,

4. Asks the UN to enforce the conditions listed above to maintain safety around the world,

5. Requests all nations that do not censor the material listed above are to consider changing their policy and reluctantly censoring them,

6. Expresses its hopes that all countries present in this event will vote for this resolution on the question of censorship of the internet that will promote peace and justice in the world.

 

 

 

 

Opening Speech



Honorable Delegates, Chairs, and Secretary General,

Malaysia stands here in the United Nations General Assembly today for one reason. That reason is the preservation of world peace and democracy. There are two main issues that have attracted the world's attention lately and these issues must be resolved in order to maintain peace and take another step in the direction of world peace. We, as representatives of our nations play a vital role in the outcome of world events and the shaping of world policies, need to cooperate in order to conclude the violence and instability in the world today.

Malaysia would like to take a moment to elaborate on the issue of controlling the contents of the internet. The internet, ladies and gentlemen contains millions and millions of useless and harmful websites that must be censored off the internet.

And so, honorable delegates, Malaysia urges you to come into this session with an open mind and an open heart. For we hold in our hands a great many peoples fates and lives. If we cooperate and compromise in this assembly Malaysia feels that many issues can be resolved and rectified. Thank you for your time and we hope that today can prove to be a productive and invigorating session for the people of the world.