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Chemical warfare is the use of non-explosive chemical agents to cause injury or death. The main types of agents used in chemical warfare are:(0) Nerve agents (1) Mustard agents (2) Hydrogen cyanide (3) Arsines (4) Toxins (5) Tear gases (6) Incapacitation agents
The first major use of chemical warfare agents was during World War 1, with the use of chlorine, mustard gas, and phosgene gas by the German army. They were not used a lot during World War due to the fear of retaliation and because chemical weapons are of limited use in a mobile front in which their use would slow the advance of one's own troops. Both sides during the Iran-Iraq War also extensively used chemical weapons. During the Iraqi invasion to Kuwait the danger of the chemical weapons use was possible. The Iraq warned the whole world of the use of chemical weapons. Kuwait was the first country endanger but wasn’t the only one. Israel was also endanger of chemical weapons to gain the Arabian world to stand with him. The United Nations troops were also endanger of chemical weapons that came to free Kuwait.
From that point the United Nation thought together to prevent the countries from have chemical warfare from threatening other countries. In 1993 OPWC was signed and in 1997 the organization was established. From that time the headquarters is set at the Hague, Netherlands. As of early this year, 143 countries had joined the CWC and 31 countries had signed but not yet ratified. The OPCW cooperates with the United Nations and has a staff of about 500 people, representing around 70 nationalities. Like the United Nations, the six official languages of the OPCW are Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish.
The OPCW is an independent international organization, working in the interests of its Member States. The full name for the OPWC is ''Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction.'' From the name you can conclude that the goal of this organization to prohibit the development, production, stockpiling and the use of chemical weapons. The OPCW consists of three parts and the are the Conference of the State Parties that is made up of all countries and every country has one vote. Second is The Executive Council is the main organ of the OPCW and is made up of the representatives of 41 member countries, who are elected by all other members to serve two-year terms. The Executive Council usually meets four times per year and makes the decisions that enable the OPCW to function.
Third is the Technical the Secretariat assists the Conference and the Executive Council and has a staff of about 500 people. The Secretariat carries out the daily work of implementing the Convention, including the conduct of inspections, which are done by around 200 inspectors. It also helps member countries to implement the CWC at home.
The main function of the OPWC is to implement the Chemical Weapons Convection (CWC) and the goal of the OPWC is to:(0) Destroy all chemical weapons in their possession or located any place under their jurisdiction and control; (1) Destroy all chemical weapons abandoned on the territory of other States Parties; (2) Destroy any CW production facilities it owns or possesses; and (3) Provide assistance and protection against chemical weapons.
Member countries cannot destroy chemical weapons in any way that they like. The Convention stipulates that the destruction process cannot harm people or the environment. Accordingly, the four countries that possess chemical weapons are required to use safe technologies for their destruction. The OPCW continuously monitors the destruction of chemical weapons at a number of chemical weapons destruction facilities in the four member countries that possess chemical weapons. By May 2002, a total of nearly 7,000 tones of chemical agents and more than 2 million munitions and containers had already been destroyed. The implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention's (CWC) verification regime is done by means of inspections. These inspections are about 181 inspectors from 53 countries. Example of what the OPWC is Russia. Russia is now getting rid of an enormous amount of chemical weapons and the OPWC is reduce weapons and willing to end is 2007. I would like to emphasis that the organization does not destroys it physically but the supervises the destruction and the country must pay and destroy it by itself.
For a young organization such as the OPWC it always suffers form economical problems. In 2001 the organization had a big economical problem. Out of the total number of inspections scheduled in the budget for performance of 2001, the number actually performed amounted to only 53%. In addition, many important programs have been curtailed, including those involving the training of personnel, the procurement of essential equipment and filling vacant posts. An example of inspections that have been canceled relates to chemical weapon storage facilities such as those located in Russia.. The OPCW budget is around 60 million Euros per year. All 145 members’ countries contribute to the budget each year. Their payments are determined by the size of their economies. Big, rich countries pay the most, while some smaller and/or poorer countries pay as little as one thousandth of one percent of the budget.
1) Strength of the OPCW
The OPCW has some strength and not like what other people say that it doesn’t do anything. First, the OPCW is part of the United Nations that means that it is under a great of power. For example, as we see these days in Iraq that the inspectors are having a great power. They have the right to go any place in Iraq and whenever they want and without being stopped. They can also question anyone who they wish to question even Sadam Hussein the Iraqi president. All of that power comes from the United Nations. There are 147 countries that are in that organization and the countries that have the VETO in the Security Council (five preeminent members) are joining that organization too. As a young organization such as OPCW it is getting bigger and bigger. In July 2002 there had been an increase in the number of inspector by 50% and these inspectors are from 70 different countries and the more countries supplies with inspectors the strong the organization would be.
2) The weakness of the OPCW
The OPCW has a lot of weakness. The first weakness is the finance crisis. The OPCW suffers form a lack of money. In 2001 the organization had a big economical problem. Out of the total number of inspections scheduled in the budget for performance of 2001, the number actually performed amounted to only 53%. In addition, many important programs have been curtailed, including those involving the training of personnel, the procurement of essential equipment and filling vacant posts. Most countries are not paying their money or being late to pay it.
The second weakness is that it states that the country that have chemicals weapons should fund it self and destroy its chemical weapons by its own. Countries such as Russia cannot destroy its chemical weapons by it own. It can almost afford itself to feed its counties and now the OPWC is asking Russia to pay for destroying its chemical weapons. It is impossible for it to do that so it would ignore it.
The third weakness is that it the OPWC does not have an incentive for counties to join the OPCW or fund it. The fourth weakness is that the organization is 40% funded by the US and if it stop funding the organization it will not function. The US is the number one producer of the chemical weapons and the OPCW cannot criticize the US because if it does the funding will be cut.
The main weakness of the organization that it is against national sovereignty. Iraq is some how dumb for accepting the inspector this is against national sovereignty. These inspectors don't have the right to go any place they want.
Delegate: Faisal al Ibrahim
Question: Measures to the OPCW effectiveness
Noting that according to the director general report out of the total number of inspections scheduled in the budget for performance of 2001, the number actually performed amounted to only 53%.
Deeply distressed by the quote stated by the Australian inspector John Alexander who said "we are having a shortage of inspectors to speed up our missions but there are no ears to hears us since there is no money to obey us"
Taking into consideration that there are many countries that prefer to sell their chemical weapons and gain some money rather than wasting more money on destroying it.
Deeply concerned that according to the payment records of the OPWC there are many countries who did not pay their money to the organization because they are either in debt and cannot afford the money to pay their small fees or because they have money but do not have the incentive to pay that money.
Bearing in mind that according to the Director-General report 40% of the plans that had been planed been canceled due to the shortage of money that the organization suffers from.
Guided by the payment records of the OPWC that there are more than 25% of the expected budget in 2001 had not been paid.
Recognizing the countries that are contributing to stop the shortage that the OPWC has with provide extra supplies to the OPWC and hopping that their efforts will continue.
Congratulates the United States of America for paying more than 40% of the OPWC budget but worries that if this extra supply is cut for any reason the United States is free to consider the OPWC would be in a greater financial crisis that would need a greater solution.
Expressing it satisfaction to all countries who are paying their money and some countries are paying more than what they are supposed to pay to patch up the shortage.
1. Creating a a sub branch to the OPCW called the OPCW Funding Department (OPCWFD) that will: A. Supply organizations with the right amount of money, B. Be responsible of collecting the money for all counties;
2. Requests the OPCWFD to collect the money from all countries that in the OPCW and follow these standards: A. Counties would pay a proportional percentage which the OPCWFD sets according to its need, B. Any country that her income is less than the yearly debt pay back can be forgiven since the amount of money is small, C. Countries that are not permanent in the Security Council would pay 25% of the United Nations budget, D. The five permanent countries in the Security Council would pay 25% of the United Nations budget since some countries pay more than 40%, E. The other 50% will be paid by the countries in the General Assembly,F. Any country can reduce its fees if it supplies the UN or its organization with its properties such as: land, labor, and capital;
3. Resolves that any country that does not pay its money to the OPCWFD would face the following procedure: A. Receive a warning letter, B. Give the country a one month time to give pay their money, C. Be referred to the OPCWFD and discuss the reason for not paying, D. If the OPCWFD did not take the reason into consideration the right for the country to vote would be withdrawn until it pays its money back;
4. Urges the UNFD to form a group of scientist who would look up for new ways to break up the harmful chemicals into harmless chemicals that can use into useful things,
5. Further resolves that the OPWC: A. would pay for the destruction of any chemical weapon, B. would share 50% to encourage countries to destroy their chemical weapons rather than selling it if confiscated weapons results in a profit, C. would charge any country responsible and make it destroy such weapons if that country decides to produce chemical weapons from the date of the passing this resolution;
6. Encourages: all countries to full cooperate with the UNFD and trust it since it is part of the United Nations that countries are part of.
O, P, C, W… who are we? We are part of you. Who are you? You are all here countries from all around the world putting your hand together men and women, black and white to share our problems and share our solution to make our earth a safe place to live. In the name of peace, from the hands of the United Nations to insure security all around the world, we are the Organization for Prohibiting Chemical Weapons. Our aim to make the world a place free of chemical WEAPONS, so that every practical of air you breath it in you are sure that it is safe and make sure that you can inhale in anther practical safely.
Imagine that this is the last particle of air that you will breath it. Or your skin turns into something that you can never thing of, green red yellow or even pops out. What will you pay for that to prevent it from reaching you? 1 million dollars? 1 billion dollars? Half your money? Or all your money?
We are here to prevent these chemicals from you. Thanks to all countries who are contributing in providing with what need, but that is not enough. The process of preventing these chemicals is not easy and need a lot of money which we lack of. Think about it. Do you what this particle that you are inhaling it to be the last particle? Think about it for a moment? And help us to function.
Our inspectors are playing a Major role in find the chemicals weapons in Iraq. The eyes of all countries are waiting for the inspectors report and this will either flame up the war or cools it down. So do think that we worth functioning or not? We can't work without everyone's help we are all together facing our nightmare the "CHEMICAL WEAPONS"