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After the collapse of the Berlin wall in 1989, and after years of being a world superpower, the leader and most loyal supporter to the Marxism or Communism ideology and system, Russia is now just another big country following the U.S. in democracy. Russia is not now a complete democracy; however, it has made very big strides to reach a democracy agreed upon by the U.S., especially in the fields of an open economy and free press.
Russia's government is a federation. The Russian political structure is comprised of three basic organs: the Executive organ with the president and the prime minister (chairman of the government), the Legislative, which is comprised of the Federal Assembly (Federation Council, State Duma), and the Judicial, which is the Constitutional Court, Supreme Court, Supreme Court of Arbitration, and Office of Procurator General. The Executive organ is responsible for enforcing the laws that the Legislative system makes through the Duma, which is the Russian parliament. The Judicial ofcourse is the judge in disputes.
However, it is of extreme importance to mention that in the political system established by the 1993 constitution, the president wields considerable executive power. There is no vice president, and the legislative is far weaker than the executive. The president nominates the highest state officials, including the prime minister, who must be approved by the Duma. The president can pass decrees without consent from the Duma. He also is head of the armed forces and of the national security council.
Russia has many parties, which in the 1999 elections, were contested by Conservative Movement of Russia, Stalin Bloc-For the U.S.S.R., Working Russia, Peace-Labor-May, Social Democrats, Communist Party, and the Russian Socialist Party, to name a few. However, with all these groups it is very important to note that there are no political pressure groups.
Russia is a very rich country with natural resources. Oil and gas are one of the most important natural resources in Russia since they dominate Russian exports. The mineral-packed Ural Mountains and the vast oil, gas, coal, and timber reserves of Siberia and the Russian Far East make Russia even richer in natural resources. However, most resources are located in remote and climactically unfavorable areas that are difficult to develop and far from Russian ports. Oil and gas exports continue to be the main source of hard currency, but declining energy prices have hit Russia hard. Russia is a leading producer and exporter of minerals, gold, and all major fuels. The Russian fishing industry is the world's fourth-largest, behind Japan, the United States, and China. Russia accounts for one-quarter of the world's production of fresh and frozen fish and about one-third of world output of canned fish. Natural resources, especially energy, dominate Russian exports. Ninety percent of Russian exports to the United States are minerals or other raw materials.
Russia comprises roughly three-quarters of the territory of the former Soviet Union, but has relatively little area suited for agriculture because of its arid climate and inconsistent rainfall. Northern areas concentrate mainly on livestock, and the southern parts and western Siberia produce grain. Restructuring of former state farms has been an extremely slow process. The new land code passed by the Duma in 2002 should speed restructuring and attract new domestic investment to Russian agriculture. Foreigners are not allowed to own farmland in Russia. Private farms and garden plots of individuals account for over one-half of all agricultural production.
As stated earlier, Russia was one of the strong founders and supporters of the Communist and Marxism ideology, which is economical before it is political. However, with the collapse of Communism, Russia changed to an open market economy. However, the Russian economy underwent tremendous stress as it moved from a centrally planned economy to a free market system. Difficulties in implementing monetary policies aimed at raising government revenues and a dependence on short-term borrowing to finance budget deficits led to a serious financial crisis in 1998. Lower prices for Russia's major export earners (oil and minerals) and a loss of investor confidence due to the Asian financial crisis worsened the financial problems. The result was a rapid decline in the value of the ruble (the Russian currency), flight of foreign investment, delayed payments on sovereign and private debts, a breakdown of commercial transactions through the banking system, and the threat of runaway inflation.
Russia, however, appears to have weathered the crisis relatively well. Real GDP increased by the highest percentage since the fall of the Soviet Union, the ruble stabilized, inflation was moderate, and investment began to increase again. Russia is making progress in meeting its foreign debt obligations. During 2000-01, Russia not only met its external debt services but also made large advance repayments of principal on IMF loans but also built up Central Bank reserves with government budget, trade, and current account surpluses. The 2002 Russian Government budget assumes payment of roughly $14 billion in official debt service payments falling due. Large current account surpluses have brought a rapid appreciation of the ruble over the past several years. This has meant that Russia has given back much of the terms-of-trade advantage that it gained when the ruble fell by 60% during the debt crisis. Oil and gas dominate Russian exports, so Russia remains highly dependent upon the price of energy. Loan and deposit rates at or below the inflation rate inhibit the growth of the banking system and make the allocation of capital and risk much less efficient than it would be otherwise.
In 2003, the debt will rise to $19 billion due to higher Ministry of Finance and Eurobond payments. However, $1 billion of this has been prepaid, and some of the private sector debt may already have been repurchased. Russia continues to explore debt swap/exchange opportunities. In the June 2002 G8 Summit, leaders of the eight nations signed a statement agreeing to explore cancellation of some of Russia's old Soviet debt to use the savings for safeguarding materials in Russia that could be used by terrorists. Under the proposed deal, $10 billion would come from the United States and $10 billion from other G-8 countries over 10 years.
The Russian labor force is undergoing tremendous changes. Although highly educated and skilled, it is largely mismatched to the rapidly changing needs of the Russian economy. Millions of Russian workers are underemployed. Unemployment is highest among women and young people. Many Russian workers compensate by working other part-time jobs. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union and the economic dislocation it engendered, the standard of living fell dramatically. The standard of living has been on the rise since 1999, but almost one-third of the population still does not meet the minimum subsistence level for money income.
With a population of 144 million, the density is about 9 inhabitants per square kilometer, making it one of the most sparsely populated countries in the world. Its population is predominantly urban. Most of the roughly 150 million Russians derive from the Eastern Slavic family of peoples, whose original homeland was probably present-day Poland. Russian is the official language of Russia. As the language of writers such as Tolstoy, Dostoevsky, Chekov, Pushkin, and Solzhenitsyn, it has great importance in world literature. In Russia, the ethnic groups are Russian 81.5%, Tatar 3.8%, Ukrainian 3%, Chuvash 1.2%, Bashkir 0.9%, Belarusian 0.8%, Moldavian 0.7%, and other 8.1%. The main religions are the Russian Orthodox, Islam, Judaism, Roman Catholicism, Protestant, Buddhist, other. The Chechen conflict is a huge political, religious, and cultural conflict. This will be expanded on in the Views on World Problem below. Besides this conflict, there are few other major conflicts. Religions, other than the Orthodox, do face some problems. Russia doesn’t allow them complete freedom. That is because of Russia's atheist past and because of the Orthodox majority. For example, many Muslims face problems in practicing their religion there. However, Russia is constantly being pressured by the concerned countries, such as the Muslim countries regarding the Islamic faith there, the U.S., the U.N., and Amnesty International in order to have more religious freedom.
Russia's educational system has produced nearly 100% literacy. About 3 million students attend Russia's 519 institutions of higher education and 48 universities. Because of great emphasis on science and technology in education, Russian medical, mathematical, scientific, and space and aviation research is generally of a high order. The number of doctors in relation to the population is high by American standards, although medical care in Russia, even in major cities, is far below Western standards.
Russia is the second largest country of the world covering an area of 17 million square kilometers. It is located in northern Asia (that part west of the Urals is sometimes included with Europe), bordering the Arctic Ocean, between Europe and the North Pacific Ocean. Russia has a total border of 19,990 km and it borders Azerbaijan, Belarus, China (southeast), China (south), Estonia, Finland, Georgia, Kazakhstan, North Korea, Latvia, Lithuania (Kaliningrad Oblast), Mongolia, Norway, Poland (Kaliningrad Oblast), and Ukraine. There are arousing border disputes currently with Georgia. Russia has a total coastline of 37,653 km.
Regarding environmental issues, Russia has problems with air pollution from heavy industry, emissions of coal-fired electric plants, industrial and agricultural pollution of inland waterways and seacoasts, deforestation, soil erosion, soil contamination from improper application of agricultural chemicals, scattered areas of sometimes intense radioactive contamination, and groundwater contamination from toxic waste. Thus, Russia is trying hard to save its environment in every way that doesn't conflict with the economy of course, by joining and signing in many organizations and agreements. Some of these are Air Pollution, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, and Ozone Layer Protection. Russia also signed but did not ratify the Kyoto Protocol.
It is enough to say that the U.S.S.R has the largest amount of nuclear weapons. However, what's important to mention here is the new Russian military, after the breaking up of the Soviet Union. A new Russian military doctrine, promulgated in November 1993, implicitly acknowledges the contraction of the old Soviet military into a regional military power without global imperial ambitions. In keeping with its emphasis on the threat of regional conflicts, the doctrine calls for a Russian military that is smaller, lighter, and more mobile, with a higher degree of professionalism and with greater rapid deployment capability. Such a transformation has proven difficult.
The challenge of this task has been magnified by difficult economic conditions in Russia, which have resulted in reduced defense spending. This has led to training cutbacks, wage arrears, and severe shortages of housing and other social amenities for military personnel, with a consequent lowering of morale, cohesion, and fighting effectiveness. The poor combat performance of the Russian armed forces in the Chechen conflict in part reflects these breakdowns.
The Russian military is composed of the following branches: Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force, and Strategic Rocket Forces. The available manpower for the various branches of the Russian armed forces was estimated at 38.9 million in 2001. According to Russian reports, in 2002, there will be about a 40% increase in arms procurement spending. However, even this increase is not enough to make up for the budget shortfalls of the previous decade. Russia's struggling arms producers will therefore intensify their efforts to seek sales to foreign governments.
About 70% of the former Soviet Union's defense industries are located in the Russian Federation. As a result of cuts in weapons orders and insufficient funding to shift to production of civilian goods while at the same time trying to meet payrolls, a large number of state-owned defense enterprises are on the brink of collapse. Many defense firms are now privatized; some have developed significant partnerships with U.S. firms.
View on World Problems:
Russia is a very important key player in world affairs. It used to control many decisions in the world. However, after the breakup of the Soviet Union, the Russian role has significantly decreased. The Russians enjoy a very warm relation with the U.S. nowadays. The U.S. is the country that most helps Russia economically. Both countries have agreed upon many limitations of nuclear weapons, though there was a little tension regarding the ABM treaties that the U.S. wanted to violate, but after the 11th of September, the ABM treaty wasn't discussed much. Regarding the 11th of September, Russia joined the anti-terrorism coalition and greatly supported the U.S. However, this wasn't an act of pure friendship. That is because by supporting the U.S., Russia ensured that the U.S. won't interfere in its attack against the Chechen "terrorists". Therefore, Russia is also supporting NATO. However, Russia doesn't fully support NATO, especially in the addition of new members. That is because one of these members is Georgia, which Russia had clashed with and had tensions with regarding the borders and its "support" for the Chechens.
As for the Middle East, Russia has a 'neutral' policy towards the Palestinian – Israeli conflict. However, Russia leans more to the Palestinian (or Arab) side rather than Israel. For example, Russia is most famous for its president's action in the 60's in the U.N. when he banged his shoes on the U.N. table threatening of a war if Israel, France, and Britain don't immediately stop the war with Egypt. However, Russia's actions are a lot weaker now due to the sole reason that it's not a world power anymore and because it's in great need of economic help from the U.S., which supports Israel, so it can't go against it.
The ruinous effects of World War I, combined with internal pressures, sparked the March 1917 uprising, which led Tsar Nicholas II to abdicate the throne. A provisional government came to power, headed by Aleksandr Kerenskiy. On November 7, 1917, the Bolshevik Party, led by Vladimir Lenin, seized control and established the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. Civil war broke out in 1918 between Lenin's "Red" army and various "White" forces and lasted until 1920, when, despite foreign interventions, the Bolsheviks triumphed. After the Red Army conquered Ukraine, Belorussia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Armenia, a new nation was formed in 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The U.S.S.R. lasted 69 years. In the 1930s, tens of millions of its citizens were collectivized under state agricultural and industrial enterprises. Millions died in political purges, the vast penal and labor system, or in state-created famines. During World War II, as many as 20 million Soviet citizens died. In 1949, the U.S.S.R. developed its own nuclear arsenal.
First among its political figures was Lenin, the leader of the Bolshevik Party and head of the first Soviet Government, who died in 1924. In the late 1920s, Josif Stalin emerged as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). He maintained complete control over Soviet domestic and international policy until his death in 1953. His successor, Nikita Khrushchev, served as Communist Party leader until he was ousted in 1964. Aleksey Kosygin became Chairman of the Council of Ministers, and Leonid Brezhnev was made First Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee in 1964, but in 1971, Brezhnev rose to become "first among equals" in a collective leadership. Brezhnev died in 1982 and was succeeded by Yuriy Andropov (1982-84), Konstantin Chernenko (1984-85), and Mikhail Gorbachev, who resigned as Soviet President on December 25, 1991. On December 26, 1991, the U.S.S.R. was formally dissolved.
After the December 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Russian Federation became its largest successor state, inheriting its permanent seat on the UN Security Council, as well as the bulk of its foreign assets and debt.
Boris Yeltsin was elected President of Russia by popular vote in June 1991. By the fall of 1993, politics in Russia reached a stalemate between President Yeltsin and the parliament. The parliament had succeeded in blocking, overturning, or ignoring the President's initiatives on drafting a new constitution, conducting new elections, and making further progress on democratic and economic reforms.
In a dramatic speech in September 1993, President Yeltsin dissolved the Russian parliament and called for new national elections and a new constitution. The standoff between the executive branch and opponents in the legislature turned violent in October after supporters of the parliament tried to instigate an armed insurrection. Yeltsin ordered the army to respond with force to capture the parliament building (known as the White House).
In December 1993, voters elected a new parliament and approved a new constitution that had been drafted by the Yeltsin government. Yeltsin has remained the dominant political figure, although a broad array of parties, including ultra-nationalists, liberals, agrarians, and communists, have substantial representation in the parliament and compete actively in elections at all levels of government.
In late 1994, the Russian security forces launched a brutal operation in the Republic of Chechnya against rebels who were intent on separation from Russia. Along with their opponents, Russian forces committed numerous violations of human rights. The Russian Army used heavy weapons against civilians. Tens of thousands of them were killed and more than 500,000 displaced during the course of the war. The protracted conflict, which received close scrutiny in the Russian media, raised serious human rights and humanitarian concerns abroad, as well as within Russia.
After numerous unsuccessful attempts to institute a cease-fire, in August 1996 the Russian and Chechen authorities negotiated a settlement that resulted in a complete withdrawal of Russian troops and the holding of elections in January 1997. The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) played a major role in facilitating the negotiation. A peace treaty was concluded in May 1997. Following an August 1999 attack into Dagestan by Chechen separatists and the September 1999 bombings of two apartment buildings in Moscow, the federal government launched a military campaign into Chechnya. Russian authorities accused the Chechen government of failing to stop the growth of the rebels activities and failure to curb widespread banditry and hostage taking in the republic. By Spring 2000, federal forces claimed control over Chechen territory, but fighting continues as rebel fighters regularly ambush Russian forces in the region.
1. Prevention and spread of the deadly diseases of Ebola, Marburg Virus, and Smallpox, including international scientific cooperation to expedite the search for vaccines and measures to insure the worldwide availability of affordable patent medications, and address the social and economic costs of epidemic breakouts.
The diseases Ebola, Marburg virus, and Smallpox all greatly concern Russia. The Ebola virus is probably the scariest and deadliest virus on earth, since it has a 50-90% death rate, and kills usually within 2 weeks of infection. However, it is only found in the African continent. The virus is not known to be native to other continents, such as North America. Confirmed cases of Ebola HF have been reported in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Sudan, the Ivory Coast, Uganda, and the Republic of the Congo. The Marburg virus is very similar to Ebola except that it was was first recognized in 1967, when outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever occurred simultaneously in laboratories in Marburg and Frankfurt, Germany and in Belgrade, Yugoslavia (now Serbia). As for Smallpox, it is very closely related with the other two diseases. Smallpox is a serious, contagious, and sometimes fatal infectious disease. Smallpox outbreaks have occurred from time to time for thousands of years, but the disease is now eradicated after a successful worldwide vaccination program. The last case of smallpox in the United States was in 1949. The last naturally occurring case in the world was in Somalia in 1977.
These viruses greatly concern Russia because many Americans and other countires and scientist have condemned Russia and claimed that during the heyday of the Soviet program, the USSR stockpiled at least 20 tons of weapons-grade smallpox. The Soviets tested and weaponized a strain of the highly lethal Marburg virus. Russian scientists began genetic engineering research with smallpox, working first with Venezuelan equine encephalitis. They may have also succeeded, as many Americans claim, in crossing the highly contagious smallpox with the extremely lethal Ebola virus.
However, Russia wasn't the first or only country to use these viruses. For example, Smallpox probably was first used as a biological weapon during the French and Indian Wars (1754-1767) by British forces in North America. A global campaign, begun in 1967 under the aegis of the World Health Organization (WHO), succeeded in eradicating smallpox in 1977. In 1980, the World Health Assembly recommended that all countries cease vaccination. A WHO expert committee recommended that all laboratories destroy their stocks of variola virus or transfer them to 1 of 2 WHO reference laboratoriesthe Institute of Virus Preparations in Moscow, Russia, or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Ga. All countries reported compliance. The WHO committee later recommended that all virus stocks be destroyed in June 1999, and the 1996 World Health Assembly concurred. In 1998, possible research uses for variola virus were reviewed by a committee of the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Therefore, Russia would like to help but it wants global cooperation because the Russia economy is weak and it can't afford to be the primary country in helping with the diseases.
2. Human rights and welfare of indigenous peoples, including promoting their status within countries and building a network to assure that human rights are not abridged and cultural contributions are acknowledged.
About 200,000 people from 29 indigenous communities inhabit the vast lands of the Russian Arctic and Far East and use nature in a traditional pattern of hunting, fishing and reindeer breeding. It was in this region that the Tkhsanom Reserve was formally established in December 1998 as a ‘Territory of Traditional Nature Use’. Russia allows the WWF to perform many projects in it. For example, WWF's Russia Programme Office considers the establishment of territories of traditional nature use and support to the local indigenous peoples to be of high priority and significance, as well as various other programs.
However, most of Russia's natural resources like oil, gas, timber, diamonds, coal and gold are found in their territories. Large scale industrial development has lead to the reduction of traditional food and income sources like fish, reindeer and forest products. The live expectancy of indigenous people is 10-20 below the Russian average which after the breakup of the Soviet Union has fallen to the lowest level of all industrialized countries. Especially alarming is the situation in the areas occupied by the oil and gas industry. Today international financial institutions like the World Bank and the IMF are urging the Russian government to increase oil production and exports in order to cover the state's debts as well as the U.S.
Russia's main indigenous problem is with the Chechens. The Russian Federation's Republic of Chechnya in the northern Caucasus declared itself independent from the Russian Federation in 1991 under the leadership of Dzhokar Dudayev. The declaration of full independence issued in 1993 by the Chechen government of Dudayev led to civil war in that republic, and several Russian-backed attempts to overthrow Dudayev failed in 1993 and 1994. In the summer of 1994, the Russian Government intensified its charges against the government of secessionist President Dudayev, accusing it of repressing political dissent, of corruption, and of involvement in international criminal activities. Russian troops entered Chechnya in December 1994, in order to prevent Chechnya's effort to secede from the Russian Federation, and after almost 2 years of fighting, a peace agreement was reached. As part of that agreement, resolution of Chechnya's call for independence was postponed for up to 5 years. Tens of thousands of civilians were killed and over 500,000 persons displaced since the conflict began.
When the Russian incursion into Chechnya began in October 1999, Russia said its objectives were limited to subduing bandits hiding in Chechnya's mountains. The Russian authorities present the war in Chechnya as a crusade against terrorism and an ultimate attempt to avoid the secession of Chechnya from the federation. The fighting is the worst in the region since Russia's 1994-1996 civil war with Chechnya. However, Russia will stay on fighting the Chechen terrorists, after these terrorist acts reached inside Moscow in a civilian theatre, the action that Russia would never forgive until it crushes the terrorists.
Thus, Russia will strive for a resolution that supports its actions in fighting the rebels (my resolution) and it would totally oppose anything against its actions.
Action paper/presentation: Review of modern sanctuary and asylum methods as a means of safeguarding lives and protecting property.
Russia wants a more secure and peaceful world. Because of that, Russia is totally against political asylum seekers who committed terrorist actions and who have fought against countries' national sovereignty. Thus, Russia asks any country who has any political asylum who committed such acts to return these out of laws to their country to be prosecuted and punished. On the other hand, Russia supports and encourages countries and organizations such as the UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees) in helping refugees fleeing because of war or any other reason that they don’t have anything to do with.
Issue: Human rights and welfare of indigenous peoples, including promoting their status within countries and building a network to assure that human rights are not abridged and cultural contributions are acknowledged.Country: Russing Federation Delegate: Abdullah Al Asousi Recalling the UN's Sub-Commission on the Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities Working Group on Indigenous Populations of ECOSOC's definition of indigenous peoples as "Indigenous communities, peoples .. are those which ..consider themselves distinct from other sectors of societies now prevailing in those territories, or parts of them. They .. are determined to preserve, develop, and transmit to future generations their ancestral territories, and their ethnic identity, .. in accordance with their own cultural patterns..", Guiding by the ILO's Convention concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries, especially Article 3 which states "Indigenous and tribal peoples shall enjoy the full measure of human rights and fundamental freedoms without hindrance or discrimination.", Expressing Its Appreciation with the efforts of the UN Environment Programme (UNEP), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), UN Development Programme (UNDP) and its Sustainable Development Networking Programme, UN Environmental, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), World Bank, Indigenous Knowledge Programme (IKP), UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, International Labour Organisation (ILO), and other organizations dealing with the issue of indigenous peoples, Noting with regret that some indigenous groups, such as some Chechen rebellion groups, have committed terrible terrorist acts and should be persecuted, Declaring that indigenous peoples are part of the countries they live in, thus there should be no discrimination in their rights and no discrimination in enforcing the laws on them, 1- Strongly Urges the United Nations implement the draft Declaration of Rights of Indigenous Peoples, E/CN.4/Sub.2/1994/2/Add.1 to be the Declaration of Rights of Indigenous Peoples; 2- Strongly Urges the formation of the United Nations Indigenous Peoples Support Programme (UNIPSP) with the primary objective of improving the social and economic status of indigenous peoples, and to consists of : A experts in the concerned fields, B. members of the Sub-Commission - one from each of the geopolitical regions of the world, C it shall be open to all representatives of indigenous peoples and their communities and organizations, representatives of Governments, representatives of non-governmental organizations, and representatives of United Nations agencies, 3- Resolves that the UNIPSP would closely coordinate with: A. the Voluntary Fund for the International Decade of the World's Indigenous Peoples, B. the United Nations Voluntary Fund for Indigenous Populations, and C the previously mentioned organizations in the following fields: human rights, self-development, discrimination, health, education, language, cultural survival, and intellectual property rights 4- Rurther Resolves that the UNIPSP would work sepecifcaly with: A. the IKP on maintaining the traditions by: I. supporting research projects to identify the contemporary threats to traditional knowledge systems, II. supporting community-based initiatives to design and implement alternatives that conserve traditional knowledge within the community and facilitate its transmission to the next generation or that apply traditional knowledge to meeting the current needs of the community, from income generation to skills training, III. supporting the efforts of indigenous peoples to develop and promote policy alternatives at the national, regional and international level, IV providing opportunities for indigenous practitioners at all levels to come together to share their experiences and to learn from each other's successes; B. the IKP in these other fields: I. the conservation of biological diversity; II. the continuation and revitalization of indigenous cultures, III the reduction of poverty among indigenous communities, IV laying the foundation for sustainable livelihoods; C. the UNESCO in: I. measures and incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, II. regulating access to genetic resources, III controlling access to and transfer of technology, including biotechnology, IV analyzing technical and scientific cooperation, V impact assessment, VI education and public awareness, VII provision of financial resources, VIII national reporting on efforts to implement treaty commitments; D the Working Group on Indigenous Populations in: I reviewing developments pertaining to the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms of indigenous peoples, II giving attention to the evolution of international standards concerning indigenous rights. 5- Have Resolved the importance of the last preamp. clause in that indigenous peoples: A. are citizens of their countries and B. have all the privelages of normal citizens C. in return they must: I. take part and contribute in the development of the country they are citizens of, II. respect the fundamental human rights and liberties of other citizens, III keep public order, IV respect social ethics, V abide by all of the Constitutions and the national laws of the countries they are citizens in. 6- Further Resolves that any violation of provisions of the Constitutions and laws of the countries indigenous peoples are citizens of, including usurpation of rights and liberties, failure to fulfil responsibilities specified in the Constitution and laws, and failure to perform the duties listed above in the sub clauses of sub sub clause B in clause 5 would allow: A. legal prosecution B. countries to use all necessary measures to enforce their laws
Honorable Chair, most distinguished delegates, "Zdravstvuite" (ZzDRAST-vet-yah),
Russia stands in front of you with a scar on its hand, and we're sure that the United States has the same scar on its hand, so is Indonesia and the Philippines. Yes honorable delegates, it's the scar from terrorism made by different knifes. However, the knife in Russia isn't stopping and it wants to add even more scars aside to the theatre bombing and the great bombing in Moscow… How can a country function well when it lacks peace and security…?
Ladies and gentleman… Russia prides herself in having a Constitution that guarantees the fundamental rights and freedoms of indigenous peoples, and it also prides herself in having signed the Universal Deceleration of Human Rights, and being a State Party to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination. However, Russia is cursed with blood drinking serpents, those serpents caused terrorism in big and small countries… those serpents hide their actions under a cloak of religion… those serpents are the Chechen terrorist rebellions. Russia has no choice but to fight fire with fire… cut steel with steel to stop this international terrorism… or the world will suffer…